Animal health services delivery systems and disease
surveillance in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda
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Animal health services delivery systems and disease surveillance in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda

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Poster prepared by Michel M. Dione, Emily Ouma, Peter Lule and Danilo Pezo for the Second International Conference on Animal Health Surveillance (ICAHS2), Havana, Cuba, 7-9 May 2014


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Animal health services delivery systems and disease surveillance in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda

  1. 1. Animal health services delivery systems and disease surveillance in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda MM Dione1, EA Ouma1, P Lule2, D Pezo1 1 International Livestock Research Institute, Kampala, Uganda 2 Department of Agribusiness and Natural Resources Economics, Makerere University, Uganda Main message of the poster • The health delivery systems actors are dominated by veterinary paraprofessionals • Besides the health and the drug related activities, they also carry out secondary activities including crop production, non- farming business and extension. • The delivery systems are characterized by poor implementation of quality assurance of products especially drugs and their regulation. • Constraints faced by the actors along the health delivery chain include: low profit margins due to high cost of drugs; lack of logistics for communication between farmers and service providers; self – medication by farmers; ineffectiveness of treatment with specific drugs; lack of surveillance and diagnostic capacities at the district level. • There is need to strengthen the animal health services delivery systems and reinforce policies in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda. Methods 36 stockists, 53 veterinary service providers were randomly selected from la sampling frame provided by livestock production/veterinary staff of the local governments in the three districts. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The District Veterinary Officer of each district was also interviewed. The data collected were entered in CSPro version 4.1 and descriptive analyses conducted in STATA version 13. Conclusion • The animal health delivery providers in the smallholder pig value chains in Uganda are dominated by veterinary para-professionals. There is poor quality of products and services in all districts. • Close monitoring of service delivery and disease monitoring systems is needed to ensure that farmers have access to high quality animal health products and services. • There is need to strengthen the pig value chains and re-enforce policies in the area of health services delivery in order to improve productivity in a sustainable manner. Expected results • Typology of actors involved in the health services systems in the pig value chains and their level of training and qualification • Description of the disease surveillance mechanism in place • Constraints faced by actors involved in the animal health delivery systems • Identification of opportunities for improving the health delivery systems in the pig value chains Purpose To characterize the existing animal health services delivery systems and pig disease surveillance mechanisms along the pig value chain in Uganda, in order to identify entry points for improvement. Michel M. Dione M.Dione@cgiar.org ● ILRI ● Kampala, Uganda ● ilri.org This project was funded by IFAD This document is licensed for use under a Creative Commons Attribution –Non commercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported License June 2012 2nd International Conference on Animal Health Surveillance La Habana, Cuba, 7th -9th May 2014 Figure 3: Most common pig diseases encountered by health service providers (n=53); others: Coccidiosis, Collibacilosis, Respiratory syndromes, Foot and Mouth Disease, Agalactia, Hog cholera, Lumpy skin Figure 1: Animal health services delivery systems in the pig value chains in Uganda Figure 2: Type of services provided by the veterinary service providers (n=53). Others: Artificial insemination, Issuance of movement permits Figure 4: Pig zoonosis encountered by veterinary services providers (n=53). others: Jiggers, Swine Erysipelas, Meningitis, Trypanosomiasis, Trichinellosis 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Frequency 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Frequency Continuous line: very strong link; Dashed line: not very strong link Red color: disease surveillance; Blue color: drugs supply Violet color: treatment, disease control and advice ; Black: regulation and quality control Findings • Typology of veterinary service providers: Veterinary para-professionals (61%), Community Animal Health Workers (31%) and) Veterinary Doctors (8%) (Figure 1). • Typology of drug stockists: retailers at the district level (55%), veterinary pharmacies (31%) and wholesalers (14%) (Figure 1). • There are 8 veterinary officers in Mukono, 8 in Kamuli and 3 in Masaka. • Most commonly bought drugs by farmers are dewormers (93%), with most commonly used being albendazole (46%) and ivermectin (40%) • Frequently bought antibiotics include oxytetracyclin (37%), penicillin/streptomycin (28%), tylosin (18%), sulfonamides (16%) and almayalin (1%) • There is low coverage of villages by health services providers • Drug stockists claimed that the main causes of drug ineffectiveness are wrong dosage (38%), wrong drug administration route (24%) and poor drugs handling and storage (19%). • Main services provided by veterinary service providers are: curative treatment, parasite control and advisory services (Figure 2). • Main pig production diseases encountered are African swine fever and healminthiasis (Figure 3), while the main pig zoonotic diseases are porcine brucellosis (42%) and cysticercosis (29%) (Figure 4). • A among the veterinary service providers, 36% practice disease surveillance and monitoring as part of their activities. These activities are mainly monitoring of swine fever and parasite infestations; • 12% have access to functional laboratory in their district; • 4% have frequent interaction with public health authorities including medical doctors on issues related to zoonosis and food-borne diseases; • 25% are part of a sharing information platform on disease control, outbreaks monitoring and syndrome surveillance with farmers groups. • Several constraints were noted including high cost of the drugs, poor regulations enforcement amongst others.

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