Analysis of African Swine Fever epidemiology and pig value chains to underpin design of an 
ASF risk management strategy o...
Understanding th pig sector for improved
U d
t di
the i
t f i
d
ASF control in Georgia – Cross cutting
issues with Eastern...
Brief history of ASF in Georgia
• June 2007 - Genotype II into Georgia
– Armenia (August 2007) and Russia (
( g
)
(Decembe...
Current disease situation
• N outbreak d t since 2008
No tb k data i
• The disease is believed to be endemic (epidemic wav...
The backyard challenge
• Backyard represents almost 100% of pig production
• High within-country and seasonal variability
...
The Village-Level Module: Prevention and
control of ASF in backyard
•
•
•

Objective: To empower village-level stakeholder...
1. Data gathering – Preliminary data
– Expert consultations
– Workshops for stakeholder/value chain mapping:
• In regions ...
Homeslaughter

Kakheti

farms
Other stakeholders
Trade / markets 

Commercial farm

Pork (products)

Commercial farm

Fatt...
Homeslaughter

Racha

farms
Other stakeholders
Trade / markets 
Butcher

Pork (products)
Fattened animals
Piglets

Through...
Homeslaughter

Guria

farms
Other stakeholders
Trade / markets 
Pork (products)
Piglets

Butcher
Own
consumption

Boar
Dot...
1. Data gathering – Questionnaires
• Preparing the questionnaires:
–
–
–
–

Q
Quantitative data
Based on workshops’ findin...
1. Data gathering - Questionnaires
Implementation of questionnaires:
•
•
•
•
•
•

October 2012
By vets from 4 veterinary a...
2. Data analysis
y
– Develop risk profiles for each stakeholder and region
– Id tif risky b h i
Identify i k behaviors and...
3. Design and implementation of a prevention &
control strategy for backyard
•

Identify sustainable village-level interve...
Biosecurity/ husbandry and health management
protocols/trainings for backyard
• Development of materials:
– Leaflets / tri...
Preliminary results f
P li i
lt from
Questionnaires in Kakheti
Region
g
Conducted in Sept-Nov 2011 by State vets in Kakheti Region
Pig
Municipality Keepers Butchers
Akhmeta
3
3
Dedoplistskaro
5
...
Key findings from pig keeper questionnaires:
•
•
•
•

Farmers’ income from pig farming is generally low (19%);
One third o...
•
•
•

•

97% of homeslaughtering between November and January, after
which most of the carcass (63%) is preserved;
All pi...
Awareness:
• Most pig keepers learned about ASF through TV (90%), a
veterinarian (70%), radio (43%) and newspapers (
(
),
...
Key findings from butchers:
•
•
•
•
•
•

Only 4% of butchers interviewed sell imported pork;
All butchers homeslaughter th...
•
•
•
•

36% of butchers sell to restaurants;
Customers originate mainly within th same di t i t (91%)
C t
i i t
i l
ithi ...
Acknowledgements
• FAO Georgia
• Georgian Agrarian University
• National Food Agency (NFA) and
veterinary services
• G
Geo...
Understanding the pig sector for improved ASF control in Georgia—Cross cutting issues with Eastern Africa
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Understanding the pig sector for improved ASF control in Georgia—Cross cutting issues with Eastern Africa

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Presented by Daniel Beltran‐Alcrudo at the Closing workshop of the BecA‐ILRI‐CSIRO‐AusAID project on Understanding ASF epidemiology as a basis for control, Nairobi, Kenya, 2‐3 October 2013

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Understanding the pig sector for improved ASF control in Georgia—Cross cutting issues with Eastern Africa

  1. 1. Analysis of African Swine Fever epidemiology and pig value chains to underpin design of an  ASF risk management strategy on the Kenya‐Uganda border Closing workshop of the BecA‐ILRI‐CSIRO‐AusAID project (2011‐13): Understanding ASF  Cl i kh f th B A ILRI CSIRO A AID j t (2011 13) U d t di ASF epidemiology as a basis for control 2nd‐3rd October, 2013. Sarova PanAfric Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya Invited presentation: Daniel Beltran‐Alcrudo EMPRES, AGAH, FAO  Understanding the pig sector for improved ASF control in  Georgia – Cross cutting issues with Eastern Africa
  2. 2. Understanding th pig sector for improved U d t di the i t f i d ASF control in Georgia – Cross cutting issues with Eastern Africa Nairobi, Kenya – 2 October 2013 Daniel Beltrán-Alcrudo D i l B lt á Al d EMPRES, AGAH, FAO
  3. 3. Brief history of ASF in Georgia • June 2007 - Genotype II into Georgia – Armenia (August 2007) and Russia ( ( g ) (December 2007) ) • June 2007 - Joint FAO/OIE/EC • 2008 - Technical Cooperation Projects (TCPs) in Georgia and Armenia: – Trainings: • Epi trainings (20) for >1,000 private & state vets on surveillance, disease control and epi • Lab diagnostic trainings – Purchase of equipment (disinfectants, PPE, fuel and lab reagents & equipment) – Awareness: Information leaflets/booklets for vets and farmers – Research in wild boar and soft ticks
  4. 4. Current disease situation • N outbreak d t since 2008 No tb k data i • The disease is believed to be endemic (epidemic waves in early Summer) • ASF spread & persistence associated to backyard • Role of wild boar and ticks still unclear • Vet services very weak
  5. 5. The backyard challenge • Backyard represents almost 100% of pig production • High within-country and seasonal variability • Many unknowns on the backyard, e.g. location and numbers, pig keeping, slaughtering, processing and trade (largely informal) of live pigs and pig products • Vet services neglect backyard • Prevention & control most challenging in backyard – Poor compliance – St Stamping-out approach doesn’t work i t hd ’t k
  6. 6. The Village-Level Module: Prevention and control of ASF in backyard • • • Objective: To empower village-level stakeholders to prevent and control ASF Interventions based on a deep understanding of pig and pork value chains and a risk analysis/management approach Expected outcomes: – – – – improved awareness and biosecurity sustainable community-driven prevention & control strategies better trained vets control of other pig diseases Data Gathering: g - Interviews - Workshops - Questionnaires Data Analysis & y Identification of risk points/ behaviors Design and implementation of a prevention & control strategy for backyard Monitoring g through performance indicators
  7. 7. 1. Data gathering – Preliminary data – Expert consultations – Workshops for stakeholder/value chain mapping: • In regions with different production systems • Gather 10-15 village-level stakeholders – private and state vets, pig keepers, middlemen/butchers, hunters • Draw pig and pork value chains: – Identify main and secondary actors – What happens to by-products – Changes during festivals, presence of disease, etc • Map live animal markets, free-ranging areas, wild boar habitats, slaughterhouses, etc
  8. 8. Homeslaughter Kakheti farms Other stakeholders Trade / markets  Commercial farm Pork (products) Commercial farm Fattened animals Piglets Boar Dotted lines: event less likely or only in certain periods * Backyard  smallholder Live animal market (once a week) (once a week) Butcher     Middleman Butchers sometimes own some backyard p g y pigs Backyard smallholder Consumer Own consumption Backyard  Backyard smallholder
  9. 9. Homeslaughter Racha farms Other stakeholders Trade / markets  Butcher Pork (products) Fattened animals Piglets Through markets & shops  Own consumption Smoked pork (also to Tbilisi) Boar Backyard Smallholder (> 10 pigs) 2,000 pig glets from February y to April Dotted lines: event less likely or only in certain periods Pigs from Imereti Samegrelo (about 70% of the pigs sold at the market) Backyard Smallholder (<10 pigs) Middleman Live animal market  (once a week) No more than 10 fattened pigs/Sunday Own consumption Consumer
  10. 10. Homeslaughter Guria farms Other stakeholders Trade / markets  Pork (products) Piglets Butcher Own consumption Boar Dotted lines: event less likely or only in certain periods Backyard Smallholder (with sows) At local marke et Fattened animals Consumer 80% of  animals  slaughtered  as piglets Live animal market  (once a week) Backyard Smallholder (without sows) Own consumption
  11. 11. 1. Data gathering – Questionnaires • Preparing the questionnaires: – – – – Q Quantitative data Based on workshops’ findings Pig keepers (30 min), middlemen/butchers (20 min) (and hunters) Contents: biosecurity, husbandry, market chains, awareness, socioeconomic aspects, wild boar – Identify the best group to deliver the questionnaires – Pilot tested for fine-tuning in Kakheti
  12. 12. 1. Data gathering - Questionnaires Implementation of questionnaires: • • • • • • October 2012 By vets from 4 veterinary associations in Kakheti, Samegrelo, Samtskhe-Javakheti and Shida Kartli regions One 1 day training per region 1-day 4-5 local vets per region (total of 16-20) 600 premises ( p (150 p region): 450 p g keepers & 150 butchers. per g ) pig p Villages selection: – Distributed throughout each region – Main towns and more remote villages – Different production systems • Basic info collected for each village: – human & pig populations, % of households with pigs, and production systems
  13. 13. 2. Data analysis y – Develop risk profiles for each stakeholder and region – Id tif risky b h i Identify i k behaviors and points i th value chain d i t in the l h i that are most vulnerable to ASF and best for interventions – Develop a spatial ASF spread model/pattern, e.g. social network analysis
  14. 14. 3. Design and implementation of a prevention & control strategy for backyard • Identify sustainable village-level interventions and mitigation measures that will better equip local communities and vet services in disease prevention, detection and control, e.g. – Biosecurity, husbandry and health management protocols/trainings for bac ya d backyard – Surveillance schemes – Economically viable control measures, e.g. temporal enclosing of free-range pigs during outbreaks • • Revise feasibility and sustainability of approaches with vet services and stakeholders Implementation strategy that identifies actors, channels and formats of communication, etc – Development of awareness and educational materials for different audiences – Trainings
  15. 15. Biosecurity/ husbandry and health management protocols/trainings for backyard • Development of materials: – Leaflets / triptychs and posters with basic information on pig health & production – Trainings on pig production and health – Trainings on disease p g prevention and control in p g for p pigs private veterinarians • Implementers: – NGOs + Vet drug/feed distributors – Veterinary Associations – Mills and dairy processors • Implementation strategy: – The whole country: leaflets – ASF-affected areas: leaflets + farming trainings
  16. 16. Preliminary results f P li i lt from Questionnaires in Kakheti Region g
  17. 17. Conducted in Sept-Nov 2011 by State vets in Kakheti Region Pig Municipality Keepers Butchers Akhmeta 3 3 Dedoplistskaro 5 5 Gurjaani 4 4 Kvareli 1 1 Lagodekhi L d khi 2 3 Sagarejo 5 5 Telavi 5 0 Sighnaghi 5 4 TOTAL 30 25 • 47 questions f pig ti for i keepers (30 min) • 22 questions for butchers (20 min)
  18. 18. Key findings from pig keeper questionnaires: • • • • Farmers’ income from pig farming is generally low (19%); One third of pig keepers just fatten pigs (and keep no sows); Few (16%) pig keepers produce most of the piglets that are sold for fattening; Marked seasonality of litters and sales of fattened pigs :
  19. 19. • • • • 97% of homeslaughtering between November and January, after which most of the carcass (63%) is preserved; All pig keepers homeslaughter; Most (96%) p g keepers consume at least p of their p g 21% sell ( ) pig p part pigs. to middlemen, 4% to butchers and 46% give some to friends, neighbors and relatives; Buyers of homeslaughtered pig products mainly located in the same village (80%); Biosecurity • Leftovers fed to pigs in 43% of households; • Household waste mainly collected by the municipality (63%) but (63%), there are also some risky habits, e.g. burial (15%) or thrown (26%) outside the household premises; • 20% of pig keepers see wild boar nearby their farms;
  20. 20. Awareness: • Most pig keepers learned about ASF through TV (90%), a veterinarian (70%), radio (43%) and newspapers ( ( ), ( ) p p (43%); ); • 97% knew that infected animals transmit ASF. Still, bad vaccines, the wind, water and mosquitoes were blamed by many; • Pi keepers do not know what approach will authorities t k i case Pig k d tk h t h ill th iti take in of an ASF outbreak; • The non-zoonotic nature of ASF largely unknown ( g y (47%). )
  21. 21. Key findings from butchers: • • • • • • Only 4% of butchers interviewed sell imported pork; All butchers homeslaughter the pigs: 39% immediately, while the rest keeps them alive for even over 10 days (4 2 days on average) (4.2 average). When a pig gets sick, 18% of butchers admitted to slaughter it quickly and sell the meat; Pork contributes 65% of the butchering business; Only 25% of butchers process the pork, mainly to produce fresh sausages and minced meat; Most butchers (87%) buy pigs from the same village or town;
  22. 22. • • • • 36% of butchers sell to restaurants; Customers originate mainly within th same di t i t (91%) C t i i t i l ithi the district (91%). There are periods (Apr-Aug and Oct-Dec) when some butchers do not sell local pork at all; p The sale of carcasses peaks in September and October; Awareness • Most butchers learned about ASF through TV (79%), radio (46%) and newspapers (50%); • Half of the butchers admitted not knowing how ASF transmits; • The non-zoonotic nature of ASF was unknown to 41% of the interviewed.
  23. 23. Acknowledgements • FAO Georgia • Georgian Agrarian University • National Food Agency (NFA) and veterinary services • G Georgian I tit t of Public Affairs (GIPA) i Institute f P bli Aff i • Veterinary Associations y • FAO Headquarters colleagues
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