Preliminary participatory on-farm sorghum variety selection for tolerance to drought, soil acidity and striga in Western Kenya
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Preliminary participatory on-farm sorghum variety selection for tolerance to drought, soil acidity and striga in Western Kenya



Presented by S. Gudu, E.O. Ouma, A.O. Onkware, E.J. Too, B.A. Were, J.O. Ochuodho, C.O. Othieno, J.R. Okalebo, J. Agalo and S.M. Maina at the First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference, Addis ...

Presented by S. Gudu, E.O. Ouma, A.O. Onkware, E.J. Too, B.A. Were, J.O. Ochuodho, C.O. Othieno, J.R. Okalebo, J. Agalo and S.M. Maina at the First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013



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Preliminary participatory on-farm sorghum variety selection for tolerance to drought, soil acidity and striga in Western Kenya Preliminary participatory on-farm sorghum variety selection for tolerance to drought, soil acidity and striga in Western Kenya Presentation Transcript

  • Preliminary Participatory On-farm Sorghum VarietySelection for Tolerance to drought, Soil Acidity and Striga in Western Kenya . S. Gudu, E.O. Ouma, A.O. Onkware, E.J. Too, B.A. Were, J.O. Ochuodho, C.O. Othieno, J.R. Okalebo, J. Agalo and S.M. Maina Moi University, Kenya First Bio-Innovate Regional Scientific Conference United Nations Conference Centre (UNCC-ECA) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25-27 February 2013
  • INTRODUCTION• Sorghum is a major food and nutritional security crop to > 100 million people in Eastern horn of Africa, owing to its resilience to drought & other production constrains.• It is a multipurpose crop used as food, feed & beer manufacture & ethanol production.• We need a sorghum revolution to minimize its production challenges, improve its productivity in order to enjoy its role as food security crop.
  • Sorghum Production Constraints & Yield Loss in East & Central Africa Wortman et al. (2009)
  • Soil Acidity & sorghum ecology Aluminium toxicity Phosphorous deficiencySome Sorghum production Challenges in western Kenya Sorghum Anthracnose problem Striga problem in sorghum
  • Sorghum Ecology and Economy in Western Kenya• Acid soils (pH <5.5); high (Al) (4-67 % saturation).• Low available Phosphorous (P) (3-5mgP/kg Soil).• Frequent pre- and post-flowering droughts.• Low nitrogen, stimulates Striga infestation.• Grown by small scale farmers without inputs.• Only 17 % of sorghum farmers are aware of soil acidity problem• > 90 % of farmers use own-seed or neighbors• Yield are very low (05 t/ha)and farm sizes small (0.5 – 2.5 acres/family).
  • OBJECTIVES• To use participatory variety selection to evaluate and promote adoption of sorghum genotypes for drought, soil acidity and disease tolerance.• Develop and promote best management strategies for sorghum anthracnose• Undertake marketing and value chain analyses of sorghum in eastern Africa.
  • outputs• Output 1. Drought tolerant stay-green and other novel early maturing sorghum genotypes evaluated on-farm.• Output 4. Environmentally friendly and sustainable sorghum anthracnose management options developed.• Output 5. Data and knowledge to strengthen and expand market opportunities and value chains of sorghum in Kenya generated and promoted.
  • Breeding Methodology1. Introductions of diverse germplasm Brazil, Icrisat (India, Kenya), Tanzania,with various traits Kenya & Uganda2. Crosses in all possible combinations to P X Al; Drought X Al; Drought X P; etc.develop multiple stress tolerance3. Selections under severe stress (Striga, In Western Kenya which produces overDrought, Al & P) 70 % of sorghum in the country4. Stable potential cultivars tolerant to 126 lines were obtained and tested on-more than one stress were obtained farm in several sites in Kenya. In cycle 2 of participatory selection, 36 were retained and in cycle 3 of selection, now we have only 14 lines undergoing further selection in western Kenya.
  • Breeding/Selection Phase
  • Characteristics of some of the elite lines developed FIG 4. GRAIN YIELD AT NO PHOSPHORUS APPLICATION 60.0 50.0 7 Net root length (cm) 6 5 40.0 4GRAIN YIELD (g) NRL0 3 30.0 MEAN NRL148 2 1 20.0 0 P5 C1 C19 C26 A4 M45 N24b A3 G2 M44 N120 N88 Sorghum Lines 10.0 0.0 b d 2 26 1 8 p 4 3 47 2 b a 53 21 3 72 10 7 0 3 44 a N 9 5 46 06 N 7 re Q S2 S5 S1 S1 14 E1 11 S2 S1 R C T5 32 0 4 7 7 C N N N N R M M T1 14 F1 15 15 N N P3 M N ACCESSION
  • Site Description  The evaluation was conducted in Sega (00 15’ 21”N & 340 13’ 33”E) and Matayos (0o 19’N & 34o 12’E) sites in the year 2011 and 2012.  For drought, the materials werer tested at Karung, a semi-arid land  The soils at the two sites have low pH (<5.5 ) and are acidic (high Al saturation and low available P) (Kisinyo et al., 2012).Table 1: Site agro ecology, soil chemical and physical characteristic cmo/kg Rainf MeanTe P % % % Textu all mp. (mg/k % % M ECE % Sa Cla Si ral (mm) (oC) pH g) N C K Ca g Al C Al nd y lt ClassMata 1400 22 0.1 3.5 0.0 1.9 1.7 1.5yos 4.9 5 3 1 6 3 6 3 5.28 29 18 66 16 Clay 1000 24 0.1 2.6 0.0 2.8 1.7 1.9Sega 4.5 3 3 9 4 1 2 7 6.54 30 28 56 16 Clay
  • Experimental Design For the on-farm trial at Sega 13 lines and check variety(seredo) were laid out in RCBD replicated 2 times and tested across 3 farmers’ fields, with 0, 4 t lime/ha. While at Matayos 15 lines were laid out in a split plot design, RCBD replicated 2 times and tested across 2 farmers’ fields. Planting at both sites was done at a spacing of 0.75 X 0.2 m in plots of 3 m x 3 m. DAP fertilizer was uniformly applied to the plots(26kg P/ha) and Top dressing done 6 weeks after planting using CAN (75 kg N ha-1.) Weeding was done manually thrice and the crop protected from shoot fly damage using Beta-cyhalothrin (Bulldock GR 0.05) at a rate of 6 Kg ha-1.Data was collected on plant height, panicle length, panicle width, days to 50% flowering and grain yield.Data was scored using the 2 middle rows, leaving out the two outer rows and also leaving out one plants from each extreme ends of the 2 middle rows.
  • Participatory variety selection• At crop maturity, over 50 sorghum farmers from Sega and 67 farmers at Matayos sites were invited for a field days at the two sites to select their preferred lines based on performance of the respective lines according to procedures of Asby et al. (2009).• Selection criteria was explained to the farmers & questionnaires administered. Farmers were to: (i) rank the various lines based on grain colour, plant height, grain yield, panicle size, grain size, and early maturity, tolerance to soil acidity and resistance to birds’ damage. The researchers were keen to know whether there is variation in preference of the various sorghum lines among farmers from the two sites..
  • Fig 8: Some of the Sorghum farmers selecting preferred varieties at Sega site during a field day.Fig 8: Some of the Sorghum farmers selecting preferred varieties at Matayos site during a field day.
  • Promotion of drought , striga and soil acidity tolerance sorghum inwestern Kenya
  • DATA ANALYSIS Data was Analyses using Excel and Genstat Grain yield and yield components data were subjected to 2-way analysis of variance by fitting the following model for RCBD or according to the experimental design used (Split plot and split-split plot arrangements):Xijk = µ +αi +βj +Ʃij where: Xijk----- plot observation,µ-- overall mean;αi----treatment effect;βj----block effect;Ʃij---experimental error due to treatments and blocks(Kearsey and Pooni, 1996).
  • RESULTS CONT….In the 2012 on-farm evaluations the Fourteen selected lines varied significantly in performance across the 3 farms at Sega site.Overally Nyadundo 1 gave the highest grain weight while N57 the lowest.Seven lines (Nyadundo 1, T 30b, C26, E97, E54,E16 and E12) outperformed seredoFarm 3 had the highest mean grain weight (1.2 kg/plot) followed by farm 2 (1.02 kg/plot)
  • Means of grain weight of selected advanced sorghum lines tested for tolerance to soilacidity across 3 farms at Sega in 2012.
  • Performance of selected sorghum lines tested for tolerance soil acidity across 3 farms at Segain 2012, without lime application.
  • Table 1: Agronomic performance (plant height, days to 50% flowering and grain yield of advanced sorghum lines evaluated under drought conditions in Karu VARIETY G.yld P.H P.L P.W 50% F. Sd.clr P.SHAPE t/ha (cm) (cm) (cm) days MCSRV Nyadundo 1 2.233a 151.4ab 18.07bc 3.93a 67b Red 4E MCSRV N4 1.953ab 166.1ab 14.16c 3.22a 77a Red 4E MCSRV E94 1.833ab 181.1a 19.27bc 3.9a 70b L.Brown 4E MCSRV F14a 1.373ab 135.8ab 20.23a-c 3.83a 69b Brown 4E MCSRV E36-1 1.1ab 146.5ab 21.2ab 3.3a 69b White 4E MCSRV wagita 0.86ab 156.8ab 18bc 3.17a 70a Red 4E Serena 0.833ab 146.2ab 19.97a-c 3.2a 66b L.Brown 4E MCSRV G2 0.267b 165.7ab 26.6a 2.93a 69b White 4E D1 0.25b 128.6c 23.5ab 2.63b 68b Brown 4E MCSRV Nyadundo 2 2.02a 136.6a 18.1bcd 5.133a 67c Red 4E Serena 1.75a 136.8a 18.73bc 4.933a 69bc L.Brown 4E MCSRV E49 1.7a 127.6a 16.43cde 4.3a 76a L.Brown 4E MCSRV C26 1.65a 139.8a 14.9de 5.633a 76a L.Brown 4E MCSRV A3 1.58ab 141a 13.8e 3.05a 74a White 6 MCSRV C1 1.58ab 116.8a 26.47a 4.133a 65c White 4E MCSRV MR732 1.58ab 118.8a 21.13b 4.7a 76a White 4E MCSRV T30 1.55ab 83.8b 14.2e 5.33a 74a L.Brown 5 MCSRV E40 0.817b 135.3a 18.9bc 5.2a 72ab Cream 4E G.Mean 1.385 139.6 19.09 4.045 71 CV % 24 14.9 6.7 18.8 2.2 SED 0.309 15.35 0.983 0.722 1.275
  • Farmers Selection of varietiesFactors influencing farmer’s preference of sorghum lines in western KenyaFactors Grain Yield Grain Color Grain Size Panicle Size Height of Plant Tolerance to soil Early Maturity Resistance to acidity bird damage Yes 87 98 87 86 92 62 80 44Response No 14 3 14 15 9 39 21 57Percentage of farmers gauging the 86.1% 97.0% 86.1% 85.1% 91.1% 61.3 79.2% 43.6%characteristic as influential
  •  Most farmers from Matayos site (85.7%, 85.7%) and Koyonzo sites ( 80.8%, 72%) indicated that grain colour and plant height respectively would highly influence their selection compared to those from Sega (65.2%, 59%) who also shared the same belief . Comparison of percentage of farmers by region who scored the major factors as very highly influential Factors Grain Color Height of Plant Grain Yield Grain Size Sega 65 59 94 88 Site Koyonzo 80.8 72 90.6 89 Matayos 85.7 85.7 93 82  Concerning preference of various sorghum lines, 6 lines (T53b, C26, Nyadundo 1, Nyadundo 2, N13 and N4) out of fourteen were selected by farmers from the 3 sites.  The most preferred sorghum line in terms of grain colour was Nyadundo 1(Red) followed by Nyadundo 2 (Light Red) while the least preferred based on colour was C26 (Light brown).
  • Table 3: Variety preference matrix based on farmers choiceFactors Grain Height Grain Grain Yield No. of Color of Plant Size farmers T53b 4 2 6 4 16 C26 3 3 3 3 12Sorghum Nyadundo 1 22 18 18 22 80line Nyadundo 2 19 18 23 19 79 N13 7 5 6 7 25 N4 10 11 11 10 42 No. of farmers 65 57 67 65 For selection based on plant height, Nyadundo 1 and 2 had similar preference followed by N4, C26 while T53b had the least preference implying that farmers in western Kenya prefer short to medium height sorghum lines (Table 5) From this study, it was evident that farmers from all the 3 sites in western Kenya preferred similar sorghum lines so long as they are Red to light brown in colour, and short to medium in height
  • CONCLUSIONS We have not finalized analyzing the short rains results from all sites, harvesting is going on other sites Majority of the sorghum varieties tested for soil acidity, drought and striga tolerance outperformed the local checks used by farmers in these regions. Most farmers in western Kenya were unaware of the negative effects of soil acidity ( low P and high Al ) on sorghum grain yield Farmers choice of varieties was influenced mainly by yield, seed colour and plant height. The new cultivars could increase sorghum productivity in western Kenya