Dairy germplasm development and
delivery in Africa: The Tanzania case
Yakobo, Msanga
Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries D...
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Contibution of Livestock
Livestock Population (mln)
Cattle 22.8
Goat 15.6
Sheep 7.0
Pigs 2.1
Local ch...
INTRODUCTION CONT………
36 % of the recorded 4.9 million agricultural
households, keep livestock
The sector grew at 3.4%
Cont...
INTRODUCTION CONT………
Per capita consumption of livestock
products in 2012 was estimated at:
45 liters of milk
12 kg of mea...
INTRODUCTION CONT………
1.2 Dairy Cattle
Dairy industry is an important component of
livestock sector
Total milk yield estima...
INTRODUCTION CONT………
Crossbreds cattle give an average of 2000 liters
per lactation and contribute 30% of total milk
Estim...
2.0 EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT
2.1 Selection within local breeds
Selection work on the indigenous cattle by the
B...
Iringa Red Singida White
•Later characterizations identified other distinct
strains like the Fipa, Gogo, Pare, Singida whi...
EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT CONT…
Development of a composite breed the
Mpwapwa Through diligent selection and con...
Mpwapwa Breed
EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT CONT…
2.3 Direct importation of Bos taurus dairy breeds.
 In 1975 and 1993, 1,039 hei...
EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT
CONT…
2.4 Crossbreeding of Zebu cattle with Bos Taurus.
Crossbreeding has been the mai...
3.0 OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND
STRATEGIES
3.1 Opportunities
 Large number of indigenous cattle which the foundation
st...
OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND
STRATEGIES CONT.…………….
3.2 Challenges
Main challenge to the industry is to increase the numb...
CHALLENGES CONT…………………….
To encourage private sector
involvement in livestock genetics?
Management of crossbreeding
progra...
4.0 BREEDING OBJECTIVES
To have at least 3 million dairy cattle in the
country by the year 2025.
Dairy cattle to yield an ...
5.0 STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF
DAIRY HERD
5.1 Extensive use of artificial insemination
 Currently only about 70,0...
STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF DAIRY HERD
Upscaling the production of dairy heifers in
public farms.
Strengthening of ...
STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF DAIRY HERD
CONT…
 Multiplication within small holder farms by
use of AI
 Encourage es...
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Dairy germplasm development and delivery in Africa: The Tanzania case

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Presented by Msanga Yakobo (Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) at the Inception workshop of the AgriTT project: Evaluation of breed composition, productivity and fitness for smallholder dairy cattle in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, 10-11 June 2014

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Dairy germplasm development and delivery in Africa: The Tanzania case

  1. 1. Dairy germplasm development and delivery in Africa: The Tanzania case Yakobo, Msanga Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Inception workshop of the AgriTT project: Evaluation of breed composition, productivity and fitness for smallholder dairy cattle in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam, 10-11 June 2014
  2. 2. 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Contibution of Livestock Livestock Population (mln) Cattle 22.8 Goat 15.6 Sheep 7.0 Pigs 2.1 Local chicken 35.5 Commercial chicken 24.5
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION CONT……… 36 % of the recorded 4.9 million agricultural households, keep livestock The sector grew at 3.4% Contributed about 3.8% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (Economic Survey, 2010)
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION CONT……… Per capita consumption of livestock products in 2012 was estimated at: 45 liters of milk 12 kg of meat 75 eggs
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION CONT……… 1.2 Dairy Cattle Dairy industry is an important component of livestock sector Total milk yield estimated at 1.92 bln liters Milk is produced from both pure TSZ and crossbreds between Friesian, Aryshire, Jersey and TSZ Pure TSZ gives an average of 300 -500 liters per lactation and contribute 70% of total milk
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION CONT……… Crossbreds cattle give an average of 2000 liters per lactation and contribute 30% of total milk Estimated crossbred cattle population is 780,000 Annual demand for crossbred dairy cattle outside the dairy herd stands at 50,000 Current supply from all sources estimated at 10,000
  7. 7. 2.0 EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT 2.1 Selection within local breeds Selection work on the indigenous cattle by the British colonialists proved that the potential for milk production was very limited. Characterization of the indigenous cattle was done in1926. The Ankole, Masaai, Chaga, Iringa red, Mbulu, Singida white and Mkalama dun strains/breeds were identified.
  8. 8. Iringa Red Singida White •Later characterizations identified other distinct strains like the Fipa, Gogo, Pare, Singida white Tarime and strains.
  9. 9. EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT CONT… Development of a composite breed the Mpwapwa Through diligent selection and controlled breeding a composite dual purpose cattle breed was developed and declared in 1958. The estimated genetic composition of the breed is 10% European, 62% Indian breeds and the rest East African Zebu. The milk production of this breed ranges from 1500 – 2000 litres per lactation.
  10. 10. Mpwapwa Breed
  11. 11. EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT CONT… 2.3 Direct importation of Bos taurus dairy breeds.  In 1975 and 1993, 1,039 heifers were imported with assistance of World Bank (WB) and Heifer Project International (HPI).  Another batch of 890 heifers donated by Heifer Project International (HPI).  These animals were sourced from USA, New Zealand, Kenya and Zimbabwe.  The aim was to stock large scale farms where they could multiply and thereafter surplus heifers be distributed to smallholder farmers.
  12. 12. EFFORTS IN DAIRY CATTLE IMPROVEMENT CONT… 2.4 Crossbreeding of Zebu cattle with Bos Taurus. Crossbreeding has been the main strategy to improve milk production in cattle. This has been achieved through use of :  Bull Centers.  Use of AI.  Livestock Multiplication Units (LMUs).  Multiplication within smallholder farms
  13. 13. 3.0 OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES 3.1 Opportunities  Large number of indigenous cattle which the foundation stock for upgrading.  Availability of an Artificial Insemination Centre from which bull semen can be produced and zonal centers for distribution in the country.  Trained manpower and availability of AI training centers.  Political willingness and a national livestock policy that encourages commercial livestock production,  Availability of modern methods for livestock improvement  Availability of large internal, regional and international market on livestock products.
  14. 14. OPPORTUNITIES, CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES CONT.……………. 3.2 Challenges Main challenge to the industry is to increase the number of dairy cattle. Which genotype to use in the different environments and how to maintain them. Establishment of a reliable and sustainable germplasm delivery systems? Having consistence in breeding polices that a supported by a legal framework.
  15. 15. CHALLENGES CONT……………………. To encourage private sector involvement in livestock genetics? Management of crossbreeding programs. Few trained professionals in animal breeding
  16. 16. 4.0 BREEDING OBJECTIVES To have at least 3 million dairy cattle in the country by the year 2025. Dairy cattle to yield an average of 2000 liters of milk per standard lactation of 305 days.
  17. 17. 5.0 STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF DAIRY HERD 5.1 Extensive use of artificial insemination  Currently only about 70,000 cows are inseminated which is 1 % of breed able cows.  In order to maintain and improve the current dairy herd, 200,000 breed able females need to be inseminated.  Inseminate around 600,000 indigenous cattle per year  In order to increase the number of dairy herd to 3,000,000 the following strategies have been formulated:
  18. 18. STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF DAIRY HERD Upscaling the production of dairy heifers in public farms. Strengthening of national Artificial Insemination centre Advocate for establishment of stakeholders associations such as Breeders societies, milk collection associations or cooperatives.
  19. 19. STRATEGIES TO INCREASE THE SIZE OF DAIRY HERD CONT…  Multiplication within small holder farms by use of AI  Encourage establishment of large scale production farms that will keep improved cattle and will eventually sell to farmers  Direct importation of dairy breeds
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