Analysis of priority commodities — Gender and technology perspectives


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Presented by Ranjitha Puskur, 20 March 2006

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Analysis of priority commodities — Gender and technology perspectives

  1. 1. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) Analysis of priority commodities– Gender and technology perspectives Ranjitha Puskur 20 March 2006 ILRI
  2. 2. Overview of presentation <ul><li>IPMS and its Gender strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Why gender analysis? </li></ul><ul><li>Key gender concepts used </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of some tools employed </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for IPMS activities </li></ul><ul><li>IPMS activities and plans </li></ul>
  3. 3. IPMS
  4. 4. Gender Strategy – IPMS <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>To promote gender equity in market-led agricultural development opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Understand gender context of priority commodities and services to be supported by IPMS </li></ul><ul><li>Identify strategies and interventions that support greater gender equity in access to and control of market opportunities and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Develop skills of extension staff and other stakeholders to effectively address gender issues </li></ul><ul><li>Increase awareness and mainstream gender issues within market oriented approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to knowledge base about gender in the agricultural sector </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rural reality: Composition of communities <ul><li>Alamata </li></ul><ul><li>Fogera </li></ul><ul><li>Metema </li></ul><ul><li>Mieso </li></ul><ul><li>Alaba </li></ul>FHHs (%) 28 31 25 20 25
  6. 6. Why gender analysis? <ul><li>Roles of women and men in agricultural activities, marketing, decision-making and their share in benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address disparities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge systemic inequalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build efficient and equitable solutions </li></ul></ul>Market orientation to be incorporated in food security strategy
  7. 7. Why gender analysis? <ul><li>Identify potential barriers to participation in market-led development initiatives and technology adoption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constraints on women’s participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet both practical gender needs (support and improve efficiency of productive roles) and strategic needs (improve gender equity through participation) </li></ul></ul>Market orientation to be incorporated in food security strategy
  8. 8. Why gender analysis? <ul><li>Identify what actions may be required by project to overcome some of these barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for women’s participation in delivery and community management of goods and services, planned institutional changes, in training opportunities, and in monitoring of resources and benefits </li></ul></ul>Market orientation to be incorporated in food security strategy
  9. 9. Key gender concepts <ul><li>Gender division of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Gender access to resources and control over benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Gender participation in decision-making </li></ul>
  10. 10. Gender division of labour <ul><li>What will be the expected impact of improving the productivity of specific commodities on the workloads of women and men? </li></ul><ul><li>If additional inputs of labour are required, will be the burden be shared equally between them or will one be expected to make a greater contribution due to the traditional gender division of labour? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Gender access to resources and control over benefits <ul><li>If specific technologies or services are being promoted by the project, will both women and men be able to benefit from them? </li></ul><ul><li>Will poorer households be able to reap the benefits of the new technologies? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Gender participation in decision-making <ul><li>Who will make the decisions about adoption? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will develop the necessary skills ? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gender perspective of commodities for market led development <ul><li>As a result of promoting market-led development of specific commodities, will the role of different crops and livestock in the household economy be changed? </li></ul><ul><li>As enterprises become more commercially oriented , will this have implications for the control of the benefits of production between household members? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any barriers which will restrict the ability of women or men, or poorer households from participating in project initiatives and market-led agricultural development? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Implications for IPMS activities <ul><li>Who will be the main winners from the proposed IPMS activities? Will anyone be disadvantaged as a result of the project activities? </li></ul><ul><li>What may be done within the existing project design/new activities to improve project outreach to poor women and men? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any other activities to address gender and poverty imbalances within communities which may be followed up in the PLSs? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the options for mainstreaming gender considerations into activities of the stakeholders/partners ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the opportunities for collaboration and exploitation of synergies?  </li></ul>Attention to gender HIV/AIDS, and environment
  15. 15. <ul><li>Overview of some tools employed </li></ul><ul><li>Role of crops and livestock in household economy - key informants </li></ul><ul><li>Review of technologies and practices in community – key informants </li></ul><ul><li>Gender analysis of individual arable crops – women and men focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Gender analysis of individual livestock enterprises – women and men focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Project perspective - RDOs </li></ul>Studies to understand PLW gender context
  16. 16. Decision-making, social capital and livelihoods <ul><li>by PLS and wealth class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principal decision makers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membership of groups/associations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Livelihood activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of knowledge, skills, training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth profile of communities </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Analysis of technology pathways and uptake <ul><ul><li>Most successful technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less widely adopted technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology pathways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision to adopt technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main users and beneficiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential barriers to growing PLS priority crops/livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other barriers </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Gender analysis of commodities- crop and livestock enterprises <ul><li>Area grown /numbers of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Position of commodity in HH economy </li></ul><ul><li>Technology development </li></ul><ul><li>Gender division of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Varietal/breed preference </li></ul><ul><li>Source of inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Source of knowledge/skills/training </li></ul><ul><li>Gender analysis of marketing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Crops and livestock Generally both – magnitude varies, women indirectly in many cases Women in case of livestock -control of benefits? Benefits from technology Available -consider farming system as a whole -ability to hire -Availability of skilled labour Additional labour and labour peaks Generally both, but magnitude varies Only women if it is women dominated crop More on women in case of livestock -labour saving technologies in operations done by women and other chores taken up by them -reversal/adjustment of roles Impact on workloads
  20. 20. Crops and livestock Mainly men or joint, Women in FHH -who to target for dissemination? -changes in existing situation -hidden control of decisions Adoption decisions Men or both -who to target for trainings? Skill development Both and in some rich farmers -how to target poor HH and FHH? -indirect benefits/spinoffs Winners <ul><li>Mainly men or joint </li></ul><ul><li>How to ensure judicious use of income? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>role of behavioural change communication? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change of mindsets? </li></ul></ul>Control of benefits
  21. 21. <ul><li>A National level workshop held with participation of Federal, Regional and Woreda level stakeholders to share findings and draw actions plans </li></ul><ul><li>Commodity Gender Fact Sheets developed for all PLWs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Implications for IPMS project <ul><li>Technology and commodity specific interventions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on workloads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and promote labour saving technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involve women in technology demonstration and application </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change mindsets to work towards more equitable workloads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional labour requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labour requirements of the whole FS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity to hire labour </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of skilled labour for introducing new technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of benefits from technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate targeting strategies – women, FHH, poor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Involve women in technology transfer and adoption processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies to provide women with more knowledge and information to make more informed decisions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Empowering Women <ul><li>Skills development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve women and couples in training activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage extension service to mainstream gender in their activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate gender into TVET curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control of benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiate efforts with partners to work towards attitudinal changes for ensuring fair use of household income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Access to services and resources (knowledge, credit and inputs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with partners to facilitate access to services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate capacity building of public sector actors to extend focus from production to institutional issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explore setting up women’s SHGs for savings & credit and, knowledge sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creation and facilitation of market linkages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organising women for enhancing production volumes and stronger market bargaining power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SHGs for processing and marketing, and as a platform for sharing market information </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Awareness creation and enhanced understanding <ul><li>Gender awareness creation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work with partners to create awareness through workshops, campaigns and briefing sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form linkage with all institutions working to address gender imbalances and sensitization in the area of women rights and legislation that protect women’s rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C ontribute to better understanding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect, report and analyse information in a gender-disaggregated manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand social, cultural and economic variables that contribute to gender imbalances while identifying options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand role of gender in market decisions </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Suggested roles of various actors <ul><li>1. Office of Ag : training and capacity building (eg., income generation for women), technology introduction for work reduction </li></ul><ul><li>2. Bureau of Ag : capacity building, training and policy implementation </li></ul><ul><li>3. MoARD : policy addressing gender equality, gender equality integration into TVET curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>4. Women’s Affairs (all levels): strengthening political empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>5. Private sector : input supply introduced to save energy and time for women </li></ul><ul><li>6. Community associations and women’s associations/groups : increase awareness of role of women in agricultural decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>7. NGOs: implementing training, support to input supply, technology for FHH and women </li></ul><ul><li>8. Research institutes: develop technologies that address gender roles </li></ul><ul><li>9. Microfinance institutions: promote access to saving and credit for women and FHH </li></ul>
  26. 26. Gender and HIV Plans for 2006 <ul><li>PLW workshops </li></ul><ul><ul><li>action plans for integrating the concerns into IPMS activities and capacity building of woreda level actors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Progress monitoring and experience sharing workshop towards the end of the year </li></ul><ul><li>Technology exhibitions oriented towards women at woreda level </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of gender/HIV issues into TVET curriculum – draft curriculum and test delivery in TVETs </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies focusing on gender and HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of and documenting process of gender and HIV mainstreaming in IPMS activities and mapping outcomes </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thank you!