Aflatoxin M1 survey in dairy households in Kenya

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Poster by Anima Sirma, Daniel Senerwa, Johanna Lindahl, Kohei Makita, Erastus Kang'ethe and Delia Grace presented at the FoodAfrica midterm seminar, Helsinki, Finland, 16 June 2014.

Poster by Anima Sirma, Daniel Senerwa, Johanna Lindahl, Kohei Makita, Erastus Kang'ethe and Delia Grace presented at the FoodAfrica midterm seminar, Helsinki, Finland, 16 June 2014.

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  • 1. www.mtt.fi/foodafrica Aflatoxin M1 survey in dairy households in Kenya Introduction Kenya has the largest dairy herd and highest per capita milk consumption in East Africa. Kenya has also experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, and several surveys have reported high levels of contamination in maize. When lactating cows consume feed contaminated with aflatoxins, they secrete aflatoxin M1in milk. This metabolite is harmful to humans. There is no current information on the risk to human health posed by aflatoxins in milk in Kenya. To fill this gap, a risk assessment is being conducted in four agro-ecological zones (AEZ; semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid) in Kenya. 16 June 2014, Helsinki, Finland. FoodAfrica midterm seminar Anima Sirma; Daniel Senerwa; Johanna Lindahl; Kohei Makita; Erastus Kang’ethe; Delia Grace Hazard identification Household survey conducted and samples collected (food and feed) to gather information on quantities of aflatoxin susceptible foods consumed and their aflatoxin levels Results We surveyed 286 households in 37 villages using questionnaires. In total, 280 milk samples were analyzed using competitive ELISA. The levels of aflatoxins ranged from 0 to 359 parts per trillion (ppt). Contamination levels in different AEZ Overall, 58.9% of all samples had levels below limit of detection while 9.3% exceeded the WHO/FAO limit of 50 ppt. Hazard characterization Exposure assessment Risk characterization % of samples with different levels of aflatoxin M1 Agro-ecological zones Counties n <2 ppt ≤2 - <50 ppt ≥50 ppt Humid Tharaka Nithi 64 34 41 25 Sub-humid Kwale 29 76 17 7 Temperate Bungoma 64 53 41 6 Kisii 63 65 30 5 Semi-arid Isiolo 60 77 22 2 Conclusion Risk assessment is necessary to determine what risk aflatoxin contamination in milk poses to human health. Acknowledgement: We thank the Finnish Ministry of Foreign Affairs for funding this project. Methodology of risk assessment Dairy cattle Milk Aflatoxins disease pathways in humans ( hypothesized pathways based on association and animal studies)