Mixed crop-livestock systems: Indispensable means to
achieving global food and nutritional security
Jimmy Smith  Director...
Key messages
1 Unprecedented demand for food, esp. animal-source
food, will continue to soar in developing countries
2 The...
Unprecedented demand for food,
especially animal-source food,
will continue to soar in developing countries
Key message 1
...
Gains in meat consumption in developing
countries are outpacing those of developed
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
1980 1990 2002...
Huge increases over 2005/7 amounts
of cereals, dairy and meat will be needed by 2050
From 2bn−3bn
tonnes cereals each year...
4 of 5 highest value global commodities are livestock
FAOSTAT 2014
(values for 2012)
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600...
FAO 2012
Based on anticipated changes in absolute tonnes of product from 2000 to 2030
Percentage growth in demand
for live...
Change in global and regional demand for food:
Livestock and other commodities
-30
-10
10
30
50
70
90
110
130
150
develope...
The ubiquitous mixed crop-and-livestock
production systems of developing countries
play huge (often unnoticed)
roles in gl...
Most food of the world is produced
on small mixed crop-and-livestock farms
Developing-country
mixed crop-livestock
systems...
Various sources:
BMGF, FAO and ILRI
Smallholders still dominate production
in many countries
Region
(definition of
‘smallh...
Small-scale mixed crop-livestock
farmers are (surprisingly) competitive
East African dairy
• 1 million Kenyan smallholders...
These mixed farming systems
produce much of our meat and milk
• Mixed systems are an important source
of ruminant meat in ...
Sources and sales of animal products
• 90% of animal products are
produced and consumed
in the same country or region
• Mo...
Soil fertility: 23% of nitrogen for crop production
in crop-livestock systems comes from manure
Animal traction remains essential for
crop production, especially in sub-Saharan Africa
7 million oxen are the main source...
Key message 3
On-going transformations
of the world’s ‘mixed’
crop-livestock
farming systems
present enormous
(largely unt...
Criteria for a transformed livestock sector
• The environment
– Increased production through productivity
gains
– Producti...
Strong growth in developing-country
crop-livestock systems presents opportunities
• Of the world’s almost 1 billion smallh...
Equitable, inclusive growth:
opportunities for women
Targeting opportunities for
women means taking account
of:
• Male-hea...
Trajectories of growth for the livestock sector
Strong growth
Intensifying, increasingly
market oriented, often
transforma...
Trajectory
‘Strong growth’
Sector
Ruminant meat and
milk, esp. in SSA, India
− Pork in some regions
Issues
− Sustainable
p...
Food, equity,
environment, health
Policies
Animal health
★Vaccines
★Diagnostics
★Delivery systems
Markets & institutions
★...
Key messages
1 Unprecedented demand for food, esp. animal-source
food, will continue to soar in developing countries
2 The...
Thank youThank youThank you
The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given ...
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Mixed crop-livestock systems: Indispensable means to achieving global food and nutritional security

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Presented by Jimmy Smith at the ADSA (American Dairy Science Association)-ASAS (American Society of Animal Science)-CSAS (Canadian Society of Animal Science) Joint Annual Meeting on Linking Animal Science and Animal Agriculture: Meeting the global demands of 2050, Kansas City, Missouri, 20–24 July 2014

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Mixed crop-livestock systems: Indispensable means to achieving global food and nutritional security

  1. 1. Mixed crop-livestock systems: Indispensable means to achieving global food and nutritional security Jimmy Smith  Director General  ILRI Linking animal science and animal agriculture: Meeting the global demands of 2050 ADSA-ASAS-CSAS Joint Annual Meeting Kansas City, Missouri, 20–24 July 2014
  2. 2. Key messages 1 Unprecedented demand for food, esp. animal-source food, will continue to soar in developing countries 2 The ubiquitous mixed crop-and-livestock production systems of developing countries play huge (often unnoticed) roles in global food supplies 3 On-going transformations of the world’s ‘mixed’ crop-livestock farming systems present enormous (largely untapped) opportunities to increase global food security, to promote equitable economic growth and to protect our environment and human health
  3. 3. Unprecedented demand for food, especially animal-source food, will continue to soar in developing countries Key message 1 Unprecedented demand for food, especially animal-source food, will continue to soar in developing countries
  4. 4. Gains in meat consumption in developing countries are outpacing those of developed 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 1980 1990 2002 2015 2030 Millionmetrictonnes developing developed FAO 2006
  5. 5. Huge increases over 2005/7 amounts of cereals, dairy and meat will be needed by 2050 From 2bn−3bn tonnes cereals each year From 664m−1bn tonnes dairy each year From 258m−460m tonnes meat each year
  6. 6. 4 of 5 highest value global commodities are livestock FAOSTAT 2014 (values for 2012) 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Production(MT)millions Netproductionvalue(Int$)billion net production value (Int $) billion production (MT) Cow milk has overtaken rice Eggs have displaced maize
  7. 7. FAO 2012 Based on anticipated changes in absolute tonnes of product from 2000 to 2030 Percentage growth in demand for livestock products: 2000−2030
  8. 8. Change in global and regional demand for food: Livestock and other commodities -30 -10 10 30 50 70 90 110 130 150 developed developing SSA SA %change2005/07to2050 cereals root/tuber meat dairy 309% Modified from Alexandratos and Bruinsma 2012 Note that in South Asia, demand for meat is predicted to rise by 309%.
  9. 9. The ubiquitous mixed crop-and-livestock production systems of developing countries play huge (often unnoticed) roles in global food supplies Key message 2
  10. 10. Most food of the world is produced on small mixed crop-and-livestock farms Developing-country mixed crop-livestock systems, most of them smallholders, supply a large proportion of cereal and livestock products Herrero et al. 2009
  11. 11. Various sources: BMGF, FAO and ILRI Smallholders still dominate production in many countries Region (definition of ‘smallholder’) % production by smallholder livestock farms Beef Chicken (meat) Small ruminant (meat) Milk Pork Eggs East Africa (≤ 6 milking animals) 60-90 Bangladesh (< 3ha land) 65 77 78 65 77 India (< 2ha land) 75 92 92 69 71 Vietnam (small scale) 80 Philippines (backyard) 50 35
  12. 12. Small-scale mixed crop-livestock farmers are (surprisingly) competitive East African dairy • 1 million Kenyan smallholders keep Africa’s largest dairy herd • Ugandans are the world’s lowest-cost milk producers • Small- and large-scale Kenyan dairy producers have same levels of efficiency and profits Vietnam pig industry • 95% of production is by producers with less than 100 animals • Pig producers with 1−2 sows have lower unit costs than those with more than 4 sows • Industrial pig production could grow to meet no more than 12% of national supply in the next 10 years • Smallholders will continue to provide most of the pork IFCN, Omiti et al. 2004, ILRI 2012
  13. 13. These mixed farming systems produce much of our meat and milk • Mixed systems are an important source of ruminant meat in 2000 and 2050 – Europe: 42% mixed temperate – Latin America: 48% mixed humid – Africa/Middle East: 38% mixed arid • Mixed systems are an equally important source of milk – Over 50% of milk comes from crop- livestock farms, regardless of region – The big increases in milk production to 2050 will continue to be in mixed systems, esp. in Africa/Middle East
  14. 14. Sources and sales of animal products • 90% of animal products are produced and consumed in the same country or region • Most are produced by smallholders • Over 70% of livestock products are sold ‘informally’ • 500 million smallholders produce 80% of the developing World’s food. 43% of the workforce are women
  15. 15. Soil fertility: 23% of nitrogen for crop production in crop-livestock systems comes from manure
  16. 16. Animal traction remains essential for crop production, especially in sub-Saharan Africa 7 million oxen are the main source of power for tilling soil in the Ethiopian highlands
  17. 17. Key message 3 On-going transformations of the world’s ‘mixed’ crop-livestock farming systems present enormous (largely untapped) opportunities to: • increase food security • promote equitable economic growth and • protect our environment and human health
  18. 18. Criteria for a transformed livestock sector • The environment – Increased production through productivity gains – Production is more efficient • The climate – Adverse impacts on climate are mitigated – Production adapts to changing climates • Public health – Consumption patterns are balanced – Milk, meat, eggs are safe to consume – Zoonotic diseases are controlled • Equitable, inclusive growth – Women benefit – Smallholders benefit
  19. 19. Strong growth in developing-country crop-livestock systems presents opportunities • Of the world’s almost 1 billion smallholder livestock producers, it’s expected that: ﹣One-third will find alternate livelihoods ﹣One-third may or may not remain part of the transformation of the livestock sector ﹣One-third will succeed at market-oriented livestock livelihoods • The transitions, including consolidation, in smallholder crop- livestock systems that will take place in coming decades present opportunities to increase food production and simultaneously promote positive environment, equity and health benefits
  20. 20. Equitable, inclusive growth: opportunities for women Targeting opportunities for women means taking account of: • Male-headed households have larger livestock holdings than women-headed households • Women are more likely to own small stock (poultry, sheep, goats) • Women use livestock differently – more likely than men to use livestock assets to respond to crises • Important role for women in milking and milk processing
  21. 21. Trajectories of growth for the livestock sector Strong growth Intensifying, increasingly market oriented, often transformational Fragile growth Remoteness, marginal lands, harsh climates restrict intensification High growth with externalities Intensified livestock systems with challenges
  22. 22. Trajectory ‘Strong growth’ Sector Ruminant meat and milk, esp. in SSA, India − Pork in some regions Issues − Sustainable productivity - Market access and food safety − Zoonotic outbreaks Opportunities Novel approaches spanning sustainable productivity, markets, institutional and policy issues, risk analyses ‘Fragile growth’ Some smallholder and pastoral systems; little part in the production response − Multiple endemic diseases − Zoonoses − Adaptive capacity − Movement controls Mostly public sector interventions, mitigating vulnerability, improving resilience ‘High growth with externalities’ Mostly monogastric − China for all commodities − Environmental - Drug resistance − Climate impacts on new vector and pathogen dynamics − Disease scares Modalities of operation with private sector largely established. Managing environment and health risks and consumer demand Distinguishing opportunities
  23. 23. Food, equity, environment, health Policies Animal health ★Vaccines ★Diagnostics ★Delivery systems Markets & institutions ★New business arrangements ★Good access to markets Health & nutrition ★Risk- not rule-based regulations ★Controlled zoonoses ★Balanced diets Environment ★High feed efficiency ★Wide use of crop residues Feed ★Viable feed markets ★Improved feeds/feed strategies ★Judicious biomass use Genetics ★Improved local breeds ★Breeds well-matched to environments
  24. 24. Key messages 1 Unprecedented demand for food, esp. animal-source food, will continue to soar in developing countries 2 The ubiquitous mixed crop-and-livestock production systems of developing countries play huge (often unnoticed) roles in global food supplies 3 On-going transformations of the world’s ‘mixed’ crop-livestock farming systems present enormous (largely untapped) opportunities to increase global food security, to promote equitable economic growth and to protect our environment and human health
  25. 25. Thank youThank youThank you
  26. 26. The presentation has a Creative Commons licence. You are free to re-use or distribute this work, provided credit is given to ILRI. better lives through livestock ilri.org
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