Introduction to EcoHealth


Published on

Presentation by Hung Nguyen-Viet at the EcoZd-FBLI One Health/Ecohealth training course held at Hanoi, Vietnam, 27-30 May 2013.

Published in: Technology
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introduction to EcoHealth

  1. 1. Introduction to EcohealthNguyen Viet HungCenter for Public Health and Ecosystem ResearchHanoi School of Public HealthEcoZD-FBLI Ecohealth/One Health training course27-30 May 2013, Pullman hotel, Hanoi
  2. 2. Content• Ecohealth: history and concept• Ecohealth: main principles• Application of ecohealth in SEA• Integrative Approach
  3. 3. “The extent to which an individual or group is able, on the one hand,to realize aspirations and satisfy needs; and, on the other hand, tochange or cope with the environment.” (WHO, 1984).A STATE: “... of complete physical, mental and social well-beingand not merely the absence of disease” (WHO Constitution, 1948).What is Health?Negociating HealthEcosystem is a description of interaction between biota andenvironment of a place in a given period (Allen et al 1993).Ecosystem?
  4. 4. Sick animalsZoonosesGlobal context of health
  5. 5. Global context of health
  6. 6. Large ScaleEfficient PoultryProductionWaterManureFeed ImportsTravelHappyConsumersEnergy: labour,fossil fuel,technologyUnusually HeavyRainfallIn short timeFoodExportsOffal,DeadstockHappyFarmersClimateChangePoliticalDecentralization’DeregulationEverything is Connected –It’s a web, not a chainDWT, 2012
  7. 7. Sick animalsZoonosesEcohealth framework assumes human, animal, and environmental health areintegrally relatedEcohealth
  8. 8. Ecohealth: Ecosystem approaches to healthA way of thinking about and tackling complexproblems at the intersection of health,environment, livelihoods and development
  9. 9. Ecosystem approaches to health• Systemic, participatory approaches tounderstanding and promoting health andwellbeing in the context of complex social-ecological interactions.• Ecosystem approaches to health formally connectideas of environmental and social determinantsof health with those of ecology and systemsthinking in an action-research framework appliedmostly within a context of social and economicdevelopment (Charron).
  10. 10. 1970s and 80s• Ecosystem approach to transboundary lakes andrivers; ecosystem health; sustainable development1990s• Government of Canada funds transdisciplinaryresearch on ecosystem and human health• Canadian Veterinary Schools promote the approach• An international research program at IDRCHistory and Concept of Ecohealth
  11. 11. 2000s• A major international conference (Montreal Forum, Mexico,London, Kunming, Montreal…)• A scholarly Journal and an international association• Communities of Practice around the world• Recently, validation and recognition• Canadian Public Health Association and Canadian Institutes ofHealth Research (Webb et al CJPH, 2010)• WHO-TDR creates new unit: Vectors, Environment andSociety• One Health, and other multi-sectoral approaches advocatedat highest levels of health policyHistory and Concept of Ecohealth
  12. 12. Ecohealth: pillars / key principles• Systems thinking• Transdisciplinarity• Participation• Gender and Social Equity• Sustainability• Knowledge to Action
  13. 13. Ecohealth: pillars / key principles• Systems thinking• Transdisciplinarity• Participation• Gender and Social Equity• Sustainability• Knowledge to ActionNextsession
  14. 14. Ecohealth: pillars / key principles• Transdisciplinarity: vision of health problems byscientists from multiple disciplines, community andpolicy actors: academic and non-academicknowledge• Participation: aims to achieve consensus andcooperation within the community and the scientificand decision-making groups;• Equity: involves analyzing the respective roles of menand women, and various social groups;
  15. 15. When do we need Transdisciplinarity?Herweg et al. (2010)
  16. 16. Transdisciplinary research Integrate natural and social sciences in an approach Include the knowledge of non-academic actorsNat. Sci.Discipline 1Tech. Sci.Discipline 2Econ. Sci.Discipline 3Soc. Sci.Discipline nEcohealth researchNon-academic actors
  17. 17. Knowledge to ActionResearch and policy impactProblem,issueResearch,enquiryFindingsPolicymakersacceptfindingsPositivepolicy change
  18. 18. …in the reality…Problem, issueResearch,enquiry FindingsPolicy makersacceptfindings ?Positive policychange
  19. 19. One Health...encourages the collaborative efforts ofmultiple disciplines working locally,nationally, and globally, to attain optimalhealth for people, animals, and ourenvironment…endorsed by FAO, OIE and WHO...Davos, 2.2012 PMAC Bangkok 1.2013
  20. 20. CDC STONE MOUTAIN meeting
  21. 21. One Health• One Health is the collaborative effort of multipledisciplines working locally, nationally, andglobally, to address critical challenges and attainoptimal health for people, domestic animals,wildlife, and our environmentOne Health Commission ( )• The One Health concept is a worldwide strategyfor expanding interdisciplinary collaborations andcommunications in all aspects of health care forhumans and animals. One Health Initiative(
  22. 22. Application of ecohealth– Helps understand and make changes to complex problems– Reframes health issues in the context of ecosystems, peopleand their livelihoods– Requires multi-disciplinary teams– Has impact because it involves local people and respondsto their needs– Promotes social justice for women and other marginalizedgroups– Facilitates multi-sectorial policy, application andintervention
  23. 23. • Multi-country research andtraining networks• Collaboration and relationshipsincrease regional capacity toprevent and respondEcohealth in SE Asia RegionAsian Partnership on EmergingInfectious Diseases ResearchPolicy research on avian influenza, AMR, Wildlife tradePart of CORDS- global disease surveillance network
  24. 24. Ecohealth in SE Asia RegionEcohealth Field-building Leadership InitiativeResearch on agriculture intensification and healthTraining, knowledge translationEmerging zoonoses of livestock (ILRI)National research teamsEcohealth Resource Centers (Chiang Mai, Yogyakarta)AusAID-CIDA-IDRC Emerging Infectious Diseases initiativeCapacity building (VWB Canada)Research Competition: Avian influenza, Dengue, foodbornehelminths and schistosomiasisFrom infectious to non-infectious diseases
  25. 25. We need to change:Current training is largely medical science based on the biomedicalmodel and multidisciplinary studies focusing on molecular andindividual organisation level. We are not prepared to work with theinfectious disease emergence and global healthAction:• Go beyond biomedical models• Learn to work with disciplines and integrate them• Use “systems thinking”Integrative approach
  26. 26. • Integrative research (interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research)uses systems thinking to create new knowledge and skills by combiningprinciples, theory and methods from different disciplines.• The new knowledge and skills not only benefit the problem beingaddressed (EIDs), the capacity gained “spills-over” to help address otherproblems, but also generally strengthen science and science education.Integrative approach
  27. 27. Challenges for Ecohealth/OneHealth/Integrative approachMeaningful transdisicplinary, participatory andmulti-sector action-research is hard to doLocalized research is difficult to take to larger scaleQuality of evidence often inadequate vsevertightening standardsDemonstrating value for money of proposedchanges in policy or practiceTime to achieve lasting results often very long-term(10yrs or more)
  28. 28. Take home messages:- Ecohealth framework assumes human, animal, andenvironmental health are integrally related- New approach: participatory, transdisciplinary,translational research, systemic- One Health movement and integrative approach
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Thank you!EcoZD-FBLI Ecohealth/One Health course27-30 May 2013, Pullman hotel, Hanoi
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.