Application of the principles of Sustainable Intensification (SI) on smallholder dairy farming in Eastern and Southern Africa
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Application of the principles of Sustainable Intensification (SI) on smallholder dairy farming in Eastern and Southern Africa

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Presented by G.J. Manyawu, P. Thorne, S. Moyo, A. Omore, B. Lukuyu, H. Katjiuongua, I. Wright and I. Chakoma at the 9th African Dairy Conference and Exhibition Harare, Zimbabwe, 24-26 September ...

Presented by G.J. Manyawu, P. Thorne, S. Moyo, A. Omore, B. Lukuyu, H. Katjiuongua, I. Wright and I. Chakoma at the 9th African Dairy Conference and Exhibition Harare, Zimbabwe, 24-26 September 2013


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Application of the principles of Sustainable Intensification (SI) on smallholder dairy farming in Eastern and Southern Africa Application of the principles of Sustainable Intensification (SI) on smallholder dairy farming in Eastern and Southern Africa Presentation Transcript

  • Application of the principles of Sustainable Intensification (SI) on smallholder dairy farming in Eastern and Southern Africa G.J. Manyawu, P. Thorne, S. Moyo, A. Omore, B. Lukuyu, H. Katjiuongua, I. Wright, and I. Chakoma Better lives through livestock 9th African Dairy Conference and Exhibition Harare, Zimbabwe, 24-26 September 2013
  • Outline 1. Background: Milk production trends - Global and Africa 2. Introduction to Sustainable Intensification 3. Challenges and issues concerning SI in Zimbabwe‟s SHD sector 4. Lessons from East Africa on SI in Dairy 5. Research for Development SI initiatives by ILRI and partners in Zimbabwe 6. Acknowledgement 2
  • African milk markets Western Eastern Central Northern Southern ECOWAS IGAD ECCAS UMA (& Egypt) SADC Milk 2005/07 = 32.4 mio tons • Eastern Africa and Northern Africa are the largest markets • Over 60 % of the increased demand from milk in 2005/07- 2050 from Eastern and Northern Africa • Annual growth rate ≈ 2%-3% in all regions Milk 2050 = 82.6 mio tons 3
  • Demand for animal source foods: African picture • Demand for animal-sourced foods: estimated to be „‟extraordinarily high‟‟ Source: BMGF funded (WB, FAO, AU-IBAR & ILRI) Livestock Data Innovation in Africa Project (2013) Background: Global livestock product markets and Africa 4 32.4 1.6 0.8 2.2 2.9 4.7 Milk Eggs Pig meat Mutton Poultry Beef Est. Consumption (2005/7), mil. tons Estimated Consumption (2050) Annual growth rate Milk 82.6 2.2% Eggs 6.1 3.1% Pig meat 3.5 3.3% Mutton 6 2.3% Poultry 11.8 3.3% Beef 13.6 2.5% Milk Eastern (43%); Northern (20%) Beef Western (27%); South. & East. (22%) Pig meat Southern(37%); Western (27%) Poultry South. (29%); North. (24%); W. (21%) Est. regional growth shares
  • - SI intensification = Increasing production per unit area whilst maintaining natural resource base. - By 2050 need 60-70 - A large part of the 60-70 % increase in food production by 2050 will have to come from agric. INTENSIFICATION - implying efficient use of resources - There is increasing demand for livestock products and stringent quality and SPS standards - ILRI and partners aims to reduce –ve impacts of livestock on environment (& human health) to ensure SUSTAINABILITY Drivers for Sustainable Intensification 5
  • Sustainable Intensification Sustainability •Ecologically and technically sound •Socially and Culturally acceptable •Economically viable •Adaptable ( climate change ) Intensification •Increased yield or outputs per unit area/input (Via breeding, forage agronomy etc.) •Diversification – (widen choice of feeds/forage ) •Integration of crops & Livestock •Improved resilience to market shocks and climate risks Improved food security and livelihoodsFurther reading: Garnett, et al.,(2013) 6
  • Statistics showing the decline in national dairy production for Zimbabwe Parameter Production Year % change 2000 2012 Total milk intake (million litres) 264.0 64.4 -76 Registered producers 314 165 -47 Total dairy herd 115 790 22 738 -80 Ave lactation yield (litres) 4 542 2 500 -45 No. of operational SH dairy projects 28* 18 -36 Contribution by SHF to National milk intake (%) 5 2 -60 7 *2005 statistics Source DDP, Dairy services
  • Role, quality and effectiveness of available market chains 72 % of demand met by imports Poor market prices ($0.35 / litre vs $0.63 for niche) Poor milk qlty, import pressure, low economies of scale SHD most viable with ave herd of 6 – 7 milking cows (SNV, 2013). Need more Govt –Pvt investment Challenges and issues of SI initiatives on smallholder dairying in Zimbabwe 8
  • Effectiveness of input delivery systems – including labour 75% of SHF in remote sites obtain inputs from local agro-dealers (SNV, 2013) Poor accessibility of affordable inputs (AN = $33 vs $38 per 50kg) Most SHF use inorg. fertilizers on fodder crops Prices of inputs relatively high in Zim Challenges and issues of SI initiatives on smallholder dairying in Zimbabwe cont‟d 9
  • Challenges and issues of SI initiatives on smallholder dairying in Zimbabwe  Closing the yield gap for crops and livestock Poor herd husbandry (animal health & condition) Poor breeds /breeding Low farm productivity – need to integrate crop & livestock  Low levels of production and competition for biomass:  Enhancing qlty and qnty of forage is key to intensif „n.  Cereal-legume intercrops / rotations (for hay & silage)  Lack of pasture seed  Insufficient feed for livestock – poor fodder planning
  • East African experiences on the application of SI in dairy feeding systems 11 EXAMPLE: Emerging demand for fodder in East African dairies Fodder marketing is likely to increase in the future because: – Pressure of land for food and feed production – Increased population of cattle due to improved production practices – Farmers are taking up dairy farming as a business – Improved market oriented extension education on dairy production and business development services. – Adoption of fodder conservation technologies
  • COSTS AND RETURNS FOR PRODUCTION AND TRADING OF MOST COMMON FEED ENTERPRISES Item Boma Rhodes Napier grass Greenleaf Desmodiu m Oats Yield (ton)/acre 2.44 0.13 17 4.88 Yield /acre (bags) 0.18 Price (US$)/bale (ton) 2.44 17.07 241 3.66 Price (US$)/bag - - - 36.59 Gross output (US$) 487.80 187.80 4018 2012.20 Variable costs (US$) 219.51 54.88 410 334.15 Gross Margins (US$) 268.29 132.93 3608 1678.05 ICRAF / ILRI
  • ILRI and partners work in Zimbabwe? Crop -Livestock Integration ZimCLIFS goal: • Improve household food security and alleviate poverty. • Identify, test and validate pathways to increase agricultural production
  • How will ZimCLIF achieve its objectives? ZimCLIFS will achieve its goals through: - assisting farmers to intensify and integrate crop-livestock production systems. - Enhancing market participation by SHF - using of Innovation Platforms (IPs) to promote the adoption of appropriate technologies and value chain innovations.
  • Project activities on forage development List of some SI trails and demonstrations • Legume introductions, evaluation and seed multiplication V. anguiculata, M. pruriens, L. purpureus, Gatton Panic. Siratro, M. bacteatum, C. pascuorum, D. incinatum • Silage-making, hay-making and urea treatment of stover - training and nutritional analysis of farmers‟ samples. • Use of legume hay as substitute to commercial supplements in dairy rations. • An assessment of resource flows and alternative feeding systems for different farmer typologies through IAT simulation modelling. 15
  • Mucuna Lablab Cowpea Area planted (ha ) 3.690 5.340 5.570 Hay (kg) 7 844 8 570 3 670 Seed/grain (kg) 2 250 116 4 450 Hay yield (kg/ha) 2 124 1 606 659 Seed yield (kg/ha) 609 22 798 Forages sown and harvested for dairy production in Goromonzi and Murehwa Districts during the 2012/13 season . - About 36,700 kg of silage prepared in Goromonzi wards 11 and 12, and Murewa ward 11. 16
  • Way forward for SI in ZimCLIFS project 1 Improve productivity & competitiveness: • Participatory Identification and scaling-out of appropriate technologies to address production constraints • Demonstrate that dairying is profitable and can be a main source of HH income • Develop niche markets and promote value addition to improve incomes 2. Capacity Building • Train and equip extension staff and farmers to understand SI concepts • Knowledge and information sharing on “lessons learnt” between ILRI southern Africa East Africa
  • Way forward cont’d 3. Create smart linkages between VC actors • Reduce risk and address binding constraints faced by VC actors • Enhance economies of scale for producers and other VC actors 4. Invest in livestock information • Improve data collection systems and analytical capacity • Enhance information flow on market conditions and planning 18
  • Acknowledgements  ZimCLIFS is implemented in a partnership of ILRI, CIMMYT, ICRISAT, CSIRO, QAAFI , Min. of Agriculture , Mechanisation and Irrigation , CADS and CTDO.  Data contributions from other ILRI & partner projects: 1. Livestock Data Innovation in Africa (www. africalivestockdata.org) 2. East Africa Dairy Development Programme (www.eadairy.org) • Farmers and communities we work with. • ILRI colleagues (Iain, Boni, Peter, Epi, Amos, Ben and Irene)