Future research needs to meet livestock development challenges


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Future research needs to meet livestock development challenges, September 2008, by ILRI Director General Carlos Seré

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Future research needs to meet livestock development challenges

  1. 1. Future research needs to meet livestock development challenges Carlos Seré and Iain Wright Keynote Address, Asian Assoc. Animal Production, Hanoi, September 2008
  2. 2. Changing needs New approaches In livestock sector to research and knowledge management Science based solutions to emerging issues
  3. 3. Scope of presentation 1. Livestock in a changing world 2. Livestock and the poor 3. New approaches for livestock research and researchers 4. Research challenges 5. Dairy development in Asia 6. Conclusions
  4. 4. 1. Livestock in a changing world  Drivers of change from within and beyond the livestock sector  Challenges forcing change in production systems and markets  Hence research needs also changing
  5. 5. Livestock in a changing world Drivers of change  Growing demand for livestock products due to population, economic growth and urbanization  Demand in Asia for milk, meat, eggs, and animal feeds e.g milk consumption in Asia/Pacific doubled since 1980  Changes in way food sourced, processed & sold  - Processed/packaged food eg 30% food sold in Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand  - Supermarket revolution growing in India
  6. 6. Livestock in a changing world= Opportunities and threats  Opportunities - growing domestic markets - trade liberalization opening new markets  Threats – small scale producers squeezed out of supply chain - endemic and (re) emerging diseases threaten access new and existing markets
  7. 7. Opportunities and threats (2)  Production systems changing - “Industrial systems” for pig and poultry in Asia - But, most livestock in Asia produced in mixed crop/livestock systems - Competition of biomass for food, feed, biofuels - Pressure to intensify crop/livestock systems for higher outputs per unit land/water/labour
  8. 8. Future of livestock systems Uncertainty and instability will increase: Climate change – erratic rainfall, droughts, floods Volatility in prices (links to world food/feed prices) New diseases or remerging existing diseases Increasing environmental concerns
  9. 9. 2. Livestock and the poor  600 m poor people rely on livestock for livelihoods  Half of these 600m livestock keepers live in Asia  Also, many millions off-farm jobs created along the supply chain (trading, processing, retailing)  Between 4-17 off-farm jobs created for every 100 litres milk collected, processed, sold each day.
  10. 10. Livestock and the poor (2)  Livestock’s critical role in nutrition  Milk is important source protein and calcium in India, for largely vegetarian population  Milk and /or meat important for school children to improve learning ability
  11. 11. Livestock and the poor (3) - research for poverty reduction  Public research – multiple purposes - e.g increase production and productivity; food security; economic growth; secure export markets; reduce environmental impact  Private research for new products and services  Livestock research for poor people – special attributes for vulnerable, risk adverse families with small asserts base
  12. 12. 3. New approaches for livestock research
  13. 13. New approaches for livestock research  Innovation systems approach essential if research to lead to action and impact  Research only one but critical part of livestock and market development  Need non linear approach to research, involving multiple stakeholders from outset  Requires mindset change by researchers and new “soft” skills to develop new partnerships  New partnerships address new problems to deliver research outcomes to lead to development impact
  14. 14. New approaches for livestock research  Value chain approach also essential  Future research needs to address all points along the value chain, not only production  Includes research on input supplies and services, production and product marketing  Examples of lack of success in technology adoption due to failure address all elements in value chain E.g failure of innovation in fodder supply and use in Asia and Africa
  15. 15. 4. Research challenges 1. Intensify crop/livestock systems 2. Livestock based adaptation to climate change 3. Control emerging and zoonotic diseases 4. Improve food safety and market access 5. Conserve tropical livestock breeds and genetic resources
  16. 16. 5. Dairy development in Asia  Challenge is to increase milk production in Asia over next 10-20 years  Milk consumption increased from 102 million tones in 1986 to 260 million tonnes in 2007  Net imports milk into Asia grew from 9 to 19 mt from 1986 to 2007;  Milk imports predicted grow 30% in next 10 years  New CFC, FAO, AHPCA program aims boost smallholder dairy production in Asia 20% in next 10 years
  17. 17. Dairy development in Asia Research needs 1. Feed availability 2. Genetics, breeding and animal genetic resources 3. Dairy development systems 4. Animal diseases 5. Environmental impact
  18. 18. Dairy development in Asia Research needs - Feed availability  Feed is key constraint as limited land in mixed crop/ livestock systems; need to intensify systems 2. Focus on dual purpose food/ feed crops 3. Select for nutritive value crop residues as well as grain yield 4. Optimize use of locally grown feed and forages 5. Strategic use of cost effective nutrient supplements
  19. 19. Dairy development in Asia Research needs – Genetics • Upgrading local breeds by cross breeding for higher producing animals -Successful in favourable conditions (good feed, climate, no disease), but failures elsewhere • Better use indigenous animal genetic resources • -Losing breeds with valuable genetic material • -Characterise breeds with useful traits • Assess species for milk production (buffalo, goats in S.E. Asia)
  20. 20. Dairy development in Asia Research needs – Dairy development systems 1. Improve efficiency of traditional small holder dairying sector 2. Innovative approaches to improve support services for smallholders (working civil society and private sector) 3. Develop risk-based approaches to food safety, rather than rule based 4. Develop risk based food safety regulatory systems with training
  21. 21. Dairy development in Asia Research needs – Animal diseases 1. Reduce direct losses by developing better disease control practices (e.g India, 10% livestock output by value lost to diseases) 2. Research on zoonotic and other diseases that limit market access, threaten human health - Develop cost effective disease surveillance, monitoring and control methods - Integrate international, national, provincial and local efforts (eg bird flu)
  22. 22. Environmental impact of livestock production
  23. 23. Distribution of global methane production – 2005 All sources South and S. E. Asia = 19.6% Total = 6405.75 MtCO2 eq Africa China/CPA Latin America Middle East Non-EU Eastern Europe Non-EU FSU OECD90 and EU S and SE Asia data from EPA 2006
  24. 24. South and South East Asia – Sources of methane production 2005 rice cultivation enteric fermentation industrial non-agric sources biomass combustion stationery and mobile combustion coal mining natural gas and oil systems manure management other ag. Sources landfills waste water Livestock account for 29% of methane emissions data from EPA 2006
  25. 25. Global methane production from enteric fermentation and poor livestock keepers Latin America Latin America OECD90 and EU South and South East Asia South and South East Asia China/CPA Africa China / CPA Non-EU FSU Middle East Africa Non-EU Eastern Europe 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 number of poor livestock keepers (millions) methane (Mt CO2 eq) data from EPA 2006 data from Thornton et al 2002
  26. 26. Environmental impact research 1. Diagnose causes of environmental impact of livestock production in different regions and systems 2. Assess consequences of increased demand for livestock products on greenhouse gas emissions from livestock systems in Asia 3. Find ways to intensify livestock production while minimising impact on people, land, water, air 4. Identify alternative livelihoods options for poor livestock keepers in marginal areas
  27. 27. 6. Conclusions • Changing needs: Livestock sector changing rapidly; Demand increasing but new problems emerging (zoonotic diseases, environmental ‘bads’) • New science based solutions to emerging livestock issues required. Evidenced based choices and trade offs needed. • New research and knowledge management approaches available to develop creative solutions.
  28. 28. Changing needs New approaches In livestock sector to research and knowledge management Science based solutions to emerging issues
  29. 29. www.ilri.org