Background of AU-IBAR and brucellosis: Past, present and future in Middle and East (Africa)
African UnionInterafrican Bureau for Animal Resourceswww.au-ibar.orgBackground of AU-IBAR &Brucellosis: Past, Present and Future in Middleand East (Africa)Dr. Abdelkhalik M. MontasserRegional VET-GOV CoordinatorWorkshop: An Integrated Approach to Controlling Brucellosis in Africa, AddisAbaba, 29-31 January 2013
Main Stakeholders: AU Member States and RECsImplementation Strategy: Through the RECs (Subsidiarity)Vision / Mission / Mandate and Goals of AU-IBARVision: An Africa in which animal resourcescontribute significantly to the reduction ofpoverty and hunger.Mission: To provide leadership in the development ofanimal resources for Africa through supportingand empowering AU Member States and RegionalEconomic CommunitiesMandate: To support and coordinate the utilization ofanimals (livestock, fisheries and wildlife) as aresource for human wellbeing in the MemberStates, and to contribute to economicdevelopment, particularly in rural areasGoal: To enhance the contribution of animal resources toeconomic growth and food and nutrition securityand poverty reduction on the continent.
• Teamwork• Respect for diversity• Be transformational• Transparency• Accountability• Integrity.AU-IBAR Core values
AU-IBAR Strategic Programs1. TADs and Zoonosis-Reducing the impact of trans-boundary animaldiseases and zoonoses on livelihoods and public health in Africa2. Natural Resources Management-Enhancing Africa’s capacity toconserve and sustainably use its animal resources and theirresource base3. Investment and Competitiveness-Improving investmentopportunities in, and competitiveness of animal resources in Africa4. Standards and Regulations-Promoting development of standardsand regulations and facilitation of compliance5. Knowledge Management-Improving knowledge management inanimal resources to facilitate informed and timely decision-making6. Policies and Capacity Building-Facilitating development of policiesand institutional capacities for improved utilization of animalresources in Africa
AU-IBAR StrategicOrientations/Interventions Empowering/ Supporting RECs Supporting Member States through RECs Interventions through/with RECs One Health/Interface/Partnership Risk-based surveillance Sustainable surveillanceHow are we achieving thisgoal?
Strategic ObjectivesHow are we achieving thisgoal?SP1: TADs and Zoonosis - Reducing the impact oftrans-boundary animal diseases and zoonoseson livelihoods and public health in AfricaObjective: To catalyze the management of TADs and zoonoses inAfrica by facilitating the development and implementation of acontinental agenda for improved governance of veterinaryservices.Results Areas:1. Improved veterinary governance (policy and legislative • frameworks, human andfinancial resources, physical infrastructure).2. Improved prevention, control and eradication of major TADs • and zoonoses.3. Enhanced cooperation between veterinary and public health • services.4. Improved knowledge on the epidemiology and control of TADs • and zoonoses.5. Enhanced capacity for animal disease control feasibility studies
www.au-ibar.org Brucellosis is endemic in Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, somecountries of Latin America, the Middle East and theMediterranean and South Eastern Europe Region. The incidenceis increasing in several of these. The disease has widespread impacts on human and animalhealth including socioeconomics. So brucellosis remains a major source of disease in humansand domesticated animals, although reported incidence andprevalence of the disease vary widely from country to country. Bovine brucellosis caused mainly by B. abortus is still the mostwidespread and the infection has been reduced by controlmeasures in some countries of Europe and North America In humans, ovine/ caprine brucellosis caused by B. melitensis isby far the most important clinically apparent disease. Thedisease has a limited geographic distribution,Brucellosis
www.au-ibar.org B. melitensis in cattle has emerged as an important problem insome countries especially in Middle East region . B. melitensis infection is particularly problematic because B.abortus vaccines do not protect effectively against B. melitensisinfection; B. melitensis Rev.1. vaccine has not been fullyevaluated for use in cattle. The low incidence reported in some countries may reflect lowlevels of surveillance and reporting. Brucellosis, also called Bangs disease, Crimean fever, Gibraltarfever, Malta fever, Maltese fever, Mediterranean fever, rock fever,or undulant fever Brucella spp. are small, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod shaped (coccobacilli) bacteria. Recent investigations and researches in Africa and India haveshown that the infection is much more widespread than waspreviously suspected.Brucellosis
www.au-ibar.org• Unfortunately Africa is especially badly covered in the worldliterature in the field of brucellosis.• brucellosis is known or suspected to exist in 40 of the 54 Africancountries (74%).• In 20 (37%) of these countries it represents a major problem, in10 (18.5%) a moderate problem.• In the other 10 (18.5%)countries a minor problem to humanhealth and economy.• ???= Fortunately all Middle East countries having Brucellosisthat is mean we need regional control program. Only 26% of countries free from brucellosis or not yet diagnosed.Brucellosis in Africa
www.au-ibar.org• Epidemiological surveillance is a process of followinghealth event which may occur in a population• “the ongoing and systemic collection, analysis andinterpretation health data for describing and monitoring ofhealth events”• with the objective of supporting the planning,implementation and evaluation of public health program.It should be a part of health care system aiming tostrengthen and improving surveillance of diseases andother health events.• All countries in Africa having a policy and control programto brucellosis but why the brucellosis still a problem?????Epidemiological surveillance
www.au-ibar.org Technical aspects of brucellosis which frustrate controlefforts. Perhaps the most serious is the variable incubation periodand inability to identify animals which will later becomeseropositive. Approximately 15 percent of cattle in infectedherds may abort before sero-conversion. An additional problem is latency. Approximately 5 percentof the progenies of infected dams will retain the infectionand become seropositive only after their first parturition. The percentage of latency among sheep and goats inlargely unknown. Budgetary problem and culture of nomadic peoples. Gap between dissection making and Veterinary services.Why the control of brucellosis is toodifficult?
www.au-ibar.org Brucellosis is a true zoonosis and nearly every human case has adirect (contact) or indirect origin. Reduction in the incidence of human brucellosis is largelysuccessful only when veterinary efforts are successful. The signs and symptoms of brucellosis in humans are wellknown but diagnosis may be difficult since the syndrome issimilar to that of many other diseases. It is a multisystem diseasewhether acute or chronic. Fever, chills, sweating, headache,malaise, arthralgia, myalgia, weight loss, splenomegaly anddiffuse lymphadenopathy may be present. Brucella abortus and B. melitensis colonize the udder and areshed in milk.Public Health
www.au-ibar.org It is estimated that over 85 percent of goat’s milk is consumedunpasteurized. Camels become infected from commingling with infected sheepand goats and their milk is often consumed without heating andis a source of human infections. Also, there are several reports of B. melitensis infection in largedairy herds. One or more human cases may be the initialevidence of the disease. Brucellosis is an occupational risk, especially amongslaughterhouse and laboratory workers, veterinarians, andlivestock caretakers so we are lucky. The diagnosis is usually made on serological criteria. Tubeagglutination, complement fixation, radio-immune assay andELISA are some of the procedures.Public Health
www.au-ibar.org The control brucellosis depend upon localcondition, incidence and whether the animalsare raised for dairy or meat purposes. Four principals were involved1. Finding and eliminating infected animals(Diagnosis)2. Prevention of exposure to infection (Hygienicprocedures)3. Vaccination (Types of vaccine used)4. Educational program (Civil culture)Control of brucellosis
www.au-ibar.org There is wide agreement that vaccination is the mosteffective and practical method of reducing theincidence of many diseases including brucellosis inlivestock. Vaccination against diseases is widelyaccepted since it is commonly used. The live vaccines B. abortus S19 and the B. melitensisRev 1 have proved to be the most effective agents incattle and in sheep/goats respectively. Strain RB51 has replaced S19 in some countries.There is some controversy about its effectiveness. S19 and Rev 1 are relatively inexpensive to produceand are highly immunogenic. They may sometimescause abortions but, in my opinion, this may bepractically eliminated by reducing the dose of thevaccines.Vaccination/Immunization
www.au-ibar.org Prevalence It can be debated whether there has been muchsuccess in the control of worldwide brucellosis in many decades.Franco (2007) reported that brucellosis remains the mostcommon bacterial zoonosis in the world, with over half a millionnew cases annually. The prevalence rates in some countries exceeding ten cases per100,000 population [R]. It is a class B bioterrorist agent and underdiagnosed andunderreported. There is a re-emergence of the disease in many countries. Clearly there has been much progress in the control anderadication of B. abortus in cattle, with many countries now freeof this infection. However, the control of B. melitensis has proved to be muchmore difficult.Prevalence of brucellosis
www.au-ibar.org Data from many regional countries were included. Data from OIE/World Annual Health Reports show thatamong 19 Mediterranean and Middle East countries,there is an increase of reported cases over a 10-yearperiod. Seven out of 19 countries had as much as a 4-fold increase. Pappas, G. et al. (2005) concluded that eradication ofbrucellosis had eluded even the most developedcountries and that international travel results in manynew cases. Few countries reported much successful reduction,with many showing dramatic increases or highprevalence.Prevalence of brucellosis
www.au-ibar.org The successful control of brucellosis willdepend upon many factors: Prevalence, type of animal husbandry,surveillance identification, availability andquality of vaccines, available resources(money, personnel), legal authority, inter-sectoral cooperation, and many others. Control of human infections depends almostwholly upon control in animals, which ismostly a veterinary responsibilityControl of brucellosis
www.au-ibar.orgRoad map control of brucellosis FAO(2013 )Where we are ?
www.au-ibar.orgThe title of this presentation includes the word future.After decades of work with this frustrating disease, Ihave no magical suggestions for its elimination. I am pleased that two concepts that I promote – wholeherd vaccination and fewer concerns about post-vaccinal antibodies – are advancing. Efforts to develop new vaccines have largely eludedscientists and live whole cell products will surely bethe cornerstone products for many years. I would suggest that more studies be performed onoral administration of vaccines May be.Future
www.au-ibar.org Human health: Clearly, the development of a vaccine for humans hasnot been successful and I question if this procedurewould have much impact on human cases. Control of the disease in animals is by far the mosteffective. A more effective treatment, whether prophylactic or inclinical cases, is needed. More studies should be performed on antibioticstargeted at infected cells such as those with carrierssuch as liposomes.Future
www.au-ibar.org• Appropriate sanitary control measures against brucellosis.• The implementation of permanent awareness campaigns andclose collaboration between public health and animal healthservices will allow effective management of brucellosis risk (OIEGuide),• Strengthening Veterinary Services through the use of the OIEPVS Tool for the evaluation of Veterinary Services, the PVS GapAnalysis.• Establish adequate cooperation mechanisms between MemberCountries at both regional and national levels, also between theanimal health and public health sectors.• Countries establish sustainable regional epidemio-surveillancenetworks, including relevant international and regionalorganizations, to have a better knowledge of the brucellosissanitary situation of each country, as well as to share all relevantsanitary information between different countriesRecommendation
www.au-ibar.orgTECHNICAL PARTNERSHIPS• International organizations:– OIE, FAO, WHO, WTO(STDF), Codex• NGOs:– Vétérinaires sans Frontières,Galvmed, Terra Nuova,COOPI,…• Research Centers:– ILRI, CIRAD• Other AU tech. offices:
Thank YouAU-IBAR: Providing leadership in the development of animal resources for Africa