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Review of the current status of the development, regulation and use of biopesticides in Ethiopia


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Presented by Teklehaimanot Haileselassie at the Regional Experts Workshop on Development, Regulation and Use of Bio-pesticides in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 22–23 May 2014 …

Presented by Teklehaimanot Haileselassie at the Regional Experts Workshop on Development, Regulation and Use of Bio-pesticides in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 22–23 May 2014

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  • Biopesticides, pest management agents based on living micro-organisms or natural products
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    • 1. Review of the current status of the development, regulation and use of biopesticides in Ethiopia Teklehaimanot Haileselassie Regional Experts Workshop on Development, Regulation and Use of Bio-pesticides in East Africa, Nairobi, Kenya, 22–23 May 2014
    • 2. Background Main reasons for low agricultural production is the severe damage caused by various types of plant pests such as insects, mites, diseases, weeds and vertebrate pests like rodents and birds. Average crop loss due to these pests during the pre-harvest period is estimated at 30% or even higher in Ethiopia, depending upon pest severity and extent & success of plant protection measures applied.
    • 3. Background cont’d Crop protection has relied heavily on synthetic chemical pesticides Availability is declining as a result of new legislation and the evolution of resistance in pest populations. As a result biopesticides are coming as alternative pest management tactics. They have proven potential for pest management and they are being used across the world. However, adoption and commercialization of bio-pesticide in the region has been very slow, especially in Ethiopia
    • 4. Rationale The use of synthetic pesticides raises concerns to human health and the environment Bio-pesticides are believed to be environmentally safe, non-toxic to humans and animals and are less susceptible to resistance Research has been carried out on the exploration, identification and screening of local and introduced bio-control agents against diseases and pests Despite demonstrations of effectiveness under field conditions, the biopesticides developed locally are not yet commercialized Even the adoption & use of those available elsewhere is very low
    • 5. Objectives Main Objective Review the policies, regulations and standards (including registration processes and requirements) for bio-pesticides, and to identify key actors and incentives and/or disincentives affecting the adoption of bio-pesticides in the country Sppecific objectives  Identify the relevant regulatory agencies for bio-pesticides management Review government policies governing the process of registration Investigate what the private sector and civil societies are doing to promote biopesticides, etc.
    • 6. Methods Literature Review on General issues related to biopesticides Review of the Pesticide Registration and Control Proclamation No. 674/2010 (including regulations and decrees before it) and other related policies from other sectors Key Informant Interview and Focused Group Discussion with relevant regulatory agencies, researchers, private sector, etc. Field Visits
    • 7. Overview of IPM/Biopesticide Development in Ethiopia A vast volume of research has been carried out on the exploration, identification and screening of local and introduced biocontrol agents for the control of crop diseases, insect pests and weeds in Ethiopia It was done at agricultural research centers, mainly, Ambo Plant Protection Research Center, and universities such as Jimma and Addis Ababa University
    • 8. Overview of Biopesticide….. The most promising biopesticides based on indigenous microbes are Beavaria bassiana and Metarihizium anisiphole for the control of locusts, grasshoppers and storage pests Some progress has been made in developing the storage, formulation and application technologies for these biopesticides. Trichoderma viridae has been found to be effective against root rot disease of faba bean while Bacillus thurigiensis was efficient in controlling diamondback moth on cabbage from under field conditions
    • 9. Overview of Biopesticide….. Various studies have been conducted also on development of botanicals, for example to control stem borer in maize and sorghum The plants include: Azadirachta indica, Chrysanthemum sp., Allium sativum, Capsicum Annum var. pubescence, Phytoloacca dodecandra, Hagenia abyssinica, Croton machrostachyus, Milletia ferruginea, Girardinia diversiflora and Culpurinia Nembecidine was tested at melkassa, Meiso and Welenchiti and compared with karate 5% and neem powder, where it was found it effectively controlled stem borer Literature shows that the work is continuing at research centers and universities through MSc and PhD research
    • 10. Overview of Biopesticide….. Despite demonstrations of effectiveness under field conditions, biopesticides/botanicals developed locally are not yet commercialized The main reasons appear to be lack of expertise in the crucial stages of product development and inadequate technical capacity of public institutions to efficiently manage the production process
    • 11. Biopesticides currently in use in Ethiopia Growing conditions for roses are perfect in the Ethiopian Highlands Commercial flower production in Ethiopia Started in the mid 1980s by the state owned farms, namely Upper Awash Agro-Industry Enterprise and Horticulture Development Enterprise ( around 150 ha) Since shift of the industry from state to private ownership, the sector is expanding at a faster rate Ethiopia is earning substantial amount of foreign currency that is exceeding 250 million USD/yr Flowers are among the most sensitive commodities to diseases and insect pests, but research on flower protection in Ethiopia is almost at its infant stage
    • 12. Biopesticides currently in use ….. However, there was no pesticides registered for flower pests following the formal registration process in Ethiopia, hence pesticide availability and regulation was not so effective considering the urgency of this problem  Ethiopian Government made an interim arrangement for flower growers to import pesticides and other chemicals required for their own farms without restriction Flower growers importing different kinds of pesticides for use in routine pest control activities
    • 13. Biopesticides currently in use ….. As a result the growing culture of rose flowers in Ethiopia is faced a serious plant protection challenge as pesticides account 25% of the total expenditure Serious concern was also raised on their environmental and human health impacts As a result of these developments there was growing interest in the growers to reduce their dependence on pesticides They saw also the urgent need for an alternative to reduce the use of heavy chemicals in order to create a competitive market advantage The use of biopesticides/IPM came in to picture due to initiatives by the growers, environmentalists, and other stakeholders, e.g. Ethiopia Netherlands Horticulture Partnership Program & EHPEA
    • 14. List of companies that used IPM Technologies (Source EHDA, 2012)
    • 15. Beauveria Bio-Power Paecilomyces Priority Metarhizium Bio-Magic Verticillium Bio-Catch Stanes Bio- Nematon Liquid formulation Entomopathogens in insect pest Management Carrier Based
    • 16. Bio-Insecticides in Pest management Stage of Management Product trade Name Active ingredient Nature Formulation type Use Pest management Bio – Power Beauveria bassiana Entomopath ogenic fungi WP 1.15% Liquid 1.5% To control Lepidopteran pests like boll worm etc. Bio – Catch Verticillium lecanii Entomopath ogenic fungi WP 1.15% Liquid 1.5% To control sucking pests Bio – Magic Metarhizium anisopliae Entomopath ogenic fungi WP 1.15% Liquid 1.5% To control Beetles, Grubs, Bugs and hoppers Priority Paecilomyces Fumosoroseus Entomopath ogenic fungi WP 1.15% Liquid 1.5% To control all mite species Bio-Nematon Paecilomyces lilacinus Entomopath ogenic fungi WP 1.15% Liquid 1.5% To control plant parasitic nematode species
    • 17. Kaleb Services Farmers House PLC Green Miracle - A chemical used as anti-stress (water conservation) Neemicidine – It is an insecticide Imported for commercial purposes. The customers are flower farms, cotton farms, Citrus growers such as Upper Awash Horticultural Farm and Vegetable farms Bio-Magic (Metarhizium anisopliae). –biopesticides against thrips and mealybug,
    • 18. Biopesticides on process for permit No. Biocontrol agent Applicant Purpose Efficacy test 1 Broadband Golden Rose Agro Farms Hawassa University 2 Enthomopathogenic fungus, Daman (Beauveria bassiana) Golden Rose Agro Farms Biocontrol of diamondback moth (Plutellla xylostella) Melkassa Agri. Research center under field conditions at Melkassa & Wonji 3 Anti-fungal agent (Paeallomuyces lilacinus) Jittu Horticulture Plc Biocontrol of Nematodes Not yet started 4 Enthomopathogenic fungus (Verticillia lecanii) Panacea International Agro Industries Plc Biocontrol for pea aphid Holetta Agricultural Center, on dry harvest field at Holetta and Adadi 5 Anti-fungal agent (Psuedomonas fluorescens) Panacea International Agro Industries Plc Biocontrol for powdery mildew (Unicinula nectar)in grape vine Debre Zeit Agri. Research Center, under field conditions at Debre Zeit
    • 19. 6 Anti-fungal agent (Psuedomonas fluorescens) Panacea International Agro Industries Plc Biocontrol for powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola )in grape vine Debre Zeit Agri. Research Center, under field conditions at Debre Zeit 7 Anti-fungal agent Sanjeevni (Trichoderma viride) Panacea International Agro Industries Plc Biocontrol for damping of and wilt disease (Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia and Pythium spp.) in tomato Melkassa Agri. Research Center, under field conditions at Melkassa 8 Enthomopathogenic fungal agent, Kalichakra (Metahrizium anisoplae) Panacea International Agro Industries Plc Biocontrol for Subterranean termites Bako National Maize Research Coordinating Center, at Bako and Welega under field conditions
    • 20. Regulatory Frameworks for registration & use of pesticides in Ethiopia  Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) is the empowered body to carry out pesticide registration and control  the Plant Health Regulatory Directorate (PHRD) of the ministry is responsible for implementing the regulatory service.  Objectives of Registration and Control of Pesticides is o allow the use of :  Relatively safe  Locally effective  Good quality pesticide  To minimize the adverse effects of pesticides to humans ,animals, plants and the environment
    • 21. Overall goals are to acquire Clean environment Safe food- consumer protection and to meet the quality standards commanded in international trade. Healthy citizenry Promote agricultural export trade
    • 22. Regulatory Frameworks …. The first pesticide regulation was a single article included in the Plant Protection Decree No 56 of 1971 (article 5) According to this Decree the Ministry of Agriculture was given the mandate to control the importation ,production and sale of pesticides in the country This Decree lacked the necessary details which include:  Does not over the main principles enshrined in the IPPC  Dealt mainly with the powers accorded to the Minister  Penal provisions were too small to deter the violation of the Decree
    • 23. Regulatory Frameworks …. Pesticide Registration and Control Special Decree no 20/1990 was issued in September 1990 and has been implemented between 1996 and 24th August 2010 According to this Decree, prohibition, authorization of registration, certification (renewal and cancellation included), packaging, labelling, storage, and disposal are provided for pesticides. Still this Decree lacked several important details, for example  There was a gap in delineating the mandate of pesticide control;  It failed to address issues indicated in other internationally concluded agreements
    • 24. Regulatory Frameworks …. New pesticide Registration and Control Proclamation No 674/2010 was enacted on 25th August 2010 Why new proclamation? To conduct the registration and control of all types of pesticides under one legislative control through MoA To incorporate all relevant definitions in connection to pesticide legislation To include internationally accepted definition of a “Pesticide” so that problems in legal enforcement would not occur as the result of coining different definitions for one term “pesticide” To clearly specify the role of federal and regional organs To include more strong and clear provisions with regard to offences and penalties To give more power to pesticide inspectors and to specify their role in detail, etc
    • 25. Regulatory Frameworks …. In Ethiopia, there was no formal registration of bio-pesticides Proclamation No. 674/2010 has now empowered the Ministry to register and control biopesticides However, the various provisions of this framework law need to be worked out in more detail so that a registration system that will allow the rapid and efficient registration of useful effective bio-pesticide products is in place in the country. The Ministry of Agriculture of Ethiopia has therefore been preparing a new Pesticide Registration and Control Regulation with the aim to operationalize the Proclamation.
    • 26. Regulatory Frameworks ….  In relation to this, a project entitled “Biopesticide Registration System Development Project” funded by the ninth round of applications to the Quick Start Program (QSP) trust fund of the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) of the United Nation Environment Program is underway.  The project is a two year program which started in August 2012 and initiated to perform the following activities:
    • 27. Regulatory Frameworks …. Development of data requirements for the registration of bio- pesticides  Capacity building for bio-pesticide dossier evaluation Capacity building on efficacy testing of bio-pesticides and the evaluation of efficacy data. Development of a regulation for the registration and control of bio-pesticides Development of procedures for the introduction of macrobial pest control
    • 28. Regulatory Frameworks …. Activities that were performed since the inception of the above project are: capacity building on efficacy testing of biopesticides and evaluation of the data training of researchers and pesticide dossier evaluators on efficacy testing and data evaluation A manual for efficacy testing and evaluation of biopesticides has been prepared. In addition to this, draft Pesticide Registration and Control Regulation have been prepared with the Ethiopian Pesticide Risk Reduction Program
    • 29. Regulatory Frameworks …. The draft regulation is underway to be submitted for the Council of Ministers. The draft Regulation covers all stages of the pesticide life cycle in Ethiopia and regulates chemical pesticides as well as bio-pesticides.  It defines the rights and responsibilities of stakeholders for pesticide import, distribution and use, both at the federal and the decentralized levels. It is structured around the following main aspects:  pesticide registration;  competence assurance certificates (for certain pesticide-related activities);  general rules to regulate pesticides activities during the pesticide life cycle (e.g. import and export, distribution and sales, use and application, packaging and labelling, storage, transportation, disposal);  pesticide quality control, and various administrative provisions.
    • 30. Regulatory Frameworks …. Yet Preparation of directives and guidelines in not done Some of the directives and guidelines to be prepared are the following:  Compelling reasons for importations of pesticides that has not been registered  Preconditions for allowing temporary registration  Pesticide transportation  Pesticide disposal  Methods and information on pesticide analysis  Several guidelines on chemical and biopesticide registration
    • 31. General provisions related to the regulatory function of plant protection  The constitution of the FDRE Procl 1/1995 o Articles 44 (1) reads as “All persons have the right to clean and healthy environment o Article 92 (1) states “ The Government shall endeavor to ensure that all Ethiopians live in clean and healthy environment” o Article 92(4) states that “The Government and citizens shall have the duty to protect the environment  Criminal Code of the FDRE (Proclamation No.. 414/2004 o Article 516 – propagation of an agricultural or forest parasite o Article 520 – management of hazardous wastes and other materials o Article 521 – Acts contrary to EIA (Proclamation No. 299/2003)
    • 32. International Policy Frameworks related to crop protection Policy Instruments o UNEP London Guidelines for the exchange of information on chemicals in International Trade. o FAO international code of conduct for the distribution and use of pesticides o ILO 1990 convention on safety of chemicals at the work place (No. 170) o The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the Ozone Layer
    • 33. International Policy… o Various conventions adopted under the auspices of the UN:  IPPC - Ethiopia ratified it on 20th June 1997 and the current revised version on 25th August 2005  The Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent (PIC) procedures- it was ratified an made part of the law by promulgating Proclamation no. 278/2002  The Stockholm Convention on POPs was ratified through Proclamation 279/2002  The Basel convention was ratified through Proclamation No. 356/2003  The Bamako Convention- similar convention to the Basel, ratified through Proclamation No. 355/2003
    • 34. Role of the private sector and civil society Private  Kaleb Services Farmers House Plc  Shaer Ethiopia Plc  Real IPM  Koppert Biological Systems Civil Society  Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia (PPSE)  Institute of Sustainable Development (ISD)  Pesticide Action Nexsus- Ethiopia (PAN-Ethiopia)  Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association
    • 35. Role of the private sector … Plant Protection Society of Ethiopia (PSSE)  It closely works with EIAR and other stakeholders in all aspects of plant protection  Advocates for IPM options including biopesticides and biocontrol agents  Involved in research activities on development of biopesticides from local isolates  Published books entitled “Increasing Crop Production through Improved Plant Protection (Volume I and II) on 20 years of research activities throughout the country on plant protection.  Publishes a reputable journal called Pest Management Jounal of Ethiopia.
    • 36. Role of the private sector … Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association (EHPEA)  It runs several projects that support horticulture development  Ethio-Dutch Program for Horticulture Development (2013-2016)  The project has four components: Business development and investment promotion Support emerging commercial horticulture producers Capacity building of respective stakeholders in respective value chain Integrated Pest Management (IPM)  Produced EHPEA Code of Practice for Sustainable Flower Production
    • 37. Limitations and challenges for Biopesticides Development and use in Ethiopia Despite substantial needs and interest especially around the flower farms in Biological Pest Control Agents (BPCA), wide scale adoption is hindered mainly due to the absence of a bio-pesticide registration system in the country and promising results have remained experimental Efficacy test has to be done in six sites as a result fee paid for researchers is very high. In addition, researchers are highly taxed (35%). It is difficult to promote Bio-pesticides the reason being farmers cannot see their impact immediately. For this reason, there is a tendency by farmers to go for the conventional chemicals. Biopesticides are treated like any other hazardous and chemicals suppliers not allowed to bring them by cargo
    • 38. Limitations and challenges… Development of pesticide resistance There is no chain process for the sale of botanicals Shortage of hard currency for import of biopesticides hence they are not brought when they are needed most The list of permitted biopesticides is very little and not profitable for importers Absence of accredited laboratory facilities and capacity to manage biosafety related issue for proper implementation of policy instruments There are some companies that are not following formal procedures to import their products due to absence of strict control resulting in unfair business competition
    • 39. Recommendations The draft regulation and subsequent directives and guidelines should be completed On farm trial have shown that biological control along with other control methods is an effective tool to control major pests in the flower industry. Thus it should be up scaled in terms of acreage and crops. Natural enemies can be collected from local sources as we have huge biodiversity because of the diverse agro-ecological settings in the country Investors who are interested in manufacture of biopesticides should be equally incentivized with provision of land, tax holidays, loans, duty free import of machineries, etc. as the flower farms
    • 40. Recommendations Universities and research centers should closely work with the private sector in the development of biopesticides/biocontrol agents from indigenous and introduced microbial products as economically and environmentally better alternatives to chemical pesticides. Intensive field trials are required to see the efficacy of the biopesticides imported under the Ethiopian conditions Diversify the current bilateral cooperation in the area of biopesticide development and use through training of graduate students