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Galaxy forum 2011 jchapman

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Galaxy Forum 2011 …

Galaxy Forum 2011
John Chapman
Exploring and Mining the Galaxy

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  • CANADA IS A WORLD LEADER IN MINERAL EXPLORATION AND VANCOUVER HAS ONE OF THE HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS OF HARD-ROCK GEOSCIENTISTS IN THE WORLD. OUR MILKY WAY GALAXY IS PART OF THE LOCAL GROUP OF GALAXIES AND IS ONE OF ~200 BILLION GALAXIES IN THE OBSERVABLE UNIVERSE. THE MILKY WAY GALAXY CONTAINS ABOUT 300 BILLION STARS AND IS 100,000 LIGHT YEARS WIDE AND 1,000 LIGHT YEARS THICK AND IT ROTATES ONCE EVERY ~250 MILLION EARTH YEARS. DISTANCE OF ONE LIGHT YEAR IS ~9.5 TRILLION KM. THE MILKY WAY GALAXY IS MOVING AT ~550KM/SEC RELATIVE TO THE COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION REST FRAME.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman IMAGINE THE CRITICS WHEN THE FIRST WHEEL WAS MADE (WHERE IS MONTY PYTHON WHEN YOU NEED HIM) – DANGEROUS, NOT RELIABLE, RUINING THE EARTH, BAD OMEN, WON’T WORK, TOO EXPENSIVE, WILL MAKE THE CHILDREN LAZY, WILL CAUSE GLOBAL WARMING, ETC. IN MY OPINION THERE ARE BASICALLY THREE TYPES OF PEOPLE – THOSE THAT DO THINGS, THOSE THAT WATCH PEOPLE DO THINGS, AND THOSE THAT WONDER WHAT HAPPENED. CARL SAGAN: “IMAGINATION WILL OFTEN CARRY US TO WORLDS THAT NEVER WERE – BUT WITHOUT IT WE GO NOWHERE”. “ WE CANNOT PROVE THAT THOSE ARE IN ERROR WHO TELL US THAT SOCIETY HAS REACHED A TURNING POINT, THAT WE HAVE SEEN OUR BEST DAYS. BUT SO SAID ALL BEFORE US, AND WITH JUST AS MUCH APPARENT REASON. ON WHAT PRINCIPLE IS IT THAT, WHEN WE SEE NOTHING BUT IMPROVEMENT BEHIND US, WE ARE ABLE TO EXPECT NOTHING BUT DETERIORATION BEFORE US?” LORD THOMAS B. MACAULAY, 1830. "FAR BETTER IT IS TO DARE MIGHTY THINGS, TO WIN GLORIOUS TRIUMPHS, EVEN THOUGH CHECKERED BY FAILURE, THAN TO TAKE RANK WITH THOSE POOR SPIRITS WHO NEITHER ENJOY NOR SUFFER MUCH, BECAUSE THEY LIVE IN THAT GRAY TWILIGHT THAT KNOWS NO VICTORY NOR DEFEAT." THEODORE ROOSEVELT.   "PEOPLE MUST BE FOCUSED ON A CHALLENGE, THAT SOLVING, GIVES PRIDE AND PLEASURE – THIS “FLOW” BANISHES THE STATE OF ENTROPY INTO WHICH UNOCCUPIED SPIRITS TEND TO FALL. (ENTROPY: THE DEGRADATION OF THE MATTER AND ENERGY IN THE UNIVERSE TO AN ULTIMATE STATE OF INERT UNIFORMITY)." ANON. ELECTRIFICATION ORIGINALLY REFERRED TO THE BUILD OUT OF THE ELECTRICAL GENERATING AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS WHICH OCCURRED IN THE UNITED STATES, ENGLAND AND OTHER COUNTRIES FROM THE MID 1880'S UNTIL AROUND 1940 AND IS IN PROGRESS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. THIS ALSO INCLUDED THE CHANGE OVER FROM LINE SHAFT AND BELT DRIVE USING STEAM ENGINES AND WATER POWER TO ELECTRIC MOTORS. IN FEBRUARY 2000, ELECTRIFICATION WAS CALLED "THE GREATEST ENGINEERING ACHIEVEMENT OF THE 20TH CENTURY" BY THE USA NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING. MENTION THE THREE GORGES DAM ON YANGTZE RIVER, CHINA. AT 18,200MW IT IS EQUIVALENT TO ~25 MILLION HORSEPOWER AT 24/7 OR 100 MILLION HORSEPOWER (1 BILLION PEOPLE POWER) CONSIDERING 8 HOUR WORK DAY AND 6 DAY WORK WEEK. THIS SINGLE POWER SOURCE LIBERATES ALMOST THE ENTIRE CHINESE POPULATION FROM HUMAN DRUDGERY. ALSO, IT HAS DELIVERED MAJOR NAVIGATION, FLOOD CONTROL, AND IRRIGATION.
  • AT THIS TIME, IN MY OPINION, THE POWER OF GREEN POLITICS IS OVERWHELMING SCIENCE AND RELIGION. THE NIHILIST MATHUSIAN ANARCHISTS (NMA), AS PREDICTED BY AYN RAND IN HER LAST BOOK, “THE NEW LEFT, THE ANTI-INDUSTRIAL REVELOTION” 1970, ARE WINNING THE BATTLE FOR HUMAN “HEARTS” AND MINDS. AS PREDICTED BY RAND THEY ARE USING THE ATMOSPHERE AS THE “LIGHTENING ROD” TO GALVANIZE THE PEOPLE OF THE WORLD TO SUPPORT ONE WORLD GOVERNMENT. THESE DANGEROUS FORCES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO PLUNGE THE WORLD INTO A NEW DARK AGE UNDER THE CONTROL OF DESPOTS. INCOME TO THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, THAT CREATED AND DOMINATED THE DARK AGES (CIRCA 300 AD TO 1500 AD)’ IS NOW UNDER ASSAULT BY THIS “GREEN RELIGION”. THE VATICAN IS FIGHTING THIS NEW FORCE (AND ITS AGW “DOGMA” ACCORDING TO THE POPE) AS IT IS LOSSING CONVERTS. FOLLOWING THE CHURCH’S EXAMPLE OF SCARING PEOPLE WITH THE FEAR OF HELL AND THEN ABSOLVING SINS BY PAYMENT TO THE CHURCH - THE GREENS ARE NOW ABSOLVING THE SIN OF C02 BY WAY OF TAXES AND CAP AND TRADE RULES. THIS AFTER THEY HAVE SCARED EVERYONE WITH THE INCONVENIENT TRUTH – ONE OF MANY HYPER-TACTICS. AL GORE’S INVOLVEMENT IS BLATANT IN REAPING FINANCIAL REWARDS (WITHOUT DISCLOSURE) FROM THE AGW SCARE AS HE IS CO-CHAIRMAN OF THE HEDGE FUND “GENERATION INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT” SET UP IN LONDON IN 2004 (WITH EXECUTIVES FROM GOLDMAN SACHS). SEE EIR, MARCH 30, 2007.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman NASA AS OF MAY 2008 REPORTS 5,474 NEOs (IN THE VICINITY OF EARTH’S ORBIT) HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED: (65 COMETS AND 5,409 ASTERIODS), OF THESE 881 ARE ESTIMATED TO BE AT LEAST 1.0KM IN DIAMETER. THE RATE OF IMPACTS OF OBJECTS OF AT LEAST THIS SIZE IS ESTIMATED AT 2 PER 1.0 MILLION YEARS (2,000 PER BILLION YEARS). MANY MORE NEOs WILL ARRIVE OVER TIME DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS ON ASTERIODS (MAINLY JUPITER) IN THE ASTERIOD BELT AND COMETS (MAINLY NEPTUNE) IN THE KUIPER BELT. THE LARGEST NEO AT THIS TIME IS GANYMED, AN ASTERIOD, WHICH IS ~32KM IN DIAMETER. IN 2008 THE ASSOCIATION OF SPACE EXPLORERS INTERNATIONAL PANEL OF ASTERIOD THREAT MITIGATION PRESENTED “ASTERIOD THREATS: A CALL FOR GLOBAL RESPONSE” TO THE UNITED NATIONS. IT IS A 54 PAGE DOCUMENT OUTLINING THE THREAT AND THE PROPOSED MITIGATION PROGRAM FOR DETECTION, TRACKING AND DEFLECTION. 99924 APOPHIS IS A 279 METER DIAMETER NEAR EARTH ASTERIOD THAT COULD HAVE A VERY CLOSE ENCOUNTER WITH EARTH IN 2029, 2036 AND 2068 – WE NEED TO KEEP TRACKING THIS HAZARD AS AT SOME POINT IN TIME IT MAY NEED TO BE “DEFLECTED”. DOTCOM BILLIONAIRES ARE TURNING TO SPACE INVESTMENTS (SETI AND ROCKETS) AS “TROPHY” INVESTMENTS – PAUL ALLEN: SETI, ELON MUSK: SPACEX. AT THE 2003 ILEWG LUNAR CONFERENCE IN HAWAII ASTRONAUT JOHN YOUNG IN HIS OPENING ADDRESS SAID WE HUMANS WILL NOT SURVIVE AS A SINGLE PLANET SPECIES BECAUSE OF COMETS, ASTERIODS AND SUPER VOLCANOES. AT THE END OF THE CONFERENCE THE MEMBERS WERE ASKED IF THEY FELT IT WAS WORTH THE EFFORT FOR HUMANS TO TRY TO CONTROL THEIR DESTINY BY POPULATING OTHER PLANETS – MORE THAN HALF SAID THEY DID NOT CARE AS WE WERE DOOMED NO MATTER WHAT WE DO. I WAS IN THE MINORITY AND I DO BELIEVE THAT WE SHOULD GET ON WITH DOING THE VERY BEST WE CAN TO POPULATE OTHER PLANETS – AND THEREBY SAVE THE HUMAN SPECIES.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman JUPITER’S DIAMETER IS 143,000 KM, EARTH’S IS 12,800 KM, THE MOON IS 3,480 KM. THERE WERE AT LEAST 20 SEPARATE FRAGMENTS OF THE COMET SHOEMAKER-LEVY THAT HIT JUPITER – ONE OF THE LARGEST “G” (JULY 18, 1994) CREATED A DARK SPOT MEASURING 12,000 KM ACROSS AND WAS ESTIMATED TO HAVE RELEASED AN ENERGY EQUIVALENT TO 6 TRILLION TONS OF TNT (~750 TIMES THE WORLDS NUCLEAR ARSENAL). TWO IMPACTS 12 HOURS APART ON JULY 19 TH CREATED IMPACT MARKS OF SIMILAR SIZE TO THAT CAUSED BY FRAGMENT G. SEVERAL OF THESE IMPACTORS, IF THEY WERE HITTING EARTH, WOULD HAVE EXTINQUISHED ALL OR MOST LIFE ON THE PLANET. IMPACTORS: ASTERIODS (PROGRADE ~19KM/SEC), COMETS (RETROGRADE ~55KM/SEC) – IF SAME SIZE OBJECTS THEN COMET HAS ~8 TIMES MORE ENERGY (KINETIC) THAN THE ASTERIOD (KINETIC ENERGY = ½ M x V*2). OBJECTS TRAVELING AT ~3 KM/SEC HAVE KINETIC ENERGY EQUIVALENT TO THEIR MASS IN TNT. EARLY MORNING ON EARTH IS LIKE FACING FORWARD IN AN AUTOMOBILE TRAVELING AT 30KM PER SECOND – A RETROGRADE IMPACTOR WOULD HIT AT ~55KM/SEC. IMPACTORS NORMALLY CREATE CRATORS 10 TO 20 TIMES THE DIAMETER OF THE IMPACTOR. EARTH ROTATION VELOCITY AT EQUATOR SEA LEVEL = 1,650 KM/HR, MEAN EARTH ORBITAL VELOCITY = 30KM/SEC, THE SOLAR SYSTEM IS ORBITING WITHIN THE MILKY WAY AT A VELOCITY OF ~220 KM/SEC AND IN RELATION TO THE COSMOS BACKGROUND AT ~600 KM/SEC. THE TRICK IN TRACKING NEO ORBITS LIES IN A STRANGE NATURAL PHENOMENON: SOLAR-POWERED ORBITAL MECHANICS. THE IDEA GOES BACK TO A SCIENTIFIC PAPER WRITTEN BY RUSSIAN ENGINEER I.O. YARKOVSKY A CENTURY AGO AND SINCE LOST. YARKOVSKY IS SAID TO HAVE PROPOSED THAT THE SUN WARMS AN ASTEROID MORE ON THE "DAY" SIDE THAN ON THE "NIGHT" SIDE. THE WARMER SIDE OF THE ROCK EMITS MORE THERMAL RADIATION, CREATING A SLIGHT DIFFERENCE IN MOMENTUM THAT GENTLY NUDGES THE OBJECT IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO HOW A ROCKET IS PROPELLED. OVER HUNDREDS OF YEARS, THE MOVEMENT CAN BE SIGNIFICANT, SCIENTISTS SAY. NOTE THAT THE EXTINCTIONS ARE SHOWN AT THE END OF GEOLOGICAL “PERIODS” – THAT IS BECAUSE EXTINCTIONS ARE ONE OF THE MARKERS GEOLOGISTS USED IN PREPARING THE SCALE.
  • AVERAGE INTEVAL OF THIS TYPE OF IMPACT IS 7.3 MILLION YEARS. NOTE THAT HIROSHIMA NUCLEAR BOMB WAS EQUIVALENT TO 15,000T OF TNT (THIS IMPACT IS 120 MILLION TIMES LARGER) AND BIGGEST HYDROGEN BOMB WAS EQUIVALENT TO 50,000,000T OF TNT (THIS IMPACT IS 36,000 LARGER). AT 100km FROM IMPACT ARRIVAL TIMES IN SECONDS AFTER IMPACT: THERMAL RADIATION 2 (DURATION 511 SECONDS), SEISMIC 20, EJECTA 144, AIR BLAST 303. PHYSICAL EFFECTS: CLOTHS IGNITE, MOST OF BODY RECEIVES 3 RD DEGREE BURNS, ALL WOOD PAPER AND GRASS IGNITES, MULTISTORY BUILDINGS WILL COLLAPSE, GLASS WINDOWS WILL SHATTER, 90% OF TREES DOWN AND 100% STRIPPED OF BRANCHES AND LEAVES. AT 200km FROM IMPACT ARRIVAL TIMES IN SECONDS AFTER IMPACT: THERMAL RADIATION 2 (DURATION 511 SECOND), SEISMIC 40, EJECTA 206, AIR BLAST 606. PHYSICAL EFFECTS: CLOTHS IGNITE, MOST OF BODY RECEIVES 3 RD DEGREE BURNS, ALL WOOD PAPER AND GRASS IGNITES, MULTISTORY BUILDINGS WILL COLLAPSE, GLASS WINDOWS WILL SHATTER, 90% OF TREES DOWN AND 100% STRIPPED OF BRANCHES AND LEAVES. ASTEROIDS ORBIT THE SUN IN THE SAME COUNTERCLOCKWISE (PROGRADE) DIRECTION SO IMPACTS ARE NORMALLY ~20KM/S (EARTH ORBITS AT 30KM/S). HOWEVER COMETS MAY BE RETROGRADE (CLOCKWISE) AND COULD COLLIDE WITH EARTH AT ~55KM/S – ABOUT THREE TIMES THE ASTERIODS. INCREASING THE SPEED BY THREE TIMES INCREASES THE IMPACT ENERGY BY NINE TIMES (KE=1/2MV2). IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT AN OBJECT IMPACTING AT 3KM/S HAS THE EXPLOSIVE FORCE APPROXIMATELY EQUIVALENT TO ITS MASS IN TNT.
  • MENTION DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE ADJACENT KENNEDY SPACE CENTER (NASA) AND CAPE CANAVERAL (US AIRFORCE). LAUNCH TO EAST GIVES A BOOST FROM ROTATION OF EARTH (GREATEST AT EQUATOR) 1,600KM/HR AND ABORT IS OVER ATLANTIC OCEAN. FOR POLAR ORBITS NASA NORMALLY LAUNCHES FROM CALIFORNIA TOWARD THE SOUTH SO THAT ABORT IS IN THE PACIFIC OCEAN (THE RECENT POLAR LAUNCH FAILURE, WITH REMOTE SENSING CO2 SPACECRAFT, CRASHED IN ANTARCTICA AFTER CALIFORNIA LAUNCH). POLAR ORBITS PROVIDE GOOD COVERAGE OF THE EARTH FOR MAPPING (MULTISPECTRAL, HYPERSPECTRAL, SYNTHETIC APERATURE RADAR, ETC.). EARTH GEOSYNCRONOUS SATELLITES ORBIT AT AN ALTITUDE OF 35,786KM IN THE SAME COUNTERCLOCKWISE DIRECTION AS THE EARTH. THE ROTATIONAL PERIOD BEING THE SAME AS THE EARTH’S IS 23H, 56M AND 4.091S. THESE ORBITS ARE USED FOR “PARKING” SATELLITES FOR COMMUNICATION (VOICE, TV, DATA, ETC.). AT THIS ALTITUDE THERE IS A O.12S DELAY ONE-WAY DUE TO THE SPEED OF LIGHT TRANSMISSION (35,786KM/300,000KM/S).
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman SPACEX’S FALCON 9 HEAVY (IN DEVELOPMENT): MASS TO LEO = 32t, MASS TO GTO = 19.5t. FALCON 9 IS OPERATIONAL AT 10.5t LEO AND 4.7t GTO. SPACEX HAS RECEIVED A NASA CONTRACT TO DELIVER SUPPLIES TO THE ISS AND THEN LATER, UPON PROOF OF RELIABILITY, HUMANS TO ISS.
  • ASSEMBLY OF COMPONENTS IN EARTH ORBIT WILL BE A VERY IMPORTANT PART OF TRAVEL IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM AND INTO DEEP SPACE. THE ISS HAS PROVIDED EXCELLENT EVA TRAINING FOR ASTRONAUTS.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman PANDORA (GREEK MYTHOLOGY) – “SHE WHO SENDS UP GIFTS” – IMPLYING FROM BELOW THE EARTH. JOHN S. LEWIS IS A PROFESSOR OF PLANETARY SCIENCE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA’S LUNAR AND PLANETARY LABORATORY. HE PREVIOUSLY TAUGHT AT MIT. IN THIS BOOK, DR LEWIS DISCUSSES THE DEVELOPMENT OF INTERPLANETARY SPACE WITHIN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. HE MAKES A PREDICTION THAT THE ABUNDANT RESOURCES OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM, INCLUDING EFFECTIVELY-LIMITLESS SOLAR ENERGY, COULD SUPPORT A VAST CIVILIZATION OF 10 16 PEOPLE. HE ARGUES THAT SHORTAGE OF RESOURCES IS " ...AN ILLUSION BORN OF IGNORANCE ."
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman A NUCLEAR REACTOR HAS A VERY LARGE AMOUNT OF ENERGY PER UNIT MASS, IN FACT A REACTOR CORE HAS THE HIGHEST ENERGY DENSITY OF ANY USEFUL ENERGY SOURCE ON EARTH.  THIS HIGH ENERGY DENSITY AND SCALABILITY MAKE NUCLEAR REACTORS AN IDEAL POWER SOURCE ON EARTH AND IN SPACE.  A NUCLEAR ELECTRIC POWERED SPACECRAFT COULD DRAMATICALLY SHORTEN HUMAN TRANSIT TIMES BETWEEN PLANETS (LESS THAN 3 MONTHS TO MARS). IN THE 1960S THE USA AND RUSSIA WORKED ON NUCLEAR THERMAL ROCKETS. NASA DESIGNED BUILT AND TESTED 20 ROCKET REACTORS IN THEIR ROVER AND NERVA PROGRAMS. THEY DEMONSTRATED THE FEASIBILITY OF SPACE NUCLEAR POWER, TESTING A WIDE RANGE OF ENGINE SIZES, USING LIQUID HYDROGEN AS BOTH THE COOLANT FOR THE REACTOR, AND THE PROPELLANT, EXPELLED TO CREATE THE THRUST. THE RUSSIAN NUCLEAR ROCKET WORK WAS CONDUCTED AT THE SEMIPALATINSK FACILITY IN KAZAKHSTAN. THE RUSSIAN SYSTEMS PRODUCED HYDROGEN EXHAUST TEMPERATURES HIGHER THAN 3,000 K OR ABOUT 500 K DEGREES HIGHER THAN THE BEST USA NERVA FUEL ELEMENTS. FOR A GOOD READ ON NUCLEAR ROCKETS SEE “BACK TO THE MOON WITH NUCLEAR ROCKETS”, MARSHA FREEMAN, 21 ST CENTURY SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, SUMMER 1999, VOL. 12, NO. 2 (www.21stcenturysciencetech.com).
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman NOW, IN THE NEXT THREE SLIDES LET’S LOOK AT THE VERY HIGH TECHNOLOGY SPACECRAFT THAT ARE CURRENTLY EXPLORING OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. LCROSS (LUNAR CRATER OBSERVATION AND SENSING SATELLITE) AND LRO (LUNAR RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER) LAUNCHED JUNE 2009 FROM CAPE CARAVERAL ON ATLAS V 401 ROCKET. TWO LUNAR IMPACTS (ROCKET UPPER STAGE THEN LCROSS SPACECRAFT A FEW MINUTES LATER) AT ~4:30 a.m. PDT ON OCTOBER 9, 2009. NASA HAS A FIRST MAJOR ANOUNCEMENT ON RELEASE OF DATA FOR LRO AND LCROSS ON OCTOBER 21, 2010.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman OLYMPUS MONS – HIGHEST KNOWN MOUNTAIN IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM, 600 KM DIAMETER BASE AND TOWERING 25 KM HIGH. MOUNTAINS ON EARTH CANNOT “GROW” THIS HIGH BECAUSE OF THE EARTH’S LARGER GRAVITY. VALLES MARINERIS IS 4,000 KM LONG AND 220 KM WIDE AT ITS WIDEST SPOT. NEW SPACECRAFT SUCH AS MARS RECONNAISSANCE ORBITER (2006), AND THE LANDERS AND ROVERS PHOENIX (2007), SPIRIT (2003) AND OPPORTUNITY (2003) ARE DOING A REMARKABLE JOB OF IMAGING AND TESTING SURFACE RESOURCES. THE PHOENIX LANDER (2008) DISCOVERY “SNOW” IN THE MARS ATMOSPHERE (LIDAR) AND WATER ICE AT THE SURFACE UNDER A THIN VENEER OF RED DUST. THE ROVERS HAVE IDENTIFIED SEDIMENTARY ROCK DEPOSITS (MUST HAVE FORMED IN WATER). THE ESA SPACECRAFT MARS EXPRESS (2003) HAS MEASURED THE WATER-ICE IN THE SOUTH POLAR REGION AND DETERMINED, “THERE IS ENOUGH FROZEN WATER TO COVER THE WHOLE PLANET IN A LIQUID LAYER APPROXIMATELY 11 METERS DEEP. MAY 14, 2008: REV JOSE GABRIEL FUNES, HEAD OF THE VATICAN OBSERVATORY AND A SCIENTIFIC ADVISER TO THE POPE BELIEVES THERE IS A STRONG POSSIBILITY THAT LIFE EXISTS ON OTHER PLANETS. THE ALIEN LIFE FORMS FUNES HAS IN MIND DOESN'T EXCLUDE A RACE WITH INTELLIGENCE. THIS WAS TRYING TO GET THE VATICAN “AHEAD” OF ANY SCIENCE ANNOUNCEMENT AS THE PHOENIX LANDER LANDED ON MARS ON MAY 25, 2008! COPERNICUS, GALILEO AND KEPLER WOULD FIND THIS AMUSING, WERE THEY STILL ALIVE TODAY.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman TITAN (5,150 KM DIAMETER VS OUR MOON AT 3,476 KM) HAS RIVERS, OCEANS, GLACIERS OF METHANE (CH4) AND ETHANE (C2H6) AN ATMOSPHERE OF NITROGEN AND METHANE AND ROCKS OF WATER-ICE (-180 DEGREES CENTIGRADE) – REFER TO THOMAS GOLD’S DEEP HOT BIOSPHERE AND ITS DISCUSSION OF ABIOTIC HYDROCARBONS. CASSINI-HUYGENS LAUNCHED IN OCTOBER 1997 AT CAPE CANAVERAL BY TITAN IV-B/CENTAUR ROCKET. THE SPACECRAFT STANDS 6.8 METERS HIGH AND HAS A MASS WITHOUT FUEL: ORBITER = 2,150KG AND PROBE = 350KG. IT IS POWERED BY THREE PLUTOMIUM 238 RTGS. CASSINI INSTRUMENTS: PLASMA SPECTROMETER, COSMIC DUST ANALYZER, COMPOSITE INFRARED SPECTROMETER, ION AND NEUTRAL MASS SPECTROMETER, IMAGING SCIENCE SUBSYSTEM, DUAL TECHNIQUE MAGNETOMETER, MAGNETOSPHERIC IMAGING INSTRUMENT, RADAR, RADIO AND PLASMA WAVE DETECTORS, RADIO SCIENCE SUBSYSTEMS, ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH AND VISIBLE AND INFRARED MAPPING SPECTROMETER. HUYGENS PROBE INSTRUMENTS: AEROSOL COLLECTOR AND PYROLYSER, DESCENT IMAGER AND SPECTRAL RADIOMETER, DOPPLER WIND EXPERIMENT, GAS CHROMATOGRAPH AND MASS SPECTOMETER, ATMOSPHERE STRUCTURE WITH SOUND AND ELECTRICAL DETECTORS AND SURFACE SCIENCE PACKAGE.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman THE VOYAGER 1 AND 2 SPACECRAFTS LAUNCHED IN 1977 ARE STILL FUNCTIONING – ALTHOUGH THE RADIO SIGNAL STRENGTH IS ATTENUATED DUE TO THE GREAT DISTANCE FROM EARTH (PROPORTIONAL TO INVERSE SQUARE OF DISTANCE). THEY ARE 17 BILLION KM AND 14 BILLION KM RESPECTIVELY FROM THE SUN (TRAVELING AT ~17KM/SEC). THE SPACECRAFT ARE IN THE OUTER MOST LAYER OF THE HELIOSHEATH WHERE THE SOLAR WIND IS SLOWED BY THE PRESSURE OF INTERSTELLAR GAS. DATA STREAMING FROM THE SPACECRAFT IS RECEIVED BY THE DEEP SPACE NETWORK (DSN) – IT TAKES ~13 HOURS FOR THE ELECTROMAGNETIC (RADIO) SIGNAL TO REACH EARTH. THEY ARE STILL SENDING DATA BACK TO EARTH REGARDING: COSMIC RAYS, MAGNETICS, PLASMA WAVES, LOW ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES AND ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. THE POWER SOURCE ON BOTH SPACECRAFT ARE RTG (RADIOISOTOPE THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS) USING PLUTONIUM-238 (37.7KG, 160 WATTS OF ELECTRICITY AND 2000 WATTS OF HEAT). PLUTONIUM-238 HAS A HALF-LIFE OF 87.7 YEARS. IN APRIL 2010 THE AMERICAN ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY (AAS) SENT OUT AN “ACTION ALERT” TO ITS MEMBERS ASKING THEM TO CONTACT CONGRESS ABOUT RESTARTING PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM-238, AS THIS ISOTOPE IS ESSENTIAL FOR DEEP SPACE MISSION SPACECRAFT (SUCH AS VOYAGER, GALILEO, ULYSSES, CASSINI-HUYGENS, ETC.).
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman REFER TO “MINING THE SKY” BY JOHN LEWIS FOR A GOOD SUMMARY OF SOLAR SYSTEM RESOURCES. LUNAR RESOURCE EXTRACTION IS FOCUSED UPON THE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN. THESE ELEMENTS (H AND O) OR MOLECULES (H 2 AND O 2 ) ARE REQUIRED FOR SUPPORT OF HUMAN LIFE ("AIR" AND WATER), ROCKET PROPELLANTS, FUEL CELLS (MOBILE AND STATIONARY), AGRICULTURE AND AQUACULTURE. THE NEXT MOST IMPORTANT ELEMENTS ARE URANIUM AND THORIUM AS FEED TO LUNAR NUCLEAR REACTORS TO PROVIDE ELECTRIC AND HEAT ENERGY.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman THIS REMARKABLE RECORD HAS BEEN ACHIEVED TO A LARGE DEGREE BY TAX INCENTIVES TO THE RESOURCE INDUSTRY OPERATING IN CANADA. THIS HAS CREATED A STRONG “LOCAL” GROUP OF CANADIAN MINING EXPERTS (GEOLOGY, MINING, LAW, ACCOUNTING, FINANCE, ETC.) THAT HAVE STEPPED ONTO THE WORLD STAGE AND BEEN VERY SUCCESSFUL – TO THE BENEFIT OF ALL CANADIANS. THE NUMBERS SHOWN ON THIS SLIDE ARE FROM STATS CANADA 2004. IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THAT THE COLLECTION AND REPORTING OF VAST AMOUNTS OF GEOPHYSICAL, GEOCHEMICAL AND GEOLOGICAL DATA INTO A GIS DATABASE, ACCESSIBLE BY MANY, IS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF SUCCESSFUL MINERAL EXPLORATION AND DEPOSIT VALUATION. THE BRITISH COLUMBIA GSB, WITH THEIR www.mapplace.ca IS A RECOGNIZED, AWARD WINNING, LEADER. ON THE MOON AND MARS GOOGLE IS ASSEMBLING AND DELIVERING SIMILAR GEOSCIENCE DATABASES THAT ARE OPEN TO THE PUBLIC.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman THE NEXT EIGHT SLIDES WILL SHOW MINERAL EXPLORATION METHODS ON EARTH. NOTE THAT USA AND RUSSIAN NAVIES USE A VLF-EM SIGNAL FROM LAND OF ~30,000 HERTZ (WAVES PER SECOND) THAT CAN BE PICKED UP BY SUBMARINES TO DEPTHS OF 20 METERS. THESE VLF-EM SIGNALS ARE USED EXTENSIVELY BY THE MINING INDUSTRY FOR EM SURVEYS. NOTE THAT AT THIS FREQUENCY THE WAVELENGTH IS ~10 KM. ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM: RADIO = 10*6 Hz, INFRARED = 10*13Hz, VISIBLE LIGHT = 10*15 Hz, ULTRA VIOLET = 10*16Hz, GAMMA RAYS = 10*18 Hz. ONLY RADIO WAVES AND VISIBLE LIGHT MAKE IT THROUGH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE – ALL OTHER WAVELENGTHS ARE BLOCKED AT VARYING DISTANCES BEFORE REACHING THE GROUND. IT IS INTERESTING TO NOTE THAT RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DETECTION AND BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF NEUTRINOS HAS RESULTED IN GEOPHYSICISTS STARTING TO USE NUETRINO OBSERVATIONS TO DETERMINE THE DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES ON EARTH. REFER TO SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, MAY 2010, FOR A STATUS OF THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY RELATED TO NEUTRINOS. RECENT ADVANCES IN ELECTRONICS AND COMPUTATIONAL POWER HAVE FACILITATED 3D INDUCED POLARIZATION, 3D SEISMIC AND ZTEM (SEE: www.geotech.ca). THE ZTEM OR Z AXIS TIPPER ELECTROMAGNETIC SYSTEM IS AN INNOVATIVE AIRBORNE EM SYSTEM WHICH USES THE NATURAL OR PASSIVE FIELDS OF THE EARTH AS THE SOURCE OF TRANSMITTED ENERGY. THE EARTH AND IONOSPHERE, BOTH CONDUCTIVE, ACT AS A WAVEGUIDE TO “TRANSMIT” THE SOURCE ENERGY GREAT DISTANCES. DUE TO THE MANNER IN WHICH THEY PROPAGATE, THESE NATURAL FIELDS ARE PLANAR AND HORIZONTAL. ANY VERTICAL FIELD IS CAUSED BY CONDUCTIVITY CONTRASTS IN THE EARTH. THE VERTICAL EM FIELD IS REFERENCED TO THE HORIZONTAL EM FIELD AS MEASURED BY A SET OF HORIZONTAL BASE STATION COILS. THE PROPRIETARY RECEIVER DESIGN USING THE ADVANTAGES OF MODERN DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND SIGNAL PROCESSING DELIVERS EXCEPTIONALLY LOW-NOISE LEVELS. ZTEM IS ABLE TO DETECT LARGE MINERAL BODIES (PORPHYRY COPPER) THROUGH THIN COVER SUCH AS GLACIAL OVERBURDEN OR YOUNG VOLCANIC CAPPING. MDA GEOSPATIAL SERVICES, BASED IN RICHMOND BC, PROVIDES RADARSAT (1 AND 2) REMOTE SYNTHETIC APERATURE IMAGE DATA TO THE MINING INDUSTRY (SEE: www.gs.mdacorporation.com ). 3D GRAVITY GRADIENT EQUIPMENT (ROTATING ACCELEROMETER GRAVITY-GRADIOMETER) DESIGNED AND BUILT BY BELL AEROSPACE (NOW LOCKHEED MARTIN) HAS REVOLUTIONIZED THE USE OF GRAVITY AS A REMOTE SENSING TOOL FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman REMOTE SENSING CAN LEAD EXPLORATION TEAMS TO A POSSIBLE MINERAL OREBODY BUT NOW THE WORK MUST TURN TO ON-THE-GROUND METHODS TO FURTHER DEFINE THE POTENTIAL OF THE REMOTE SENSED ANOMALIES. INITIAL STAGES NORMALLY INCLUDE CLAIM STAKING, PROSPECTING AND SAMPLING.
  • Our Cosmic Journey 04/15/11 John A. Chapman IF INITIAL STAGE EXPLORATION IS SUCCEFUL, IN FURTHER DEFINITION OF AN INTERESTING POTENTIAL MINERAL DEPOSIT, THEN THE MORE EXPENSIVE GROUND METHODS, INCLUDING TRENCHING AND DRILLING ARE WARRANTED. THESE METHODS OF EXPLORATION, DISCOVERY AND RESOURCE DEFINITION, AS CONDUCTED ON EARTH TODAY, WILL NEED TO BE APPLIED IN A SIMILAR FASHION ON THE MOON, MARS, ASTERIODS, COMETS AND THE MOONS OF JUPITER AND SATURN – WITH DUE CONSIDERATION FOR THE EXTREMES OF TEMPERATURE, ATMOSPHERE (OR LACK THEREOF), AVAILABILITY OF WATER AND COSMIC RAY BOMBARDMENT. PLANETARY BODIES THAT ARE MINERAL RICH AND ARE IMPORTANT FOR HUMAN ADVANCEMENT INTO THE COSMOS WILL NEED TO BE EQUIPPED WITH NUCLEAR POWER, GPS AND SUITABLE HUMAN HABITATS, AND HAVE A READILY AVAILABLE AND ABUNDANT WATER RESERVE.
  • Transcript

    • 1. MINERAL EXPLORATION, DISCOVERY, DEVELOPMENT AND MINING IN THE MILKY WAY GALAXY *** WHY BOTHER? GALAXY FORUM 2011 CANADA H.R. MACMILLAN SPACE CENTRE APRIL 10, 2011 VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA John Chapman, Principal, J.A. Chapman Mining Services White Rock, British Columbia, Canada, Earth, Milky Way Galaxy
    • 2. The wealth from mines, from the dawn of recorded human history, is the epic march of mankind along the path of progress.  It was the mines that made ancient civilizations such as Egypt, Greece and Rome great and in more recent times have created immense wealth to the benefit of the people of Europe, North America, Australia and now China, India, Brazil and Russia. ***  Today, we are part of the “space generation”, crawling off the surface of the earth into the “oceans of space” – mining will continue to provide the capability for humankind to advance to the moon, mars and on to the stars.
    • 3. FIRST MAJOR SIGNIFICANCE OF MINING TO HUMANS THE STONE AND BRONZE AGES DID NOT END BECAUSE WE RAN OUT OF STONE OR BRONZE AGES PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE: STEAM INDUSTRIAL COMBUSTION ENGINE PLASTIC ELECTRIFICATION NUCLEAR SPACE ISOTOPE BIOENGINEERING WARP DRIVE INTERGALACTIC TIME TRAVEL ALL OF THE FUTURE AGES WILL BE PRECEDED BY THE SAME EVENT THAT HAS LAUNCHED ALL OF THE OTHERS – SOMEONE MAKES AN INTERESTING DISCOVERY
    • 4. “ WE CANNOT PROVE THAT THOSE ARE IN ERROR WHO TELL US THAT SOCIETY HAS REACHED A TURNING POINT, THAT WE HAVE SEEN OUR BEST DAYS. BUT SO SAID ALL BEFORE US, AND WITH JUST AS MUCH APPARENT REASON. ON WHAT PRINCIPLE IS IT THAT, WHEN WE SEE NOTHING BUT IMPROVEMENT BEHIND US, WE ARE ABLE TO EXPECT NOTHING BUT DETERIORATION BEFORE US?” LORD THOMAS B. MACAULAY, 1830
    • 5. TODAY A POSSIBLE TURNING POINT Carl Sagan’s Cosmos - Travels in Space and Time (Episode 8), 1989. “ Those worlds in space are as countless as all the grains of sands on all the beaches of the earth - and each of those worlds is as real as ours. In every one of them there is a succession of incidences, events, occurrences which influence its future - countless worlds, numberless moments, an immensity of space and time. Here on our small planet at this moment we face a critical branch point in history. What we do with our world right now will propagate down through the centuries and powerfully affect the destiny of our descendants. It is well within our power to destroy our civilization and perhaps our species as well. If we capitulate to superstition or greed, or stupidity, we can plunge our world into a darkness deeper than the time between the collapse of classical civilization and the Italian Renaissance. But we are also capable of using our compassion and our intelligence, our technology and our wealth, to make an abundant and meaningful life for every inhabitant of this planet - to enhance enormously our understanding of the universe and carry us to the stars.”
    • 6. THE CHALLENGES & REWARDS
      • Humans cannot survive as a single planet species as evidenced in the Earth’s fossil record of mass extinctions of life caused mainly by comet/asteroid impacts, super-volcanic eruptions and pending much hotter sun
      • Humans have a genetic “wiring” that drives exploration (risk) for discovery of new places and things (reward) – the earth no longer holds the exploration potential nor the rewards needed by society – it is time to move onto the rest of the Solar System
      DUNCAN STEEL – TARGET EARTH
    • 7. COMET SHOEMAKER-LEVY IMPACTING JUPITER JULY 16, 1994 (JUPITER’S DIAMETER IS 11.2 X EARTH’S) KNOWN MASS EXTINCTIONS OF SPECIES ON EARTH (IN THE FOSSIL RECORD)
      • END OF CRETACEOUS, ~65 Ma, ~75%
      • END OF TRIASSIC, ~205 Ma, ~75%
      • END OF PERMIAN ~250 Ma, ~90%
      • END OF DEVONIAN ~370 Ma, ~70%
      • END OF ORDOVICIAN ~450 Ma, ~85%
      THE DINOSAURS HAD NO SPACE PROGRAM - WE DO WE NOW HAVE SPACE SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS WORKING ON THE PROBLEM OF DETECTING, TRACKING AND DEFLECTING ASTEROIDS AND COMETS
    • 8. r = 100km r = 200km ASTERIOD IMPACT DIAMETER: 3000m VELOCITY 20km/s DENSITY 2700kg/m3 IMPACT ANGLE 90d ENERGY 7.63 X10 21 Joules 1.82 x 10 6 MT TNT CRATER 45.0km Diameter SIESMIC 8.8 Richter IMPACT EFFECTS @ 100km RADIANT FLUX 693 x Sun EJECTA DIAMETER 30cm EJECTA THICKNESS 6.31m WIND 801m/s (1790mph) IMPACT EFFECTS @ 200km RADIANT FLUX 160 x Sun EJECTA DIAMETER 4.8cm EJECTA THICKNESS 79cm WIND 326m/s (728mph) Earth Impact Effects Program R. Marcus, H. Melosh, G. Collins www.lpl.arizona.edu/~marcus/crater2.html Seattle, Washington, USA
    • 9. Launch Complex 39 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida showing the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) and Saturn V rocket being transported to the launch pad. Saturn V Launch (7.5M lb thrust) Kennedy Space Center USA NASA THE MOST SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING INTENSIVE INDUSTRY SPACE EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT
    • 10. CONSTELLATION PROGRAM Ares V: Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle Ares I: Crew Launch Vehicle SATURN V: 111 m long, 2.9M kg launch mass, 33.6M N launch thrust, 129K kg to LEO, 49K kg to Moon ARES: 109 m long (V), 3.7M kg launch mass (V+I) 53.3M N launch thrust (V+I) 148k kg to LEO, 64.8k kg to Moon Specific Impulse: solid boosters ~265 s (vac) liquid hydrogen/oxygen ~450 s (vac) NASA
    • 11. SPACEX (USA) – FALCON 9 HEAVY CANADA HAS THE 10 TH LARGEST ECONOMY IN THE WORLD AT US$1.34 TRILLION PER ANNUM GDP FOURTEEN COUNTRIES HAVE THE CAPACITY TO CONDUCT ORBITAL SPACECRAFT LAUNCHES CANADA HAS NO CAPABILITY TO LAUNCH ORBITAL SPACECRAFT SHAME ON CANADA
    • 12. NASA ASSEMBLY OF SPACECRAFT IN EARTH ORBIT
    • 13. POST AVATAR PANDORA MINING ENTERPRISES A JV BETWEEN EARTH INC. AND PANDORA NATIVES INC. PANDORA PIERRE LOISON 1861
    • 14. NERVA SOLID-CORE DESIGN AD ASTRA PLASMA ROCKET
    • 15. MOON
    • 16. MARS
    • 17. SATURN
    • 18. THE BENEFIT OF NUCLEAR POWER (PLUTONIUM 238 RTGS)
    • 19. SOLAR SYSTEM RESOURCES
      • INITIALLY BEST TO STAY IN THE GOLDILOCKS ZONE:
        • EARTH
        • MOON
        • MARS AND ITS MOONS (2)
        • MOONS OF JUPITER (63) AND SATURN (62)
        • NEAR EARTH ASTEROIDS AND COMETS
      • EXPLORING FOR:
        • WATER-ICE
        • HYDROCARBONS
        • NUCLEAR FUELS (URANIUM & THORIUM)
        • ALL OTHER MINERALS AND ELEMENTS
    • 20. CANADA WORLD LEADER IN MINERAL EXPLORATION
      • CANADA HAS 7% OF LAND AREA ON EARTH AND 0.5% OF POPULATION
      • 20% OF WORLD MINERAL EXPLORATION CONDUCTED IN CANADA
      • CANADIAN COMPANIES CONDUCT 43% OF THE WORLD’S MINERAL EXPLORATION
      • 45% OF THE WORLD’S $12.7 BILLION RAISED FOR MINERAL EXPLORATION IS VIA COMPANIES LISTED ON CANADIAN STOCK EXCHANGES
    • 21. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY RADIOMETRICS MULTISPECTRAL HYPERSPECTRAL SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR MAGNETIC ELECTROMAGNETIC GRAVITY REMOTE SENSING ASTER IMAGING
    • 22. SURFACE EXPLORATION CLAIM STAKING PROSPECTING SAMPLING
    • 23. SURFACE EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS GEOCHEMISTRY SURVEYING TRENCHING DRILLING
    • 24. MARK ELOWITZ APPLYING CANADIAN MINERAL EXPLORATION & MINING EXPERTISE ON OUR MOON LUNAR SPACEPORT WITH ADJACENT MINING OPERATIONS

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