Healthy ageing? The opportunities and challenges of an older workforce
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Healthy ageing? The opportunities and challenges of an older workforce

  • 218 views
Uploaded on

Slides from a Presentation by David Sinclair, Director at International Longevity Centre UK, to Cigna in June 2014.

Slides from a Presentation by David Sinclair, Director at International Longevity Centre UK, to Cigna in June 2014.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
218
On Slideshare
210
From Embeds
8
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 8

https://twitter.com 8

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • Across Yorkshire and Humber

Transcript

  • 1. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Healthy ageing? The opportunities and challenges of an older workforce David Sinclair, Director, International Longevity Centre – UK @ilcuk @sinclairda
  • 2. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. ILC-UK Planning Tomorrow, Today  think tank  evidence based  policy focussed  balanced  independent  respected  experts  networked  international
  • 3. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Who do we work with?
  • 4. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Our focus is broad
  • 5. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. We have worked extensively on “older workers and health”
  • 6. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Summary Why do we need to work longer? What is the current situation for older workers? Challenges to overcome (focussing on health) Is it getting worse – are we killing with kindness? How can we engage older workers What should you do?
  • 7. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Why do we need to work longer?
  • 8. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. We are living longer
  • 9. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. And as a result, the world is ageing
  • 10. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. But how much longer will we live? Aubrey de Grey: human life expectancy at birth in 2100 will be 5000 years. “I think the first person to live to 1,000 might be 60 already” Steve Jones: "In ancient times, half our children would have died by the age of 20. Now, in the western world, 98% survive to age of 21. Our life expectancy is now so good that eliminating all accidents and infectious diseases would only raise it by two years. Natural selection no longer has death as a handy tool."
  • 11. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Are we changing? “It is blindingly obvious that there is enormous difference between the seniors of yesteryear and people of the same age today.” Saga 2008 We have a wealthy cohort (on average) (and there are more of them) Recent retirees “are more strongly defined by the impact of consumer society on their lives and expectations of post work life than previous generations”
  • 12. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Or are we in denial of ageing? “They have fewer ties to family responsibilities... With their homes paid for their major housing concern is for property taxes and repairs... Being essentially free from obligation, they may spend their income and assets as they wish. Here is a potential market, therefore for those marketers who wish to appeal to it. It is a new market, almost unrecognised which must be developed with care as it depends upon the changing role of older persons in our society and the realisation that they are more free than their predecessors in the past century.” Dodge, 1962
  • 13. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Let’s not assume older people are all the same
  • 14. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. More of us expect to work longer A 2010 survey of 7,500 citizens in ten European countries found an expectation among 55% of respondents that working lives would extend beyond current national ‘retirement ages’. But we still don’t like the idea of higher “retirement ages” ‘a 2012 Eurobarometer survey showed most Europeans (60%) reject the need for higher retirement ages.
  • 15. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. And we will need the money Adapted from Aon 2010 State Pension Age has increased (and/or become less generous). Unless we extend working lives there are significant risks of future pensioner poverty
  • 16. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Future generations wont be able to rely on DB pensions Men in employment in the 50s are more likely to still be employed in their 60s if they have a DC rather than DB pension (ELSA)
  • 17. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Governments are beginning to link SPA to longevity In Sweden, pension entitlements are adjusted on the basis of expected life expectancy at the time of retirement. The Greek government has created an automatic adjustment mechanism that will kick-in in 2020 and will incrementally increase the statutory retirement age in line with increases in average life expectancy. The UK is exploring how to link pension age to life expectancy.
  • 18. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Fewer workers The number of working age adults across Europe has begun to decline across the EU-28. Despite the recession, some sectors of the European economy already suffer from skills shortages. There are 13.5 million UK job vacancies, which need to be filled over the next ten years, but only seven million young people are projected to leave school and college over that time. A report published by the Dutch Ministry of Interior and Kingdom Relations has suggested that by 2020 ‘there will be gaps of 30% or more in the employment pool for teachers and policemen, and even higher gaps for nurses’. http://www.flickr.com/photos/yooperann/86 84179741/sizes/m/in/photolist-eeoG5V- eYkq5p-eYkrkr-eYkt5c-eYkqER-eYwQ3A- eYkst8-eYksZe-eYusTG-egUZvF-8LzKbh- 8NXiGF-dG2nQD-dxeYhH-aeo7Fr-aW6xkV- 7TYQJN-7NE7J6-7NE7ug-cCsnC3-cCsonj- cCsmY7-8Xunt9-cCJC3N-9vYwDu-cCKwUW- drCVg5-bYvrFJ-boAHXD-ePBAmL-9bTuNn- 7AWjby-8rpRUo-fAzNBv-aeEupK-b8haur- 93ywzE-d8CVHw-fysKGk-9ukpCn-aeEvBc- aeEDbp-aeECQM-9qWM9P-fAtoq9-bY34zN- aJDtZF-8XMw7e-8x61Sr-asR8ab-84RcrD/
  • 19. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Projected Old-Age Dependency Ratio, 2010-2060
  • 20. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Migration won’t solve the problem The EU will receive over 60 million net migrants over the next 50 years (yearly average of around 0.2% of the EU population). Although inward migration could play a part in reducing dependency ratios, the EU would require a far higher level of net migration to maintain the current dependency ratio (an additional 11 million migrants by 2020).
  • 21. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. And migration within the EU is creating significant problems for some member states With over a million Bulgarians currently choosing to live and work abroad Bulgaria is increasingly suffering from an exodus of people of working age. Eurostat estimates that in 2060 Bulgaria’s old-age dependency ratio will hit 60% – and at that stage it will be the fifth highest in Europe. This problem is being confounded by a low-birth rate and by poor public health – the latter of which is prompting people to withdraw from the labour market prematurely. The Bulgarian government has expressed its desire to take action to promote economic activity amongst older workers and tackle this worrying trend towards a reliance on an increasingly small working-age population
  • 22. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. The cost of ageing Across the EU, age-related spending is projected to rise from an annual cost of 25% to 29.1% of GDP between 2010 and 2060.
  • 23. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Europe’s Economy needs older workers  Older workers are likely to play an important part in delivering future EU economic growth  The lump of labour fallacy has been debunked “States with the highest employment rates for older workers also have some of the lowest youth unemployment rates.’  A high percentage of people aged 25-49 across Europe are in employment (78% in 2010), and there is not significant variation across the EU (between 70% in Spain and 85% in Sweden). http://www.flickr.com/photos/wobblin/93110984/sizes/m/in/photolist- 9edDN-cEtQ8-d9vjk-dsULJ-e2UpY-i8roy-nCkvH-qCksF-suxzs-xifA2- AXqRq-HUtkC-K5ZPt-2xDrtX-34HXSE-3bkVxT-3n2a4g-3s8Y22-3z6FTQ- 3JiS8Y-3KaBnu-4dHUEQ-4iCUGq-4wNbM8-4wSkmb-4KyV1j-4N3Rc1- 56fKcL-57iwU3-583aQs-5cva8f-5k543p-5nxxYa-5vzBXm-5xCQMQ- 5AdZMc-5BStWT-5QYtPA-5R3Qve-5RUEc2-5WwEZ7-69cPMM-6cCG5h- 6nzjkK-6oLoJ3-6tE2Zp-6tE2Zt-6tE2Zz-6Azi8D-6Azj1X-6C6Jc3/
  • 24. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Older people will contribute to economic growth The base case Average annual GDP growth rates under different assumptions for migration and 65+ employment
  • 25. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Increasing output with more older workers • Relatively small year on year changes to the 65+ employment rate and rates of migration can make a significant difference to overall levels of ouput – particularly towards the end of the forecast period. • Assuming population grows in line with ONS’s high migration variant and the employment rate amongst the 65+ cohort rises in line with the 20 year trend, output can be 12% higher in 2037 than in a low migration, zero 65+ employment growth scenario. • Assuming base levels of labour productivity growth, this equates to a boost in output of £322bn in 2037 and £3.3 trillion over the entire forecast period relative to the low migration, zero 65+ employment growth scenario.
  • 26. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. A retirement, not an ageing problem
  • 27. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. What is the current situation for older workers?
  • 28. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Historically we used to work much longer Between 1881 and 2008 the economic activity rates of UK men aged 65+ fell from 74 per cent to 10 per cent. Now, the majority of people can expect to live for at least twenty years in retirement. US evidence
  • 29. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. When do people “retire”?
  • 30. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. It’s all Bismarck’s fault  Until Otto von Bismarck’s government providing the first state pension in Germany in the 1880s, people generally worked until death.  However, ill-health often prohibited work in the final years of life, leading to a reliance on younger relatives for support; and the wealthiest members of society obviously felt the compulsion to continue working far less (Meadows, 2003: 34).
  • 31. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Labour Force Participation rates by gender for people aged 55-64 in 2012
  • 32. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Participation is up Across the EU, the Labour market participation of older workers is up http://www.flickr.com/photos/mike_miley/9329810305/sizes/m/in/photolist-fdrHyn-8xz3FR-9vnwcd- fAtowj-dzqfDv-dL6bCk-7JYQ65-aeEvcc-aTr5g8-7TmCAE-8xbijT-8x91h7-cCpgPq-cCpeuh-cCpeSj-8x6272- e1Btov-e1H8kd-e1H8i5-e1H7RU-e1H8ym-e1Bt2e-e1H7T7-e1H8qq-e1BtwF-e1Btc4-e1H8M3-e1BtjB- e1BsW4-e1H7Hm-e1BsZz-e1H8Tb-e1BtvD-e1H7NL-e1H835-e1H7US-e1BtJB-7TYQKq-a5s36p-cAsDzu- cAsK5Y-cAsGqo-dQiX5Q-8w36Fd-fCmQeo-7GG6RH-dKD24E-9mPYKU-aeHusB-dPUVKv-dQ1xmQ/
  • 33. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Changes in Labour Force Participation of Males aged 55-64, 2002-2012
  • 34. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Changes in Labour Force Participation of Females aged 55-64, 2002-2012
  • 35. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Economic activity rates among 50-64 year olds
  • 36. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Change in number of jobs relative to 2007
  • 37. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Percentage of men aged 55-64 in employment in 2002 and 2012
  • 38. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Percentage of Women Aged 55-64 in Employment in 2002 and 2012
  • 39. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. But it is not time for complacency  Across Europe, just under one in three of those aged 60-64 are in employment  Just 13% of Hungarians aged 60-64 were in work in 2010 compared to over 60% of Swedes.  There are still countries where fewer than 40% of people aged 55-64 are in employment (Slovenia, Malta, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Belgium and Poland in 2012).  In one third of Member States, no more than one out of five workers (60-64) is employed.’  Over the period 2002-2008, the average age of labour market withdrawal among the EU-28 had only increased by an estimated 1.3 years, from 60.1 to 61.4 http://www.flickr.com/photos/heartindustry/3539408126/sizes/z/in/photolist-6oLoJ3- 6t2ZRY-6tE2Zp-6tE2Zt-6tE2Zz-6yNN61-6zee36-6zg5kx-6zGKop-6Azi8D-6Azj1X-6C6Jc3- 6DfPU7-6F7Z4y-6HsjYN-6KxdVN-6PMdG9-6RTF24-6RTVSj-74t2G7-757chN-76mWJ9- 77X5Vp-78orde-79ZZG9-7bpyf9-7cLdny-7hJf7s-7jwENJ-7kTpsU-7kY2Ku-7pri8t-7psPSN- 7qZWHT-7rtx6Z-7tB2Lw-7uskh2-7wghjp-7wghNr-7wghQF-7wk6Jj-9WDMaM-89dsU1- 7TYQKU-dBf26o-84k1CX-eeoG5V-eYkq5p-eYkrkr-eYkt5c-eYkqER/
  • 40. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Male and female unemployment rates (50-64)
  • 41. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Unemployment rate of men aged 55-64 in 2002 and 2012
  • 42. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Unemployment rate of women aged 55-64 in 2002 and 2012
  • 43. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Long-term unemployed (12+months) as % of total unemployment for people aged 55-64 in 2012
  • 44. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Portugal, Spain, Cyprus, Greece, and Ireland, the countries arguably hardest hit due to the economic crises, have seen falls in the employment rates of men aged 55-64. But these countries are not alone; of the 28 Member States just seven - Malta, Austria, Germany, Poland, Bulgaria, Finland and Slovakia – have seen unemployment fall between 2002 and 2012 for men aged 55-64, with Slovakia witnessing the largest fall in unemployment. http://www.flickr.com/photos/9908376@N07/4373407902/sizes/m /in/photolist-7EsRNw-8RJjdB-bxWpLx-etxshm-7Ucs5f-7LijWT- atUvu1-aJB6ma-8HgfbD-84JRCz-7xLBS4-7URU5v-awFypQ-e1wDjw- 9FUpvN-f36Fby-8UuX2V-8rqiTR-bxDTPt-9LSGwg-8Eqq7X-bJ64j2- e14cTm-9qrePP-8tQSxH-8y4MwB-8y8Crf-9qR8sV-7LAAaq-9KQC44/
  • 45. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Half of 55-64 year olds across Europe are not in work
  • 46. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Who “does” older workers well? http://www.flickr.com/photos/85169589@N00/1027343397/in/photolist-2yMppc-5ohnBt-d5C9Dq- 7VXeAX-8Dopm9-8DokGs-8DkdhV-8DnzoQ-8DnF1s-8DnHQ3-cNNv2d-9H5AuG-7J8a4d-8Doqsm-8DjHSg- 8DkaAB-8Dkp54-8DonDo-8DkmpV-8DoiuG-8Dog5J-8Dowms-8Dkivt-8Doo45-8Dkpot-8DouFN-8Dk96R- 8Dkaht-8DovfQ-8Dkosi-8Dka1T-8DotJq-8DohRm-8DomR1-8DoidN-8Doe4f-8Dk822-8DoiQE-8DohzC- 8DjMVF-8DnRwo-8DnSCj-8DjPY2-8DjuKB-8DjCTr-8DnDVG-8DnBPy-8DjNKZ-8DjLXc-8DjtF4-8DnAxy Over 80% of men and 70% of women aged 55-64 in Sweden are part of the labour force. Fewer than one in five women aged 55-64 in Malta are in work.
  • 47. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. When would Tintin retire? The Labour Force Participation of Belgians aged 55-64 is under 50% In 1929 Tintin was 14- 17 He would now be between 97 and 100 He would (probably) have retired a long time ago http://www.flickr.com/photos/97043691@N05/8975822752/in/p hotolist-eFaroG-eFaq4q-aFk3ge-8jb8T7-9Kbhqj-axt3E4-ffpKZe- aeNV3z-aiBjFu-bBFoCG-dKZ9MJ-aoT3vQ-dvGbsV-aFjAC4-ax3hHd- 9Hhp4B-9yPKVt-9taEdN-8fLk2L-7XVGwS-aH2rRk-b15Ffc-eu3XGm- 8zZ1hJ-8iSLY7-dhsKmn-dNAEoo-ayQUtD-aGaR44-aGaQXD- a3oAeU-a3oBqh-dpDmWX-ex8UnK-8swDeC-cARkbu-8QdyRs- ayQUvK-axqX7E-7H8VNP-7H8bMg-7Hc7VG-7Hc8vW-7H8WeF- auFs3Z-7ZN6ig-8gGkU5-9xQ22w-bcC9rx-9Cpaxt-a3k2jx
  • 48. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Since the 1970s.. 1970s-90s: Long-term falls in the participation of older workers continues due to unemployment; public and private pension schemes incentivising early retirement; and the provision of relatively generous pension schemes and social security. 1995-2007: The long-term falls in employment of older people across Europe begin to reverse as incentives to retire early are reduced. Post 2007: The growth in the participation of older workers across Europe continues despite the recession. However, unemployment amongst older people increases.
  • 49. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Challenges to overcome The role for employers
  • 50. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Challenges to overcome  Achieving gender equality  Skilling up the older workforce  Matching the demand and supply of older workers  Tackling ageism  Recognising the diversity of the working experience  Improving health
  • 51. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Achieving gender equality In every EU Member State, the life expectancy of women is higher than that of men, by 5.9 years on average. Yet despite living longer across the EU, women participate less in the labour market and retire earlier.
  • 52. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Gender difference in employment rates of people aged 55-64, 2012
  • 53. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Pension equalisation Increasing the employment rates of older women is important in the context of the move towards gender equalisation of pension ages across Europe. In 2009 13 Member States had lower pensionable ages for women than for men. By 2020, 18 will have equalised pension ages. Five further Member States have long-term plans to equalise pension ages, and just four have no legislation in place to do this.
  • 54. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Are things changing? In the UK, 30 years ago women’s work was mainly low- skilled manual work. Now those women working in their 50s are working at similar levels - if not pay - as men. There is a significant gender divide in Malta. While 74.6% of males in the 55-59 age group are in employment, the figure shrinks to 22.5% for women. The main reason for this withdrawal from the workforce (generally and also specifically for women) is not due to retirement but a culture in which families are the main care units for the old, young, or disabled.
  • 55. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Skilling up the older workforce The current cohort of older workers in Europe have low levels of education and qualifications compared to younger groups, and are more likely to have worked in agriculture and production http://www.flickr.com/photos/vancouverislanduniversity/7030135879/sizes/m/in/p hotolist-bHehti-bujtkb-bujsVQ-bHehDa-85BTMf-fB3sz9-8U4aEt-8U7ef5-8U7dZq- 8U4azx-8U7e2J-8U4amK-8U4aoF-8U4bBx-8U4aqD-8U4ava-8U4bxt-8U4awT-8U4aJT- dANpSj-efjvLR-efjvMa-fAtoH5-efqfy9-9TKhNE-dMDErt-cC4Rpo-dyTQy4-dyZiFS- dyTQBk-dyTQfH-dyZiRW-dyTQVk-dyZj3E-cbr6db-cC4RQf-dpMRHC-dM4fu3-eBwiug- 9sWF5C-bqSX4Z-8L8bJY-bHefuX-asYrni-8pHJLM-bVbsTU-egmkn9-d9aUVJ-bxEvP5- bxEvrf-bLzdct/
  • 56. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. In Poland, 350 universities have registered to become Third Age Universities as part of a scheme designed to promote more flexible learning for older people. The Polish programme 45/50 PLUS provides on-the-job and vocational training for older people to help them return to the job market. In order to increase the education and training opportunities, the German government intends to introduce greater flexibility to working time and open up more sabbaticals for its older workforce. The Estonia Unemployment Insurance Fund (EUIF) has therefore invested in mentoring and counselling schemes for older workers.
  • 57. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Matching demand and supply in the labour market  Is Europe’s economy creating the right jobs to meet the needs and wishes of the supply of older workers  A need for a focus on demand. More part time work opportunities? http://www.flickr.com/photos/viskadourakis/3468991141/sizes/ m/in/photostream/
  • 58. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Tackling ageism A survey of employers from five European countries in 2010 found large numbers of employers opposed to the idea of employees working even past 60, let alone 65 Kelly Services reported that ageism was a bigger issue than gender discrimination in Hungary. In Romania, ‘the labour market and its actors are still relatively less positive to older workers’. Employers in Greece tend to view age as an inhibitor to productivity, rather than seeing the benefits that experience and knowledge can bring. Despite ageism being a particular challenge in Estonia, there are at present few if any efforts made to create an age-friendly culture amongst employers and the general population.
  • 59. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Recognising the diversity of the working experience  Older workers across Europe are more likely than other ages to be self employed, on open-ended contracts, or working part-time.  We need to better understand the informal economy in relation to older workers?
  • 60. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Health and working longer  However young we may feel, our health is very likely to deteriorate eventually, with advancing age’. Metz, D & Underwood, M (2005)  The image of an old age of frailty and dependence is certainly not one most older people are experiencing and partly because ‘the onset of serious deterioration typically occurs quite late in life’. Metz, D & Underwood, M (2005)
  • 61. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. We might be spending longer in ill health  In the postwar period life expectancy has increased significantly. But retirement ages have not increased in line with this change.  However, even though a greater proportion of retirement is now spent in ill-health, we experience many more years of good health in absolute terms  Healthy life expectancy has not increased at the same rate as life expectancy (Mayhew, 2009).
  • 62. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. There are significant health/life expectancy inequalities Jubilee Line Map
  • 63. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Poor health pulls us out of the workforce  Good health enables people to stay in work for longer.  Researchers are virtually unanimous on the notion that ill-health leads to earlier retirement.  In a study for DWP in 2003, Alan Humphrey et al surveyed 2800 people aged 50-69. Of those not in work, half said it was due to ill-health.  But, a hot topic for research.
  • 64. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. But the picture is complex  However, ill-health clearly does not impact upon the retirement decisions of all social groups in equal measure.  Humphrey et al’s study, those not in work due to ill health were predominantly male and less educated, and more likely to be single. (NB- health factors are usually self-reported so may not be reliable)
  • 65. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. We find it more difficult to manage as we age
  • 66. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Eyesight, hearing and age Both men’s and women’s eyesight declines sharply beyond the age of 65, but women report failing eyesight in greater numbers. There is also a comparable increase in reported hearing difficulties with rising age, although in this case it is men rather than women who are more likely to experience hearing problems (Darnton, 2006) But (1) average decline (2) we can adapt – workplaces/ glasses/ assistive technology.
  • 67. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Physical strength and age On average, men in the over-50s age group have less strength than the under – 35s but that men are stronger than women for any given age range. ‘For both age groups the variation between individuals is substantial and the differences within a [age] group are larger than the differences in average strength between the two groups.’ Metz, D & Underwood, M (2005)
  • 68. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Mental health In the UK, currently there are over 800,000 people with dementia and this is set to rise to over 1 million people by 2025 and 1.7 million by 2051. One in three people who survive to 65 will end their life with a form of dementia.
  • 69. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Some aspects of mental performance might improve? In some cases, part of our mental performance may actually improve with age. Metz notes that whilst some aspects of mental performance peak at a younger age, others continue to develop throughout our adult lives. Metz, D & Underwood, M (2005)
  • 70. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Age might not be as important as other factors  Genetic and gender factors can be more important than age in terms of both physical and sensory loss.  In terms of both mental and physical health there is growing research which supports the hypothesis that deterioration can be significantly slowed down by older people themselves if they remain mentally and physically active. (Metz 2005)
  • 71. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Sleep (SOMNIA project)  Around half of older respondents to survey were clinically poor sleepers.  The proportion of those who sleep very badly increases with age, BUT once other variables were included in the model there were no age affects. In other words, a poorer sleep experience is not a factor of age alone, even if we are more likely to experience poor sleep as we age.  The most significant factor influencing insomnia is that of health.  Individuals with four or more health problems were found to be three times more likely to experience sleep problems.
  • 72. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change.  Participants with Cancer were found to be three times more likely to report a high PSQI score.  Those living with Musculoskeletal problems (mainly arthritis) were two times more likely to be living with poor sleep.  And people living with high blood pressure and diabetes were also more likely to report poorer sleep. Women reporting poorer sleep then men, even when controlling for other factors. Poor sleep tends to impact on the carers as well as the individual, a fact most carers will identify with.
  • 73. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Depression  Leaving work (or fear of leaving work) can be a cause  Depression affects 1 in 5 older people living in the community and 2 in 5 living in care homes. (Adults In Later Life with Mental Health Problems, Mental Health Foundation quoting Psychiatry in the Elderly, 3rd edition, Oxford University Press, 2002)
  • 74. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Depression  “23% of those aged 85 and over had levels of depressive symptoms indicative of clinical relevance”  “Almost 13% of men and women aged 80 and over had high levels of depressive symptoms in 2008-09 but not in 2002-03” (IFS, 2010) ELSA http://www.flickr.com/photos/junglearctic/3002 442666/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • 75. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Does growing old increase the risk for depression? “Healthy, normally functioning older adults are at no greater risk for depression than younger adults. What seem to be age-related effects on depression are attributable to physical health problems and related disability.” Roberts et al http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 9326820
  • 76. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Or A higher proportion of women than men reported that they suffered from anxiety or depression, with the highest indication of anxiety or depression occurring in the 50-54 age group. (ONS 2013)
  • 77. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Sickness absence and age Sickness absence has fallen for all age groups since 1993, but has fallen least for those aged 65 and over (ONS 2014) http://www.flickr.com/photos/regus- media/5839014005/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • 78. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Number of days1 lost through sickness absence by reason2, 2009 to 2013, UK millions Reason given for sickness Total days lost by reason 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 Musculoskeletal problems3 30.6 33.3 35.1 38.4 38.2 Minor illnesses 27.4 25.6 27.4 36.2 42.9 Other4,5 21.7 21.7 18.5 15.4 19.4 Stress, depression, anxiety 15.2 14.4 13.3 11.8 12.3 Gastrointestinal problems 8.7 8.9 10.3 10.9 7.3 Respiratory conditions 5.3 4.5 5.3 7.8 7.2 Eye/ear/nose/mouth/dental problems 5.2 4.1 3.8 2.6 4.4 Heart, blood pressure, circulation problems 5.0 5.7 4.5 2.9 2.7 Genito-urinary problems 3.2 4.1 5.0 3.2 2.3 Headaches and migraines 1.7 1.4 1.6 3.4 4.4 Serious mental health problems 1.0 1.1 0.7 0.7 0.5 Prefers not to give details 5.9 8.8 5.8 4.0 4.5 Total 131 134 131 137 146 Source: Labour Force Survey person datasets6
  • 79. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. It’s complicated Presence of chronic disease was reported more frequently with increasing age. The 55+ age group had almost two times less chance of frequent sick leave, but 1.6 times more chance of prolonged sick leave than the <36 age group (Dutch study, 2012, BMJ) More research needed.
  • 80. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Flu and age
  • 81. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Shingles can pull people out of work But do you vaccinate staff?
  • 82. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Menopause – almost never discussed “For most women it happens between the ages of 45 and 55 Hot flushes, palpitations, night sweats and sleep disturbance, fatigue, poor concentration, irritability, mood disturbance, skin irritation and dryness. Overall, this period of hormonal change and associated symptoms can last from four to eight years These can affect how a woman does her work and her relationship with her colleagues.” (UNISON)
  • 83. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. What does this all mean for employee productivity and age But studies of supervisors' ratings show no clear correlation between age and perceived productivity (Economist June 2004) Does “decreased abilities” lead to lower productivity given adaptability of workplaces?
  • 84. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Mixed evidence “We find that establishment productivity increases with the share of employees until the age of 50-55 and only decreases slightly afterwards. ” Goebel et al “Measuring this sort of thing precisely is riddled with statistical pitfalls: as a cohort ages, for example, the frail, with low productivity, drop out. The survivors tend to be the brightest and toughest. That puts average scores up. On the other hand, improved education in past decades probably biases test scores against people too old to have benefited from it.” Economist 2004
  • 85. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Improving health 45% of survey respondents were concerned about health as a barrier to working longer. In Germany and Norway, about two-thirds of respondents said this was their main worry (Aon 2010) Our analysis has found relatively few initiatives by governments or employers to explicitly improve the health of older workers.
  • 86. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change.  All Portuguese workers of 50+ are now required to carry out annual general medical exams.  Ageing at Work is a European Commission supported project that develops training for HR professionals on health and age management at a European level.  The Work Ability model developed by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health offers a framework and set of interventions to help organisations make the necessary adjustments.
  • 87. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Care as a factor  Caring has a significant impact on the process of retirement.  Paradoxically, even though women are more likely than men to have caring responsibilities, men are more likely to have to retire early as a result of caring responsibilities, due to the greater incidence of part- time work among women.  However, part-time and flexible working is not a panacea, as for many carers the biggest barrier to work is that one is unable to take leave at short notice to deal with crises.
  • 88. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. But worse? Are our workplaces “killing with kindness”
  • 89. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Participation falls when we leave school
  • 90. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. And it isn’t changing No change 2003-2008 (Scotland)
  • 91. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Even though we know it is good for us  409 randomly selected older people (65–84 years) Results: – levels of knowledge about the specific health benefits of physical activity were high. – Almost all participants (95%) believed that physical activity was beneficial and 79% believed that they did enough to keep healthy. – However, 36% did no leisure time physical activity and a further 17% did less than 2 hours per week.
  • 92. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Research backs case for physical activity In 1953, Morris et al published the findings from a study showing that bus conductors in London, who spent their working hours walking the length of the buses as well as climbing up and down the stairs of the English double-decker buses to collect fares, experienced half the coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality rates of their driver counterparts, who spent their day sitting behind the wheel.
  • 93. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. There are barriers. But do the policy solutions tackle the barriers?
  • 94. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Our workplaces are making us less physically active “There has been a decline in the number of traditional manual roles available, and growth in areas such as customer service and Information and Communication Technology (ICT), leaving many older former manual workers forced to enter new job markets in later life.” We are designing manual work out of manual work (BMW)
  • 95. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. “prolonged sitting is shortening our lives”
  • 96. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Our workplaces are like Rhyl Sun Centre
  • 97. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Is “working at home making it worse” The British Heart Foundation (BHF) says 10,000 steps a day (about five miles) can give you a healthy heart and reduce body fat
  • 98. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. ONLY CONNECT QUIZ – What links?
  • 99. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. ONLY CONNECT QUIZ Charles Dickens Winston Churchill Virginia Woolfe Ernest Hemingway
  • 100. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Former U.S. Secretary of Defense, Donald H. Rumsfeld, working at a standing desk
  • 101. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Popular Science, a magazine with roots much older than the Paris Review, first began writing about the virtues of standing desks for writers back in 1883. By 1967, they were explaining how to fashion a desk with simple supplies instead of forking over $800 for a commercial model — a hefty sum in the 60s, let alone now.
  • 102. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Are we killing with kindness? How can we design in physical activity across the lifecourse? Into the workplace and our built environment? Too much educate? Too little compulsion?
  • 103. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Can technology help?
  • 104. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. So how do we engage with older workers?  We know healthy ageing is important  But most of us don’t do it  And we don’t really know how  Educate/inform/compel?
  • 105. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Why do older people refuse services – Psychological issues to services  Lack of awareness of their own needs by older people themselves;  Lack of trust some older people have of formal services;  Concerns regarding revealing weakness or being associated with negative stereotypes;  The fear that one may be considered frail or elderly as a key barrier to engaging with the outside world.
  • 106. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Why do older people refuse services - Services may fail to fit with older people’s needs  Lack of choice and flexibility as to what is on offer;  Failure to meet personal and cultural beliefs, interests and priorities;  Conflicts between the value base of old and young, professional and layperson;  Services viewed as patronising or ageist.
  • 107. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Why do older people refuse services- Services may be inaccessible  Accessibility of services due to sensory and mobility impairments, for example reading small text, listening to recorded messages and accessing e-services;  Practical barriers such as lack of transport; lack of public toilets; fear of crime etc;  Bureaucracy and access criteria;  Poor quality of services or anticipated poor quality of services
  • 108. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Can you read the menu? In many European cities one of the main groups eating in restaurants are those over 50, yet very few 50 year olds are able to read a menu by candlelight with out their reading glasses. That is because the menus are usually designed by younger people in print shops, not for senior citizens. What a crazy situation: the people who the restaurants want to market to cannot read any of their sales literature. Patrick Dixon (2008)
  • 109. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Inclusive design
  • 110. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. What can you do?  Understand the barriers to uptake of health interventions in the workplace by age  Be age neutral (but might age prompts work)  Use the nudge/social norm – Promote activity as it benefits others – Your colleague does it, why don’t you
  • 111. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. I stay active… Because she deserves a dance with grandpa
  • 112. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. In conclusion  Age, health and work relationship is complex  In *many* areas, age related decline is not inevitable  There is some evidence of “use it or lose it”  Employers could play a bigger role in helping us age healthier (and work longer)  There is mixed evidence on impact of work on health
  • 113. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change.  Looking across the world (see case studies) limited innovation and almost non in health  Government’s seemingly ignoring the health barrier to working longer. Whose responsibility? Government Employers Individual?
  • 114. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Many thanks David Sinclair Director, International Longevity Centre Davidsinclair@ilcuk.org.uk 02073400440 Twitter: @ilcuk and @sinclairda
  • 115. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Case studies - Appendix Examples of how we can support older workers
  • 116. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Barriers Opportunities • Skills obsolescence • End of jobs for life • Ageist attitudes, particularly in recruitment • ‘Right to retire’ • Age-blindness: failure to support older workers • Age-related health conditions • Impact of stress • Caring responsibilities • Fewer training opportunities • Difficulty of job transitions • Poor job quality • Inflexible retirement policies • Recognition of skills shortages • Blurring of jobs and entrepreneurship • Active retirement and gradual retirement • Age-blindness: end of direct discrimination • Increasing healthy life expectancy • Recognition of importance of health • Recognition of increasing care demands • Lifelong learning • Flexible working arrangement • Less arduous jobs • Customer-focused companies
  • 117. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. What do older workers want? • 1 in 3 workers over 50 want to work beyond state pension age • Why? Financial reasons, mental well-being, job satisfaction • The importance of control, therefore flexible working/gradual retirement • Barriers to suitable gradual retirement: •Jobs not do-able on part-time basis •Loss of status •Pension impact •Line managers
  • 118. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. UK CASE STUDIES
  • 119. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. J Sainsbury: window of opportunity • Historically supportive of flexible working, e.g. for employees with caring responsibilities • Replaced ‘final salary’ pension scheme (with normal retirement age of 65) with ‘25 year window’ scheme to retire between 50-75. • Within this window, employees reduce working hours and claim part of pension- but still accrue further pension entitlements. • Can retain older workers in greater numbers, benefiting from skills and experience. References: Cranfield University (2010); EFA (2012)
  • 120. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Ernst and Young: keep in touch • Very active alumni network, user- led but supported by the company. • Company recruits ‘boomerangs’ from within the network, as employees or consultants. • Useful for attracting women back to the company. • Around 1 in 4 mature recruits is drawn from the alumni network. Reference: The Economist (2006)
  • 121. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. University of Central Lancashire: taking stock • Existing high levels of older workers: 2 in 5 employees aged 50+. • Designed ‘Fresh Steps’ programme delivered through two workshops. • Encourages employees to evaluate work and life holistically, their career development and training needs. References: Interview with Wilma Butterworth, Staff Development Manager, UCLan • Has led to increased uptake in flexible working and the development of ‘Pause for Thought’ – a counselling service for older employees.
  • 122. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Working Carers Network • Developed by Employers for Carers, supported by NESTA- workplace-based support for older carers. • Pilot: London Fire Brigade. • Online resources developed with employer (LFB- branded resources). • Led to development of peer-to-peer support network, and employers and employees working together to update resources. References: XXXX
  • 123. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. WorkAge: managing change • Run by York College. • Firms seek support from WorkAge to • address skill gaps • improve their image by recruiting older workers (Though no clear pattern of motivations for seeking help, underlining the fact that there is no single model for extending working lives). • Individuals are encouraged to recognise their transferrable skills and experience gained outside the workplace, and build confidence in their abilities. Reference: Interview with Sue Newton-Brown, Project Manager (Equality and Diversity), York College
  • 124. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. BMW: the future is now • Reorganised production line around 2017 workforce with average age of 47. • Results: 7% productivity increase, lower absenteeism, zero defect rate. • Plant implemented many ‘best practice’ measures re older workers: • Improved occupational health procedures. • Ergonomic transformation of work environment. • P/T and flexible working. References: The Economist (2006); Eurofound (2006); Hope (2005); Loch et al (2010); Roth (2010).
  • 125. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. The police service: the beat goes on • Many soft skills developed through years of experience. However, retirement age of 55 means that often skills are lost. • Police service runs the 30+ PLUS scheme, administered by National Policing Improvement Agency. • Any officer with at least 30 years’ service can apply to stay past age 55. • Eases retirement shortfalls and bulges while allowing organisation to retain key skills and maintain continuity. References: NPIA (2010)
  • 126. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Guernsey Post: getting there • AARP International Innovative Employer Award 2010. • Flexible and part time working opportunities allow gradual retirement and assistance for those with caring responsibilities. • Older workers can transfer to ‘indoor jobs’ towards the end of their career. • Offer pre-retirement training on tax, pensions, well- being, benefits, managing finances and working beyond retirement. • Asked if wish to continue working at 65, then if so given annual contract renewals from then on. References: XXXX
  • 127. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. INTERNATIONAL CASE STUDIES
  • 128. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Achmea: lifecourse approach to flexible working • Dutch financial services company. • No overtime requirement for over-50s. • Staff can reduce weekly hours from 38 to 34 using holiday time stored earlier in career. • Employees over 57 can reduce hours by 20%. References: XXXX
  • 129. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Ryobi: divide and rule • Japanese plastics manufacturer. • Highly complex production tasks that cannot be taught through manuals – danger of skills shortages when older workers leave. • Tasks divided into ‘simple’ and ‘technical’. • Allows the company to cope with losing older workers, but also allows employees to develop new skills over the lifecourse. Reference: Morioka (2008)
  • 130. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Older nurses in Atlanta: it’s ergonomics, stupid • AARP Innovation award 2010 for Fresh Steps • User-centred, whole-of-life, peer-based • Workshops lead to creation of informal networks • Pause for Thought launched in response to users reporting bereavement, loneliness, etc. References: XXXX
  • 131. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. McDonald’s: the customer is always right • Keen to eradicate the image of the ‘McJob’. • Worked to establish a business case around extending working lives. • Research from Lancaster University Management School found • customer satisfaction levels 20% higher in restaurants with employees aged 60+ (though may be due to an age mix rather than older workers per se), • 68% managers state older workers empathise with & connect well with customers.References: EFA (2010a; 2010b); Fairhurst (2010); Personal correspondence with Dr Shashi Balain, LUMS
  • 132. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Healthcare workers in Belgium: changing gear • AARP Innovation award 2010 for Fresh Steps • User-centred, whole-of-life, peer-based • Workshops lead to creation of informal networks • Pause for Thought launched in response to users reporting bereavement, loneliness, etc. Reference: Eurofound (2011)
  • 133. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Hansgrohe AG: mum’s the word EDIT • AARP Innovation award 2010 for Fresh Steps • User-centred, whole-of-life, peer-based • Workshops lead to creation of informal networks • Pause for Thought launched in response to users reporting bereavement, loneliness, etc. References: XXXX
  • 134. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Domestic and General: talking about my generation • AARP Innovation award 2010 for Fresh Steps • User-centred, whole-of-life, peer-based • Workshops lead to creation of informal networks • Pause for Thought launched in response to users reporting bereavement, loneliness, etc. References: XXXX
  • 135. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. OTHER SCHEMES
  • 136. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. • Older workers more likely than any age group to be self employed, though just 5% of business are founded by someone aged 60 or over. • More likely to start up business in later life with prior experience of self-employment • Prince’s Initiative for Mature Enterprise (PRIME) offers training, mentoring and loans to older entrepeneurs to break down barriers Self-employment – taking charge • Self employment may compel extending working lives for negative reasons e.g. lack of pension provision Berry (2010); Botham & Graves (2009). Image sourced from money.aol.co.uk
  • 137. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Workforce assessment tool: a need to know basis • AARP Innovation award 2010 for Fresh Steps • User-centred, whole-of-life, peer-based • Workshops lead to creation of informal networks • Pause for Thought launched in response to users reporting bereavement, loneliness, etc. References: XXXX
  • 138. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Slivers of Time: market in micro-shifts • Huge amount of under-utilised labour time. • Online labour market for small chunks of time. • Applied by Tesco, local authorities. • Opportunity for older workers to work flexibly, and retain control. References: Equality Law (2010); LGID (2006); Rowan, W (2010); Watt, N (2010); Wood, Z (2010); Interview with Claire Madden, Business Development Manager, Slivers of Time
  • 139. The International Longevity Centre-UK is an independent, non-partisan think-tank dedicated to addressing issues of longevity, ageing and population change. Volunteering: beyond employability EDIT • AARP Innovation award 2010 for Fresh Steps • User-centred, whole-of-life, peer-based • Workshops lead to creation of informal networks • Pause for Thought launched in response to users reporting bereavement, loneliness, etc. References: XXXX