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Agricultural water management in the context of climate change
 

Agricultural water management in the context of climate change

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Presented by Tilahun Amede, Seleshi B. Awlachew, Bancy Matti, Seydou Traore and Muluneh Yitayew at the First Climate Change and Development in Africa (CCDA-I) Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 ...

Presented by Tilahun Amede, Seleshi B. Awlachew, Bancy Matti, Seydou Traore and Muluneh Yitayew at the First Climate Change and Development in Africa (CCDA-I) Conference, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 October 2011.

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    Agricultural water management in the context of climate change Agricultural water management in the context of climate change Presentation Transcript

    • ClimDev-Africa Agricultural Water Management in the Context of Climate Change Tilahun Amede, Seleshi B. Awlachew, Bancy Matti, Seydou Traore, Muluneh YitayewFirst Climate Change and Development in Africa (CCDA-I) Conference Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 17-19 October 2011 1
    • CC IMPACTS: RAINFED AGRICULTURE Climate variability will erode the resources base, and affect ecosystem services : Recurrent droughts & severe floods; Droughts will decrease yields / productivity Floods may damage crops and infrastructure (irrigation, road) Complicate farm operations abd services; Fluctuations in farmers’ income: poor farmers may lack means to buffer extreme years Impact on national economy, with 90% probability 2
    • IMPACTS: IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE  Glacier melt of water towers: temporary increase / decrease in water reserves; Changes in groundwater recharge ; Changes in timing and magnitude of river flows (irrigation schemes tapping directly from river, and storage requirements); Temperature effects on water productivity: unproductive evaporation; CO2 fertilization and irrigation productivity: 3
    • “Over the past Gada, we have lost twomonths of rain. Now the rain is notcoming at the right time: it is startinglater and finishing before long. Mydaughter is now five years old and shehas not seen a good harvest yet.” 4 Lars Naess, 2009
    • Annual water balance (A) and waterwithdrawal (B) of Africa and implications CC (UNEP, 2010) (UNEP, 2005)
    • Make Choices : Scenarios to 2050 Today Without productivity improvements CA Scenario Policies for productivity gains, upgrading rainfed, revitalized irrigation, trade 6Based on WaterSim analysis for the CA
    • Upgrade rainfed agricultureDependence on green and blue water 2000 7
    • Climate-smart Rainwater managementsystems (RWM)• Integrated strategy that enables actors to systematically map, capture, store and efficiently use Green and Blue water in a landscape for productive and domestic purposes and ecosystem services.• Decrease unproductive water losses;• Improve the water productivity (increase returns per unit of water investment)• Capitalizes on harvesting principles, water productivity at various scales;• Combining water management with land and vegetation management. 8
    • Investing in Irrigation Investing in Irrigation2.5 320 World Bank lending for irrigation 2802.0 Irrigated Area 240 2001.5 1601.0 Food price index 120 800.5 40 0 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 Dependency effect? 2005 9
    • Reduce water loss for climate change adaptation Average % loss Loss % loss/Canal type N flow rate per (l/s/100m) 100m/30l/s (l/s) 100m*Main canal 121 43.21a 2.58a 6.46a 4.49bSecondary canal 57 33.03b 1.59b 4.40b 4.00bField canal 49 2.88c 0.39c 2.49c 25.94a
    • Increased Storage Capacity for CCadaptation; even without external support Comparision of Per capita Storage Capacity 7000 6150 6000 4729 5000 Per CapitaStorage(m^3) 4000 3255 3000 2486 2000 1287 1406 746 1000 4 43 0 Kenya E opia thi South T land hai Laos China Brazil Australia North Africa America Countries 11
    • Micro dose 8 0 7 0 6 0 5 0 4 0 Fm a C r 3 0 4 Tuberyield(t/ha) 3 2 1 0 2 4 2 1 1 8 Fm a B r 1 5 1 2 4 Tuberyield(t/ha) 3 2Zai 1 8 0 0 7 0 6 0 Fm a A r 5 0 4 0 Tuberyield(t/ha) 1 2 8 4 0 12 30 N 30 N 30 N 60N N 60N N 60N N 0 0 0 C to o rl n Wo Z ih t a t u i W Z ih a t i
    • Improve Livestock Systems for CC adaptation Improve feed quality; reduce methane emissions Integrate livestock into the wider development agenda (e.g. irrigation; watershed management); Developing watering points in closer distances (> 35% milk yield); Limit conversion of range to annual croplands; Improve animal management (health, feed quality, productivity); Interventions to maximize transpiration at the expense of evaporation (feed); Incentives for adaptation (Value addition/ market opportunities) of
    • Convert unproductive water to productive use for CC adaptation High unproductive water losses = Low system productivity; Kuhar Michael - all cropland Lenche Dima - all cropland 1800 3000 1600 2500 1400flows per HH (m3) flows per HH (m3) 1200 2000 1000 livestock livestock 1500 800 crops crops 600 1000 400 500 200 0 0 percolation evaporation transpiration evaporation transpiration percolation runoff runoff deep deep 14
    • Building Adaptive capacity on local experiences.. • Building on byelaws/ religious organizations/ Water User Associations • Facilitate information flow / technologies using local channels • Local institutions for collective action: Upstream-downstream • Commitment from local authorities and policy makers • Home gardens; women 15
    • Box 1: Majaluba for Rice Box 2. Small scale irrigation inProduction in Shinyanga, Tanzania Ethiopia In Tanzania, farmers excavated SSI in four administrative regions ofbunded basins, locally known as Ethiopia,‘majaluba’ which hold rainwater forsupplemental irrigation of crops in  Crop yield under irrigation wasASAL regions; higher by at least 35% compared to non-irrigated farms; About 35% of the rice in TZ isproduced this way under smallholder  Benefits higher in farms wherefarming Shinyanga, Dodoma, Tabora external inputs (fertilizer, improvedand the Lake Regions; seeds and pesticides) were used; Majaluba utilize direct rainfall and  Farmers replaced low yieldingrunoff harvesting from external varieties by high yielding maizecatchments; cultivars; Generally, rice yields are  Shifted towards diversehigher, attaining 3.43 t ha-1 with the cropping, up to 10 new marketableuse of harvested water for irrigation as crops;compared to 2.17 t ha-1 ;  The real challenge: improving These systems have increased irrigation efficiency, creating localhousehold incomes by 67%.; capacity and collective action with Augment by other storage local communities; 16infrastructures
    • Key messages for CC adaptation:1. Investing in water storage at landscape and higher scales (reservoirs, strategic dams, ground water etc..);2. Policy geared towards climate-sensitive systems (Agriculture / wetlands / water towers) and vulnerable communities;3. Cross-boundary hydrological planning /management; drought and flood monitoring and information system; coping strategies;4. Improving rainwater management systems, from capturing to efficient utilization and resilience; 175. Responsive research system along with resources for
    • Tilahun Amede CPWF Nile Basin Leader t.amede@cgiar.orgA CGIAR Challenge Programme Water for Food (CPWF)aims to increase water productivity and resilience ofsocial and ecological systems Thank you !