African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of  Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic A...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of    Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of          Researchable Issues Targeted to the E...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of          Researchable Issues Targeted to the E...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of          Researchable Issues Targeted to the E...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of       Researchable Issues Targeted to the Ende...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of       Researchable Issues Targeted to the Ende...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of           Researchable Issues Targeted to the ...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of          Researchable Issues Targeted to the E...
African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of        Researchable Issues Targeted to the End...
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION                            25
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Status and Impact of ASF in Cameroon

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Presented by Andre Ngangnou at the African Swine Fever Diagnostics, Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 20-21 July 2011

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Status and Impact of ASF in Cameroon

  1. 1. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security Initiative Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 2011 Dr Andre Ngangnou Animal Pathology DptNational Veterinary Laboratory (LANAVET) GAROUA - CAMEROON 1
  2. 2. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan AfricaLANAVET BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security Initiative Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 2011 OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION • ASF in CAMROON • Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon • Control Measures • Conclusion • Perspectives 2
  3. 3. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20111. Introduction1.1. Overview of National Vet Services Far-North Country divided into Ten Regions North Distribution of National Vet North- Services West Adamaoua10 Regional Delegations58 Divisional Delegations West South-West257 Sub Divisional Delegations Centre Littoral700 Veterinary and zootechnical EastCentres
  4. 4. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security Initiative Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 2011LANAVET1. Introduction (Cont’d)1.2. Pig population and Production system. Estimated to 2 millions.. Low annual Production: 42.000 tons of meat tons per year. Traditional sector: 30% of pig production (local breed, practiced all over the country). Family sector: 50% of pig production (cross breed from local/exotic), practiced in 04 regions (North West, West, Centre and Littoral). Modern sector: 20% of pig production (exotic breeds with Large White, Landrace et Duroc) ; characterized by adequate feeding system, practiced mainly in three regions (West, North West and Littoral). More than 250.000 pig breeders are registered within the country 4
  5. 5. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20112. ASF in Cameroon2.1. 1982-2000. First outbreaks registered in 1982 in Littoral regions. Origin of the introduction unknown, several hypothesis developed, but not confirmed. Controlled measures (Disinfection, stamping out, sanitary empty, financial compensation). Disease not eradicated as endemic in the southern part of the country. A specialized ASF laboratory installed in Yaounde with the support of FA0.Epidemiological survey carried out in 2004: 12% of sero prevalence
  6. 6. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20112. ASF in Cameroon (Cont’d)2.2. 2002-2009. Country divided into three zones: Northern part (free), Buffer zone (Adamawa), Southern part (endemic). Pig movements (trade) from free zone to endemic. Uncontrolled movements from the endemic zone to free (male bought from endemic areas to free areas, aiming at producing cross breed). Development of the National Programme, aiming at improving pig breeding system (2005). Trough out control measures, reduction of the incidence of ASF from 11% in 1988 to 4%, in 2006-2007
  7. 7. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011 )3.1. Keys epidemiological information. Early 2010: Suspicion of ASF based on unusual cases of mortality in the North and Adamawa regions.. Late 2010: Suspicion of ASF based also on unusual mortalities in the Far North Regions.3.2. Field investigations: Teams: Mixed (Laboratory and techniciansfrom the Ministry of Livestock) . 122 pig farms visited . 35 carcasses autopsied (22 in the North and 13 in the Far-North regions) Disinfection 7
  8. 8. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan, Africa, BecA-ILRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon ((2009-2011) Cont’d3.3. Main clinical signs findings Uncoordinated movements, paresis, hyperaemia, anorexia, petechia (skin), ecchymosis of the abdominal skin and legs, death Skin hemorrhage (exotic breed)
  9. 9. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon ((2009-2011) Cont’d3.3. Main clinical findings (Cont’d) Paresis Uncoordinated movements
  10. 10. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan AfricaLANAVET BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security Initiative Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon ((2009-2011) Cont’d3.3. Main clinical findings (Cont’d) Skin hemorrhage (local breed)) Paresis (local breed)
  11. 11. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113.4. Main post mortem findings Massive haemorrhage of the gastro-hepatic and lymphatic lymph nodes, petechial haemorrhage of the kidney and larynx, spleenomegaly. Spleenomegaly Hydrothoraxes
  12. 12. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 2011 3. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011 ) cont’d 3.4. Laboratory analysis .Tissues samples collected . Laboratory analysis - Serology (Blocking ELISA) - Multiplex ASF and CSF PCR techniques Region Samples Quantities Lab Techniques Results . Results below (Adamawa region) Adamawa Entire blood 32 PCR 11 Positive Kidney 04 PCR 03 Positive Spleen 05 PCR 03 Positive Serum 58 ELISA 03 Positive Total Adamawa 99 20
  13. 13. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan AfricaLANAVET BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security Initiative Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011 ) cont’d3.4. Laboratory analysis (Cont’d)Results (North region) Region Samples Quantities Lab Techniques Results North Entire blood 13 PCR 07 Positive Kidney 06 PCR 00 Positive Spleen 04 PCR 02 Positive Serum 26 ELISA 01 Positive Total North 49 11
  14. 14. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011) cont’d3.4. Laboratory analysis (Cont’d)3.4.1. Results (Far North region) Region Samples Quantities Lab Techniques Results Far North Entire blood 36 PCR 13 positive Kidney 15 PCR 07 Positive Spleen 17 PCR 04 Positive Serum 36 ELISA 00 Positive Total North 104 24Comments. Serology:-ASF Blocking ELISA, Ingezim PPA Compac, 11.PPA.K3, Ingenesa, Madrid, Spain-The kit uses polystyrene plates pre-coated with purified protein extract from VP73,major structural protein from ASFV
  15. 15. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa Bech-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011) cont’d3.4. Laboratory analysis (Cont’d)3.4.1.Results (Cont’d)Comments (Cont’d)PCR- Technique as described by Agüero et al. (1) protocol.- Primers as recommended by the OIE- A gel based multiplex RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous and differential detection of ASFV and CSFV in clinical samples as described by Agüero et al. used to screen the same samples- Suspicions confirmed based on Laboratory investigations (Serology and PCR)
  16. 16. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011) cont’d3.4. Laboratory analysis (Cont’d)3.4.1.Results (Cont’d)Comments (Cont’d)- At the same period, confirmation of the role of pig population movements as sources of the dissemination of the disease from the endemic zones (southern part of the country) to the previously free zones (northern regions)- PCR technique sensitive for the early detection- Country as a whole considered as infected
  17. 17. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011) cont’d3.4. Laboratory analysis (Cont’d)3.4.1.Results (Cont’d)Comments (Cont’d)• A total of 22 outbreaks (15 in 2010 and 7 in early 2011) confirmed by laboratory analysis out of about 40 reported in different farms of various infected localities in the three northern regions of Cameroon.• Out of theses 22 outbreaks, 20 confirmed by the detection of ASF viral DNA in tissues and whole blood samples using PCR• 2 out of 22 outbreaks confirmed using blocking ELISA for the detection of ASFV antibodies in sera. 17
  18. 18. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20113. Recent Re-emergency of ASF in Cameroon (2009-2011) cont’d3.4. Laboratory analysis (Cont’d)3.4.1.Results (Cont’d)Comments (Cont’d)- Positive cases were registered using serology (three in Adamawa region and one in the in the North region.- Tissue samples of. A multiplex RT-PCR used to differentiate ASFV from CSFV- The multiplex RT-PCR detected only ASFV nucleic acids- No case of CSF detected 18
  19. 19. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20114. Control Measures4.1. Administrative. Ministerial decision N° 00150 (Ministry of Livestock) of 28 of April 2010 including:- Destruction of the Pig PARC in the Ngaoundere (Adamawa) railways station.- Stamping out of pigs reared in infected areas in Garoua and Ngaoundere down town- Banning pigs movements from the southern to the northern regions of the country- Closing of Pigs markets in Adamawa and North regions- Reinforcement of sanitary barrier created by the decision N° 00163/MINEPIA of 25 July 2006- Involvement of each Regional Delegate in the implementation of all official decisions with regard to the eradication of ASF
  20. 20. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20114. Control Measures (Cont’d)4.1. Administrative. Ministerial decision N°00175 (Ministry of Livestock) of 10 May 2010, extending application of the ministerial decision N° 150 of the 28 April 2010 to the Far North Region. Decision of the 2nd of June, issued by the Diamare Divisional Officer declaring this Division infected and detailing sanitary measure to be put in place, mainly:- Banning free range pig rearing, pig trade markets, slaughtering, pig movement within and outside the Division ;- Implementation of the stamping out strategy in infected farms.- Liftage of implemented measures if negative results obtained in sero surveillance activities in infected areas three months after the last case, assuming that disinfection carried out in infected farms
  21. 21. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20114. Control Measures (Cont’d)4.2. Sanitary : stamping Out
  22. 22. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI, CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20115. Conclusion. ASF introduced in Cameroon in 1982. Although eradication measures put in place, southern regions of the country endemic with regard to ASF up to 2010. In 2010, ASF outbreaks confirmed in the northern regions. In these regions, 14 subdivisions out of 75 were infected. Cause of the introduction of ASF in the Northern regions: Commercial activities. Mortality:15.373 animals. Control measures included: Administrative and sanitary
  23. 23. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan AfricaLANAVET BecA-IlRI, CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security Initiative Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 20115. Conclusion (Cond’t). Sanitary (Stamping out): 12.262 animals. Other measures implemented (banning of animals movements, pigs markets, etc.).. In 2011: only 02 (two) outbreaks registered (Far North region). Although control measures put in place, ASF not eradicated. ASF: Mayor constraint in the development of pigs breeding in Cameroon. Estimated financial lost to National Economy: More that 40.000.000 USD per year. Main cause of inefficiency of control measures: lack of financial compensation after stamping out
  24. 24. African Swine Fever Diagnostic, Epidemiology and Control: Identification of Researchable Issues Targeted to the Endemic Areas with sub-Saharan Africa BecA-IlRI and CSIRO-AusAID-Africa Australia Food Security InitiativeLANAVET Workshop, Nairobi, 19-22 July 2011 6. Perspectives - Role of Ornitodorus moubata in the epidemiology of ASF (vector): yet to be determined - Role of Wild live as reservoir in the ASF spread in Cameroon: not excluded, but to be confirmed - Importance of tracing the source of infection using Molecular epidemiological investigation - Importance to constitute a bank of different strains of ASFV circulating in the country and its neighbouring countries - Importance of regional approach in the control of ASF
  25. 25. THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 25
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