Agricultural water management in the context of climate change


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Presented by Tilahun Amede, Seleshi B. Awlachew, Bancy Matti, Seydou Traore and Muluneh Yitayew at the First Climate Change and Development in Africa (CCDA-I) Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 October 2011.

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Agricultural water management in the context of climate change

  1. 1. ClimDev-Africa Agricultural Water Management in the Context of Climate Change Tilahun Amede, Seleshi B. Awlachew, Bancy Matti, Seydou Traore, Muluneh YitayewFirst Climate Change and Development in Africa (CCDA-I) Conference Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 October 2011 1
  2. 2. CC IMPACTS: RAINFED AGRICULTURE Climate variability will erode the resources base, and affect ecosystem services : Recurrent droughts & severe floods; Droughts will decrease yields / productivity Floods may damage crops and infrastructure (irrigation, road) Complicate farm operations abd services; Fluctuations in farmers’ income: poor farmers may lack means to buffer extreme years Impact on national economy, with 90% probability 2
  3. 3. IMPACTS: IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE  Glacier melt of water towers: temporary increase / decrease in water reserves; Changes in groundwater recharge ; Changes in timing and magnitude of river flows (irrigation schemes tapping directly from river, and storage requirements); Temperature effects on water productivity: unproductive evaporation; CO2 fertilization and irrigation productivity: 3
  4. 4. “Over the past Gada, we have lost twomonths of rain. Now the rain is notcoming at the right time: it is startinglater and finishing before long. Mydaughter is now five years old and shehas not seen a good harvest yet.” 4 Lars Naess, 2009
  5. 5. Annual water balance (A) and waterwithdrawal (B) of Africa and implications CC (UNEP, 2010) (UNEP, 2005)
  6. 6. Make Choices : Scenarios to 2050 Today Without productivity improvements CA Scenario Policies for productivity gains, upgrading rainfed, revitalized irrigation, trade 6Based on WaterSim analysis for the CA
  7. 7. Upgrade rainfed agricultureDependence on green and blue water 2000 7
  8. 8. Climate-smart Rainwater managementsystems (RWM)• Integrated strategy that enables actors to systematically map, capture, store and efficiently use Green and Blue water in a landscape for productive and domestic purposes and ecosystem services.• Decrease unproductive water losses;• Improve the water productivity (increase returns per unit of water investment)• Capitalizes on harvesting principles, water productivity at various scales;• Combining water management with land and vegetation management. 8
  9. 9. Investing in Irrigation Investing in Irrigation2.5 320 World Bank lending for irrigation 2802.0 Irrigated Area 240 2001.5 1601.0 Food price index 120 800.5 40 0 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Dependency effect? 2005 9
  10. 10. Reduce water loss for climate change adaptation Average % loss Loss % loss/Canal type N flow rate per (l/s/100m) 100m/30l/s (l/s) 100m*Main canal 121 43.21a 2.58a 6.46a 4.49bSecondary canal 57 33.03b 1.59b 4.40b 4.00bField canal 49 2.88c 0.39c 2.49c 25.94a
  11. 11. Increased Storage Capacity for CCadaptation; even without external support Comparision of Per capita Storage Capacity 7000 6150 6000 4729 5000 Per CapitaStorage(m^3) 4000 3255 3000 2486 2000 1287 1406 746 1000 4 43 0 Kenya E opia thi South T land hai Laos China Brazil Australia North Africa America Countries 11
  12. 12. Micro dose 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 Fm a C r 3 0 4 Tuberyield(t/ha) 3 2 1 0 2 4 2 1 1 8 Fm a B r 1 5 1 2 4 Tuberyield(t/ha) 3 2Zai 1 8 0 0 7 0 6 0 Fm a A r 5 0 4 0 Tuberyield(t/ha) 1 2 8 4 0 12 30 N 30 N 30 N 60N N 60N N 60N N 0 0 0 C to o rl n Wo Z ih t a t u i W Z ih a t i
  13. 13. Improve Livestock Systems for CC adaptation Improve feed quality; reduce methane emissions Integrate livestock into the wider development agenda (e.g. irrigation; watershed management); Developing watering points in closer distances (> 35% milk yield); Limit conversion of range to annual croplands; Improve animal management (health, feed quality, productivity); Interventions to maximize transpiration at the expense of evaporation (feed); Incentives for adaptation (Value addition/ market opportunities) of
  14. 14. Convert unproductive water to productive use for CC adaptation High unproductive water losses = Low system productivity; Kuhar Michael - all cropland Lenche Dima - all cropland 1800 3000 1600 2500 1400flows per HH (m3) flows per HH (m3) 1200 2000 1000 livestock livestock 1500 800 crops crops 600 1000 400 500 200 0 0 percolation evaporation transpiration evaporation transpiration percolation runoff runoff deep deep 14
  15. 15. Building Adaptive capacity on local experiences.. • Building on byelaws/ religious organizations/ Water User Associations • Facilitate information flow / technologies using local channels • Local institutions for collective action: Upstream-downstream • Commitment from local authorities and policy makers • Home gardens; women 15
  16. 16. Box 1: Majaluba for Rice Box 2. Small scale irrigation inProduction in Shinyanga, Tanzania Ethiopia In Tanzania, farmers excavated SSI in four administrative regions ofbunded basins, locally known as Ethiopia,‘majaluba’ which hold rainwater forsupplemental irrigation of crops in  Crop yield under irrigation wasASAL regions; higher by at least 35% compared to non-irrigated farms; About 35% of the rice in TZ isproduced this way under smallholder  Benefits higher in farms wherefarming Shinyanga, Dodoma, Tabora external inputs (fertilizer, improvedand the Lake Regions; seeds and pesticides) were used; Majaluba utilize direct rainfall and  Farmers replaced low yieldingrunoff harvesting from external varieties by high yielding maizecatchments; cultivars; Generally, rice yields are  Shifted towards diversehigher, attaining 3.43 t ha-1 with the cropping, up to 10 new marketableuse of harvested water for irrigation as crops;compared to 2.17 t ha-1 ;  The real challenge: improving These systems have increased irrigation efficiency, creating localhousehold incomes by 67%.; capacity and collective action with Augment by other storage local communities; 16infrastructures
  17. 17. Key messages for CC adaptation:1. Investing in water storage at landscape and higher scales (reservoirs, strategic dams, ground water etc..);2. Policy geared towards climate-sensitive systems (Agriculture / wetlands / water towers) and vulnerable communities;3. Cross-boundary hydrological planning /management; drought and flood monitoring and information system; coping strategies;4. Improving rainwater management systems, from capturing to efficient utilization and resilience; 175. Responsive research system along with resources for
  18. 18. Tilahun Amede CPWF Nile Basin Leader t.amede@cgiar.orgA CGIAR Challenge Programme Water for Food (CPWF)aims to increase water productivity and resilience ofsocial and ecological systems Thank you !