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African swine fever (ASF) in Africa: Main activities 2004-2011
 

African swine fever (ASF) in Africa: Main activities 2004-2011

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Presented by Marisa Arias at the African Swine Fever Diagnostics, Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 20-21 July 2011

Presented by Marisa Arias at the African Swine Fever Diagnostics, Surveillance, Epidemiology and Control Workshop, Nairobi, Kenya, 20-21 July 2011

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    African swine fever (ASF) in Africa: Main activities 2004-2011 African swine fever (ASF) in Africa: Main activities 2004-2011 Presentation Transcript

    • CENTRO DE INVESTIGACION EN SANIDAD ANIMAL (CISA-INIA)European Union Reference Laboratory for ASF (URL-ASF) African swine fever (ASF) in Africa. Main activities 2004-2011 Marisa Arias Workshop on ASF, Nairobi, July, 2011
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project 2004-2010 ASF Collaborative Project “Development of new diagnostic assays and epidemiological surveillance of viral pathogens of livestock in Sub-Saharan Africa” between theInternational Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and Centro de Investigacion En Sanidad Animal (CISA- INIA)
    • CISA (INIA)- ASFRISK PROJECT 2008-2011
    • MAIN GOAL → Improvement of knowledge of the epidemiological situation of ASF in Africa Description of the epidemiological INIA-ILRI FAO situation in African countries based on ASFRISKepidemiological findings FAO INIA-ILRIand samples collected in different African countries.
    • OBJECTIVESTo evaluate the epidemiological situation of ASF in Africa,FROM THE MOLECULAR AND BIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW, tocharacterize currently circulating field viruses ofepidemiological interest.To develop, validate and apply improved, robust and/orsimple ANTIBODY AND NUCLEIC ACID DETECTION METHODSFOR ASFV for the rapid detection and differential diagnosisof suspected cases of ASF.Technology Transfer to regional African Labs
    • WORK SCHEDULE Sampling strategy → SAMPLING COLLECTION in collaboration with the Veterinary Services, Wildlife Services, OIE and FAO ASF diagnosis at CISA-INIA using OIE- prescribed diagnostic tools. ASFV genetic characterization ASFV biological characterization
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project EAST AFRICA
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project WORK SCHEDULE Sampling strategy → SAMPLING COLLECTION in collaboration with the Veterinary Services and Wildlife Services. ASF diagnosis at CISA-INIA using OIE- prescribed diagnostic tools. ASFV genetic characterization ASFV biological characterization
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project Phase I (2004-2007)→ ASF in East Africa (background) Presence of the disease in Uganda. The outbreak occurred in 2003 Uganda had spread from the Central region to the of ASF in Kenya The last outbreak Eastern region of the country which shares a border Kenya was reported in central with Kenya (Busia(Kiambu, Nairobi and Thika) in district). August 2001. Presence of the disease in Tanzania. Sporadic outbreaks of the disease had been reported in Northwest Tanzania since 2001. ASF situation in 2004
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in KENYA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Surveillance program; Sampling collection from free-ranging pigs in Western and Central Kenya (no apparent clinical signs related to ASF).
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in KENYA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Surveillance program; Sampling collection from free-ranging pigs (no apparent clinical signs related to ASF) and bush pigs in Western Kenya districts and in neighbouring Ruma National Park Prevalence of ASFV in bush pigs and their role in the transmission of the disease.
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project Western Kenya districts and in neighbouring Ruma National Park Study conducted since 2006 in 6 administrative divisions of Homabay district in Western Kenya to identify critical issues related to pig production as well as risk factors for African swine fever. Thespecific study area was selected because it represents a predominantly free-rangesmallholder pig production system and lies in close proximity to a national park, factors that increase the risk of ASF.
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in KENYA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Surveillance program; Sampling collection from warthogs and ticks in Kapiti plain state (Central Kenya) in collaboration with the KENYAN WILD LIFE SERVICEPrevalence of ASFV in warthogs (Phacochoerusafricanus ) and ticks and the role in the transmission of the disease → SYLVATIC CYCLE
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in KENYA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Surveillance program; Retrospective sampling collection from warthogs in Northern Kenya from 2006-2008 in collaboration with the KENYAN WILD LIFE SERVICE Prevalence of ASFV in warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus ) in Northern Kenya
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in KENYA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Kenyan Dept. Vet. Service, (Joseph Macharia) Sampling collection from ASF outbreaks occurred in Kenya 2006- 2007 (OIE report 04/05/2007) and in 2010-2011 (OIE report 04/03/2011 ) 2006-2007 2010-2011
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in UGANDA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) → Sampling collection from ASF outbreaks occurred in Uganda in 2007 Uganda, Ministry of Agriculture (Rose Ademun) → Sampling collection from National Parks in Western Uganda to determine the prevalence of ASFV virus in warthogs and their role in the transmission of the disease. In Collaboration with Conservation Tthrough Public Health (CTPH)(Gladis)
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in TANZANIA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Surveillance program; Sampling collection from free-ranging pigs in North and Eastern Tanzania were last ASF outbreaks were reported (no apparent clinical signs related to ASF). 2005
    • CISA (INIA)-ILRI Collaborative project ASF in TANZANIA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Collaboration with Tanzania Wild Life Service –TAWIRI- → Sampling collection in the Serengeti National Park to determine the prevalence of ASFV virus in warthogs and their role in the transmission of the disease.
    • CISA (INIA)-ASFRISK WEST AFRICA Sampling and characterisation of currently circulating West Africa field strains Improve understanding of virus spread and maintenance in West African countries
    • CISA (INIA)-ASFRISK ASF in WEST AFRICA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) 2,446 samples from…. ASF free country → Côte dIvoire 2009 468 serum samples (surveillance program)
    • CISA (INIA)-ASFRISK ASF in WEST AFRICA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) Study area and sampling collection 2,446 samples from…. ASFASF endemic country Burkina Faso ASF endemic country → Ghana endemic country → → Benin ASF endemic country →Togo 20092009 2007-2009 2002-2008 261 samples (serum, tissue, whole blood) 31 samples (serum and tissues) collected from 15 provinces out of 45 during 57collected from domesticand tissues) collected 31samplescollected fromduring ASF tissues (serum pigs domestic ASF outbreks from domestic pigs during ASF outbreaks ASF outbreaks pigs during outbreak
    • CISA (INIA)-ASFRISK ASF in WEST AFRICA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) 2,446 samples from…. ASF endemic country → Nigeria 2006-2008 1,598 samples (serum and tissues) collected ASF outbreaks and from domestic pigs during endemic regions
    • CISA (INIA)-ASFRISK ASF in WEST AFRICA (SAMPLING STRATEGY) ASF endemic country → Republic of the Congo
    • WORK SCHEDULESampling strategy → SAMPLING COLLECTION in collaborationwith the Veterinary Services, Wildlife Services, OIE and FAOASF diagnosis at CISA-INIA using OIE-prescribeddiagnostic tools.ASFV genetic characterization to determine; Source of outbreaks Role of sylvatic cycle in the transmission of ASFASFV biological characterization
    • WORK SCHEDULE1. ASF infection status on samples collected. 1. Ab detection (ELISA+IB) 2. Virus detection (PCR + virus isolation)2. ASF molecular characterization on selected positive samples using ASF genotyping standarized procedures 1. P72 genotyping (C-terminal end) 2. P54 genotyping (full gene) 3. CVR subtyping
    • MAIN FINDINGS → EAST AFRICASylvatic cycle → endemically stable Existence anepidemiological situation involving domestic, wild pigs(bushpigs and warthogs) and ticks. Presence of ASF virus in absence of antibody response in healthy domestic pigs in Central and Western Kenya. Presence of ASF virus in absence of antibody response in bushpigs in Western Kenya. Presence of ASF virus and specific antibody response in warthogs and ASFV in ticks in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania.
    • MAIN FINDINGS → EAST AFRICA ASF Coexistence directly from warthogs at same in Kenya of ASFVviruses genotyped in Kenya from ticks and domestic isolates obtained pigs collected in clustered within p72 genotypeASFand were physical locality surveillance program without IX reported outbreaks clustered in P72 genotype X → SYLVATICin for distinct ASFV genotypes CYCLE therefore genetically similar to viruses responsible recentwarthog- burrow associated disease outbreaks in East Africa (Kenya and Uganda). ticks and in adult wild warthogs and the apparent transfer of both genotypes to domestic pigs.
    • MAIN FINDINGS → EAST AFRICA Presence of a domestic pig-associated genotype IX causing ASF outbreaks in the border region between Kenya and Uganda occurred in 2006 and 2007, 2010 and 2011. •The rapid spread of the virus among pigs and the acute forms of the disease suggest that the disease may have been maintained in the border regions either in contaminated pork products, or live pigs that became carrier-pigs, surviving the first outbreak. •The evidence of trans-boundary transmission between these countries indicates that a regional approach to disease control would be more efficient.
    • MAIN FINDINGS → WEST AFRICA The results obtained from the ASF diagnosis on samples collected from domestic pigs in target West African countries confirms the evidence of a high incidence of the disease in Ghana, Benin, Burkina Faso, Togo, Nigeria and Republic of Congo.
    • MAIN FINDINGS → WEST AFRICA Domestic pig-cycle associated genotype I. Cross-virus circulation between neighbouring countries Togo, Ghana, Benin and Nigeria in Maritime areas, as well as in bordering areas among Ghana and Burkina Faso.
    • MAIN FINDINGS → WEST AFRICA P54 genotype Ic P72 genotype I West Congo districts → related historical West Africa viruses
    • MAIN FINDINGS → WEST AFRICA P54 genotype IX P72 genotype IXMovement of a virus genotype previously associated with virulent ASF in easternAfrica to western Africa, where the viruses have hitherto always been classified in p72genotype I. there would be the possibility of future outbreaks of disease caused by novelviruses in western Africa.districts → related continuingEast Africa viruses East Congo This study confirms the recent spread of ASFV.
    • KENYA outbreaks 2006-2007 KENYA sylvatic cycle
    • UGANDA outbreaks 2007Surveillance in Nigeria
    • Congo outbreaks 2009 African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX inTITLE:Domestic Pigs,Congo, 2009Carmina Gallardo, Raquel Anchuelo,Virginia Pelayo, Frédéric Poudevigne, Tati Leon,Jacques Nzoussi, Richard Bishop,Covadonga Pérez, Alejandro Soler, Raquel Nieto,Hilario Martín, and Marisa AriasEmerging Infectious Diseases • www.cdc.gov/eid • Vol. 17, No. 8, August 2011DOI: 10.3201/eid1708.101877
    • WORK SCHEDULE Sampling strategy → SAMPLING COLLECTION in collaboration with the Veterinary Services, Wildlife Services, OIE and FAO ASF diagnostic at CISA-INIA using OIE- prescribed diagnostic tools. ASFV genetic characterization ASFV biological characterization.
    • Clinical, biological andimmunological characteristicsof ASF recently investigated using European pig breeds by inoculation with three ASFV Kenyan isolates belonging to the most variable defined genotypes IX and X.
    • MAIN FINDINGSAcute to subacute forms of the disease showing typicalclinical signs and lesions associated to ASFV moderate strains.Viremia detectable by OIE- prescribed virological diagnostictechniques at early times post infection and was maintainedduring the whole infection.Antibody response detectable by OIE- prescribedserological diagnostic techniques developed in thesecond week of infection.
    • Complex epidemiological situation in eastern regions of AfricaASFRISK: Why Non evident ASF clinical signs in ASF outbreaks, co-existing with a high viral load and a significant lack of antibody responseIncrease of the risk of the endemicity of ASF and virus spreading → Increased difficulty for the control of the disease.
    • Existence Different Transmission cyclesASFV genetic and antigenic variability Are the current ASF diagnostic tools adapted to all epidemiological situations?
    • The current ASF serological diagnostic tools ARE ADAPTED TO ALL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATIONSThe results obtained using new Ags based on current and variable circulatingASFV strains were 100%according to those obtained using OIE prescribedantibody detection techniques.
    • Immunogenetics and genetic characteristics of the East Africa indigenous pig populations?
    • OBJECTIVE Comparative in vivo study of the clinical, pathological and immune response against the ASFV infection in Kenyan “indigenous pigs” and European domestic pigs using Kenya ASFV strain.
    • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNSelected DOMESTIC PIG BREEDS 29 Indigenous domestic swine 10 Exotic domestic swine (local breed) from Homa Bay (Landrace) from Kitengela district (6-month old) (6-month old)
    • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNSelected DOMESTIC PIG LOCAL BREEDS Homa Bay Homa Bay district (Western Kenya) represents a predominantly free- range smallholder pig production systemSelected ASFV isolate → Ken05/K2
    • PRELIMINARY CONCLUSIONS Different behaviour in ASFV infection, in ASF clinical signs. Delay of onset of ASF in “indigenous pigs” No external clinical signs related to ASF → the disease could be easily unrecognized in field conditions. Several animals even died without fever. High variety of pathological findings. Further investigation is required . The laboratory was essential to confirm the presence of ASF Slight delay in the seroconversion in indigenous pigs. March-May 2011. STUDIES ON GOING
    • COMPARATIVE RESULTSComparative Tª (average)
    • TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER •Delivery of ASF reference reagents and Standard operating procedures (SOP). •Training courses on African Swine Fever (ASF) diagnostic techniques in Africa → Transfer the ASF OIE- prescribed diagnostic tools to participants from Department of Veterinary Services (DVS) and National systems staff (regional labs) from Eastern and Southern African countries and Nigeria.
    • European Union Reference Laboratory 2007-2011 TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY ON ASF diagnostic techniques Mean: 10 days Training Course, on Diagnostic techniques -Venue: Nigeria, Rwanda, Kenya -(funds: INIA-ILRI) -Venue: Uganda : 25 attendances from Vet Services of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. (funds: ASFRISK RTD,EC, INIA-ILRI) -Venue: Tanzania, Tanzania, Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda .30 attendances. (funds: ASFRISK RTD,EC INIA-ILRI)
    • Collaboration in TRAINING CoursesON ASF diagnostic techniques 5 days Training Course, -Venue: OVI, Onderstepoort, South Africa. May 2011. DIAGNOSIS - More than 20 delegates coming from south and south East African countries : Malawi, Botswana, Angola, Zambia, Tanzania, Mauritius, Seychelles, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zimbawe, DR Congo, SouthAfrica.
    • MAIN CONCLUSIONS• Complex epidemiological situation in eastern regions of Africa with the presence of endemically stable situation involving domestic, wild pigs and ticks which difficult the control of the disease.• Multiple genotypes in countries with the sylvatic cycle.• Widespread of ASFV genotypes from eastern to western Africa → evidence of trans-boundary transmission between neighboring countries related to movement of domestic pigs and pork products.
    • MAIN CONCLUSIONS• Improvement of knowledge of epidemiology of ASF.  Map distribution of pig density as well as natural hosts/vectors.  Prevalence of the disease trough and appropriate sampling strategy and the application of prescribed ASF diagnostic tools.  Molecular studies of virus from outbreaks and natural hosts.  Examine mechanisms of natural resistance in domestic pigs.
    • MAIN CONCLUSIONS Transfer technology at regional laboratory level FOLLOW UP
    • FUTURE ACTIVITIESKey Areas of Research with implications forcontrol will mainly include:Further investigation of the importance of thewarthog/tick sylvatic cycle in causing disease outbreaksthrough genotyping of viruses from these species frommultiple sites within the region. Kenya and Uganda.Focus on in-depth surveillance and outbreakmonitoring of ASFV in TanzaniaLink virulence phenotype of viruses determinedthrough experimental infection of indigenous and exoticdomestic pigs in Spain and Kenya with completegenome sequences of three Kenyan isolates.
    • AKNOWLEDGMENTS Tanzania Congo Rep Cote d`Ivoire
    • AKNOWLEDGMENTSEU Reference Laboratory CISA-INIA INTERNATIONAL LIVESTOCK RESEARCH INSTITUTE Special thanks to the coordinator at ILRI: Dr. Richard Bishop
    • Our Thanks/Ahsante SanaTO OUR HOSTCOUNTRY: AND SCIRO sponsor of this Event
    • MY SPECIAL THANKSDr. Carmina Gallardo Frontaura