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Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps
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Livestock and human health: The good, the bad, the gaps

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Presentation by Delia Grace for ILRI Annual Program Meeting, Addis Ababa, 15 April 2010

Presentation by Delia Grace for ILRI Annual Program Meeting, Addis Ababa, 15 April 2010

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  • 1. Livestock and human health: the good, the bad, the gaps Delia Grace, ILRI ILRI APM, Addis Ababa, April 2010
  • 2. Human Health Bads & Goods Huge impact Moderate or ? impact Small impact Zoonoses EID Drug resistance An.SF & Chronic dis. Occupational hazard Nutrition Dis. resistance Psycho-social benefits Ecosystem services
  • 3. Big Bad: Zoonoses
    • Most diseases (60%)are zoonotic
    • But most burden of disease is not
    But in poor countries 1 in 10 will die from a zoonosis Adapted from Ecker et al., BMC Microbiol. Killer infections
  • 4.
    • 8 diseases > 90% of burden ( Diarr, Tb, Tetanus, Schisto, Leishman, sleeping sickness, Chagas, Arbov. )
    • Not just human health
      • Kill and sicken animals
      • Add risk to production
      • Keeping small farmers out of markets
      • Imposing penalties on informal sector
    Roth et al., WHO Bull
  • 5. Big bad: EID
    • Newly discovered;
    • Recently increased in incidence or prevalence;
    • Recently expanded in geographic or climatologic range;
    • Jumped from animals to humans
  • 6. Big bad: EID
    • Even more EIDs are zoonotic (75%).
    • The worst diseases have come from animals: Smallpox, AIDS, Spanish Flu, Black Death
    • Currently most come from wildlife.
    • Appear to be increasing in incidence.
    • One new disease every 7 months.
  • 7. Moderate bad: Drug resistance
    • Using drugs in animals causes resistance
    • Livestock drug use in poor countries probably not so important, use by poor farmers even less
      • 1. Human drug use far bigger cause of resistance
      • 2. Big problem growth promoters & mass treatments
    > 40% livestock < 3% vet drugs -- 3.
  • 8. The health goods
    • Animal source foods -> better nutrition-> help fight off disease
      • Strong relation: diarrhoea, resp infect., tb, AIDS
      • Variable: influenza, typhus
      • Little: malaria, plague, tetanus
    • Ecosystem services: regulation of disease
      • Preventing disease spillovers
      • Offering disease control options
    • Canaries in the mine
  • 9. Consensus
    • It’s big and looming larger
    • Its complicated
    • ‘One world, One health’ way forward
  • 10. Randolph et al., JAS Randolph et al., JAS Animals Owned Nutritional (Growth) Status Health Status + + Probability of Zoonotic Disease Animal Production Food Crop Production Food Crop Sales Animal & Product Sales + + + + - HH Income + + (Child) Dietary Intake + Level of Care/Feeding Behaviour + Labor Allocated to Livestock + - Labor Demands on (Female) Caregiver Hired Labor - Total Labor Demands + + + Health Inputs + Food Crop Purchases ASF Purchases HH Crop Consumption HH ASF Consumption + + + - + Nutrient Interactions Chronic Disease Risk + - Land allocation to feed Traction, nutrient cycling + - + + + + + (Female) Caregiver Income + + Wage Labour by (Female) Caregiver - - + Environmental Toxin Concentration - + Cognitive Performance + + AIDS Complications - Arrows between variables indicate hypothesized causal relationships. The + or - signs indicate hypothesized direction of effects. test test
  • 11. Controversies
    • We’ve never had it so good versus
      • We face unprecedented threats and impacts
    • A warmer, wetter, sicker world versus
      • Many other drivers more important than climate
    • Being poor makes you sick versus
      • Being sick makes you poor
    • Emerging infectious disease versus
      • Neglected tropical disease
  • 12. Malaysia: climate and malaria 1967-1971 : MEP 1982: Vector-borne Diseases Control Program- Policy, program & strategy development 2003: National Drug Resistance Surveillance Program 1961: Pilot Malaria Eradication Project 2006: National Treatment Review Committee: ACT 1990-92 : Field trial on insecticide treated bednet (ITN) 1993: Nationwide Use of ITN 2004: Renewed studies on simian malaria 1972-1981: Anti-Malaria Program 0 50000 300000 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2005 Number of Cases Temperature 25 30
  • 13. Gaps
    • Risk assessment & communication
    • Risk management
    • One World, One Health into action
    • Managing EID globally and zoonoses locally
  • 14.  
  • 15. Human health Bads & Goods Take homes
    • 60% of diseases are zoonotic.
    • One in 10 people in poor countries will die of a zoonotic disease
    • 75% of Emerging Infectious Diseases are zoonotic.
    • Expect a new EID every 7 months.
    • What you worry about and what will kill you are probably not the same…
  • 16. Thank you for your attention

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