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Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1
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Iks lecture designing_interactive_ubiquitous_is_part_1

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  • 1. Designing InteractiveSemantic CMS Community Knowledge- supported Ubiquitous Information Systems Lecturer Organization Results from the Date of presentation IKS AmI Case Co-funded by the 1 Copyright IKS Consortium European Union
  • 2. Page: Part I: Foundations(1) Introduction of Content Foundations of Semantic (2) Management Web Technologies Part II: Semantic Content Part III: Methodologies Management Knowledge Interaction Requirements Engineering(3) (7) and Presentation for Semantic CMS(4) Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (8) Designing Semantic CMS Semantifying(5) Semantic Lifting (9) your CMS Storing and Accessing Designing Interactive(6) Semantic Data (10) Ubiquitous IS www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 3. Page: 3What is this Lecture about? We have introduced ... Part III: Methodologies  ... software engineering methods for semantic CMS as „traditional“ (7) Requirements Engineering for Semantic CMS information systems. Designing What„s next? (8) Semantic CMS  Methods for the development of Semantifying ubiquitous information systems (9) your CMS need to consider additional aspects, like characteristics of (10) Designing Interactive the physical environment. Ubiquitous IS www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 4. Page: 4Designing Information Systems "What developers think makes a good system - itworks, its technically elegant, and its easy to use -is not necessarily what makes people want to use it Copyright by Nike - a good fit with their natural incentives and motivation.“ (Markus & Keil, 1994) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 5. Page: 5Designing Information Systems Design process deals with 3 components (Walls et al., 1992) (1) Design method - describes procedure(s) for the construction of the artifact (2) Kernel theories - from the natural or social sciences inform the design method, e.g., domain knowledge (3) Design process hypotheses - as testable results of design process, e.g., theorems or proofs “A good design of an information system is not only concerned with technically issues but also with managerial ones that affect organizations and their individuals.” (ibid.) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 6. Page: 6Principles towards the Design ofInformation SystemsP1 IS has to be "linked“ within the real world, e.g., specification of requirements, use cases and scenariosP2 Design method has to integrate diverse design steps and stakeholdersP3 Option of discussions about diverse design proposals, e.g., supported by feedback loopsP4 Evaluation of concepts and prototypesP5 Formalization of system designP6 Development of functional (rapid) prototypes and their iterationP7 Guidance through development process in all design steps (Markus et al., 2002) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 7. Page: 7Principles towards the Design ofInformation SystemsP1 IS has to be "linked“ within the real world, e.g., specification User requirements derived from kernel theories of requirements, use cases and scenariosP2 Design method has to integrate diverse design steps and stakeholders Methodical development processP3 Option of discussions about diverse design proposals, e.g., supported by feedback loopsP4 Evaluation of concepts and prototypes Design of SystemP5 Formalization of system designP6 Development of functional (rapid) prototypes and their iteration Methodical development processP7 Guidance through development process in all design steps (Markus et al., 2002) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 8. Page: 8 Design Method Pattern  5 generalized phases taken from leading design science approaches (1) Identification of problem and needs (2) Design of solution based on scenarios, use cases or requirements (3) Development of solution (4) Evaluation of solution and resulting design (5) Specification of design theory based on experiences and results during application of design method Design of Identification Solution based Specification on Scenarios, Development Evaluation of of Problem of Solution Solution of Design Use cases, and Needs Theory Requirements etc.(Hevner et al., 2004; March & Smith, 1995; Pfeffers et al., 2006; Rossi & Sein, 2003; Kuechler & Vaishnavi, 2008) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 9. Page: 9 Analysis of 12 Existing Design Methods P(1) P(2) P(3) P(4) P(5) P(6) P(7)Taylor & Swan, 2005 ● ● n/a - - - -Ross & Keyson, 2007 ● ○ n/a ● - - ●Le Rouge & Niederman, ● ● ● - ● - ○2006Crabtree & Rodden, ● ● n/a - - - -2004Schmidt et al., 2007 ● ● ○ - ● ● ○Peronne et al., 2005 ● ● ○ - ● ● ○Strömberg et al., 2004 ● ● n/a - - - -Mackay, 2004 ● ○ n/a - - - -Maiden et al., 2004 ● ● ● - - - -Buur et al., 2004 ● ● ● - - - -Chung et al., 2004 - - ● ● - - ○Aaen, 2008 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a ○ (● =Complete; ○ =Partly; - =No match; n/a =Not applicable) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 10. Page: 10Design Method for InteractiveKnowledge-supported UbiquitousInformation Systems Requirements: (1) Focus on social interactions between agents supported by technical services (2) Consideration of physical objects (3) Environments of Ubiquitous Information System (UIS) cannot be fully specified, i.e. UIS designs should be flexible enough to cope with a range of unpredictable events and entities. (4) Flexibility is supported by strongly modularized computing environments (Yoo 2010) Situational Design Method for Information Systems (SiDIS) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 11.  .Page: 11www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 12. Page: 12Situational Design Method forInformation Systems (SiDIS) Methodological approach of SiDIS is based on three Conceptual Model (CM) types  Abstract from technical issues and focus on aspects of situations in which users and user groups perform activities supported by information and communication services (Wand et al., 1995)  Shared understandings and vocabularies between different stakeholders during design process (Wand et al., 1995; March & Smith, 1995)  Described by various notations  conceptual modeling language (CML) , e.g., Entity-Relationship (Chen,1976) models; Unified Modeling Language (UML) etc. www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 13. Page: 13 Towards Explicit Domain Knowledge Individual System Design, Conceptual Modeling Conceptual Modeling Implementation, Execution Translation 1 Translation 2 Implicit Explicit domain Explicit domain knowledge domain knowledge knowledge expressed by expressed by a formal a non-formal language languageLanguages: natural language, Languages: vocabularies, Languages: OWL-DL, OWL2,„language of thought‟ thesaurus, class diagrams, OWL-Full, PL1, higher-order PL, In particular natural OWL Light, UML non-logical mathematicallanguages  in particular languages diagrammatic languages  in particular symbolic languages www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 14. Page: 14Problems with UML (Simons & Graham, 1999) e.g., Use case diagrams  Supposed to be independent of any formal design  conceptual structures by use cases mislead developers about design structures  Logical faults are introduced; prevent use case model from scaling up to large systems  Non-logical relationships  development of illogical use case models that have to be completely deconstructed later during design e.g., Class diagrams  Strength and weakness of UMLs class diagram = ability to capture wide variety of semantic relationships  anticipated, but not interpreted associations between entities in the analysis domain  Richness of representation confuses developer  “They are wrestling simultaneously with analysis and design perspectives, with data modelling and client-server functional dependency perspectives, all in the same diagram.” www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 15. Page: 15 Situational Design Method for Information Systems (SiDIS) – 3 CM Types (1) Narrative conceptual models of situations (2) Diagrammatic conceptual models (Pre-Artifacts) (3) Propositional conceptual models ① ② ③It‟s Thursdaymorning.Anna get site-specific weatherinformationwhen she isbrushing herteeth in thebathroom. www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 16. Page: 16 Principles towards the Design of Information Systems  SiDIS Principle Fulfillment of principle by SiDISP1 IS has to be "linked“ within the real world, Resulting UIS is linked to real world e.g., specification of requirements, use cases through creativity workshops and work with and scenarios real world situationsP2 Design method has to integrate diverse design Integration of diverse design steps and steps and stakeholders stakeholders, e.g., domain experts, users etc.P3 Option of discussions about diverse design Feedback loops proposals, e.g., supported by feedback loopsP4 Evaluation of concepts and prototypes Diverse evaluation steps during design processP5 Formalization of system design Representation of system design in formalized wayP6 Development of functional (rapid) prototypes Development of rapid prototypes, i.e. and their iteration mock-upsP7 Guidance through development process in all Guidance during all design steps design www.iks-project.eu steps Copyright IKS Consortium according to design method pattern
  • 17. Page: 17 Situational Design Method for Information Systems (SiDIS)It‟s Thursday morning. Identification ofAnna get site-specificweather information Problem andwhen she is brushing Needsher teeth in the Applied in IKSbathroom. Design of Solution based on Scenarios, Use cases, Requirements etc. Development of Solution Evaluation of Solution and Specification of Design Theory www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 18. Page: 18SiDIS Task 1: Identification of Problems andNeeds What is the problem that shall be solved? What is the motivation to design a solution? Identification of (business or private) problems and needs Workshops with domain experts to identify problem that has to be solved by the intended solution Outcome: Description of (business or private) problems and/or needs Involved stakeholders: Domain experts and computer scientists www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 19. Page: 19Application of SiDIS Task 1 in IKS Workshops with Duravit (manufacturer of high-end bathroom furniture)  Direct user interaction with contents in the bathroom  Merging physical world of furniture with digital world of contents  No “small windows to the digital world“  Holistic product design  USP compared to competitors Copyright by Duravit www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 20. Page: 20 Situational Design Method for Information Systems (SiDIS)It‟s Thursday morning. Identification ofAnna get site-specificweather information Problem and Applied in IKSwhen she is brushing Needsher teeth in thebathroom. Design of Solution based on Scenarios, Use cases, Requirements etc. Development of Solution Evaluation of Solution and Specification of Design Theory www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 21. Page: 21SiDIS Task 2: Derivation of situations(narrative CMs) Imagine, the intended solution would be already available: How would it be used in everyday life? Specification of usage situations in the domain of interest according to problems and needs defined together with domain experts Situations are textual descriptions of different entities -objects, roles, information, environments, services etc. – performing particular activities and interacting with each other Outcome: Specification of usage situations in form of narratives Involved stakeholders: Domain experts and computer scientists www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 22. Page: 22 What is a Situation?„(1) The way in which something is positioned vis-à-vis its surroundings. (2) The place in whichsomething is situated; a location. (3) Position orstatus with regard to conditions and circumstances.(4) The combination of circumstances at a givenmoment; a state of affairs. […]“ (Wiktionary) “(1) Manner in which an object is placed; location, esp. as related to something else; position; locality site; as, a house in a pleasant situation. (2) Position, as regards the conditions and circumstances of the case. (3) Relative position; circumstances; temporary state or relation at a moment of action which excites interest, as of persons in a dramatic scene. […] (Websters Revised Unabridged Dictionary) (Century Dictionary Online) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 23. Page: 23What are Narratives? “I have just returned from a visit to my landlord — the solitary neighbour that I shall be troubled with. […]” (Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë) “[…] To-day we shall not meet. Yesterday, when we said good-bye, the clouds began gathering over the sky and a mist rose. I said that to-morrow it would be a bad day; she made no answer, she did not want to speak against her wishes; for her that day was bright and clear, not one cloud should obscure her happiness.[…]” (White Nights, Fjodor Dostojewski) www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 24. Page: 24Application of SiDIS Task 2 in IKS Creativity workshop with Duravit Part A: Generation of ideas via Brainwriting Pool method  Development of situations together step by step  Selection of situations via Spot method  12 resulting situations Part B: Application of situations in real bathroom environment  Specification of thematical scopes, e.g., emotion, personalization; information types and forms, physical devices www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 25. Page: 25 Application of SiDIS Task 2 in IKSExample situation:Retrieval of site-specific weatherinformation as wellas free-time eventsuggestionsaccording toweather forecast.Synchronizationwith calendar. green: IT; red: information; yellow: realization of information www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 26. Page: 26Application of SiDIS Task 2 in IKS Derivation of narrative CMs based on situationsNarrative 1Anna gets site-specific weather information when she is brushing herteeth in the bathroom. Based on weather information and hercalendar, free-time event suggestions are given, e.g. "Today, 8 p.m. -Miss Marple Night at CinemaOne. Do you want to order tickets?” How to write a narrative within SiDIS? Focus on entities of situation (actors, roles, information, environments) and interactions between them Instance level  not type level No technical or implementatory aspects Understandable for everyone Short and sweet www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 27. Page: 27 Situational Design Method for Information Systems (SiDIS)It‟s Thursday morning. Identification ofAnna get site-specificweather information Problem and Applied in IKSwhen she is brushing Needsher teeth in thebathroom. Design of Solution based on Scenarios, Use cases, Requirements etc. Development of Solution Evaluation of Solution and Specification of Design Theory www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 28. Page: 28SiDIS Task 3: Derivation of diagrammatic CMs How to represent narratives in a structured, diagrammatic form? Translation of narrative CMs into semi-formal, diagrammatic CMs Highlighting essential elements of each narrative Outcome: Representation of narrative CMs in form of semi- formal diagrammatic CMs Involved stakeholders: Knowledge engineers and computer scientists www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 29. Page: 29 Generic Model of Conceptual Modeling  Useful conceptual modeling approaches “should enable both mappings without loss of information” [Wand et al. 1995].  The distinction between CMs and design models for information systems gets blurred if CMs can be executed [Wand et al. 1995] based on formal ontologies [Evermann 2009]. IS Domain  Consistency, syntactic, and Ontology O Ontology D semantic interoperability are major obstacles for workingCM (D , L O ) α α α, α with different CMLs [Booch & Conceptual Modeling CM(D, L, O) Rambaugh 1999], e.g.,CM (D , L O ) γ Υ Υ, Υ Rational Unified Process (RUP) provides 159 key Conceptual resulting artifacts that are Modeling Method M Modeling created and used during the Language L software development process [Kruchten 2003]. www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 30. Page: 30SiDIS Task 3: Diagrammatic CMs Pre-Artifacts Information System  composition of Information Sphere, Social System, Service System (Lamb & Kling, 2003; Lechner & Schmid, 2001; Orlikowski & Barley, 2001) UIS  additional fourth level: Physical Object System (Abstract Information System Model (AISM), Maass & Janzen, 2011) Pre-Artifacts conceive usage situations by highlighting requirements on social structures, information objects, physical objects and services of the UIS www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 31. Page: 31SiDIS Task 3: Pre-Artifacts www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 32. Page: 32 SiDIS Task 3: Pre-Artifact Patterns P1: Role P2: Service takes P3: Service uses Information Interaction Role Object Information Information Role Object Object receivedBy P7: Role creates usedIn takesRole Information Object Role r-interacts Role Internal Service Interface Service Information Interface Service Object or supportsAction creates Interface Service P5: Role uses Information Role Object supportsAction takesRole Information Object P6: Role uses Service Interface Service P4: Service receivedBy Information Interaction Object Role Information creates Object supportsAction uses usedIn Role Internal Service Internal Service s-interacts Internal Service supportsAction uses Interface Serviceor Interface Service or Interface Service or Internal Service www.iks-project.eu or Interface Service Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 33. Page: 33SiDIS Task 3: Exemplary PatternRoleInteraction P1: Role Interaction P1: Role Interaction Information Object Question usedIn usedInRole r-interacts Role Boss r-interacts Dogbert supportsAction supportsAction Interface Service Hotline Service www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 34. Page: 34SiDIS Task 3: Construction of Pre-Artifacts in 5Steps Step 1: Definition of Information Objects (IO) in Infosphere Step 2: Definition of user-system or user-user interactions related to IO Step 3: Definition of Roles taken by Services Step 4: Definition of supporting Internal Services Step 5: Definition of user initiative www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 35. Page: 35Application of SiDIS Task 3 in IKS Empirical study (n=46) to validate 12 narratives  7 relevant narrative CMs Derivation of 17 Pre-Artifacts that represent narratives in a diagrammatic form  In case of high complexity of narrative  multiple Pre-Artifacts are generated to avoid overloading of diagrammatic structure Library of diagrammatic conceptual models www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 36. Page: 36Application of SiDIS Task 3 in IKS: ExemplaryTranslation of Narrative CM into Pre-ArtifactIts Thursday morning. I get site-specific weather information when I ambrushing my teeth in the bathroom. Based on weather information and mycalendar, free-time event suggestions are given, e.g. "Today, 8 p.m. - MissMarple Night at CinemaOne. Do you want to order tickets?” Copyright by Duravit www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 37. Page: 37SiDIS Task 3: Construction of Pre-Artifacts Step 1 Step 1: Definition of Information Objects in Infosphere  All information objects that occur in a narrative are defined as Information Objects (IO) in the Infosphere.  Why? Information Objects are subjects of any later interaction!  Description of goal, i.e. intention of user in situation  Note  always take the perspective of the user when modeling! www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 38. Page: 38SiDIS Task 3: Construction of Pre-Artifacts Step 2 Step 2: Definition of user-system or user-user interactions related to Information Objects.  interactions between users or user and system related to newly generated information objects have to be defined  interactions take place between Roles in the Social System exclusively  Interactions between user and system are always supported by a service of the Service System (defined later in Step 3)  Application of Role Interaction pattern www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 39. Page: 39 Application of SiDIS Task 3 in IKS: Exemplary Translation of Narrative CM into Pre-Artifact Its Thursday morning. I get site-specific weather information when I am brushing my teeth in the bathroom. Step 1 & 2: Definition of Information Objects (IO) Site-specific in Infosphere; DefinitionInfosphere Global Weather Information Weather Location of user-system or user- Information user interactions related to IO Goals a) Getting weather information for user„s usedIn location [User]Social System Personalized Weather r-interacts User AssistantService System Notation Action supports Action Information Role Object Personalized Weather Service Slide 39 www.iks-project.eu © Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Maass Interface Service Internal Service Mai 2011
  • 40. Page: 40SiDIS Task 3: Construction of Pre-Artifacts Step 3 Step 3: Definition of Roles taken by Services  interface service has to be defined that takes a role for creating the new information object that will be used in the interaction  service has to take a role in the interaction  Option (1) service is linked to a role that was already defined in step 2 or option (2) it adds a new role  Application of RoleCreatesInformationObject and ServiceTakesRole pattern www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 41. Page: 41 Application of SiDIS Task 3 in IKS: Exemplary Translation of Narrative CM into Pre-Artifact Its Thursday morning. I get site-specific weather information when I am brushing my teeth in the bathroom. Step 3: Definition of Site-specific Roles taken byInfosphere Global Weather Weather Location Information Information Services create s Goals a) Getting weather information for user„s usedIn location supports [User] ActionSocial System Personalized Weather r-interacts User Assistant takes RoleService System Notation Action supports Action Information Role Object Personalized Weather Service Slide 41 www.iks-project.eu © Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Maass Interface Service Internal Service Mai 2011
  • 42. Page: 42SiDIS Task 3: Construction of Pre-Artifacts Step 4 Step 4: Definition of supporting Internal Services  To create new information objects, generic information sources are needed  interface service that supports the creation of a new IO needs access to these sources  Internal Services for all remaining information objects in the Infosphere have to be specified  Interaction between services regarding information objects is realized by applying the Service Interaction and ServiceUsesInformationObject pattern www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 43. Page: 43 Application of SiDIS Task 3 in IKS: Exemplary Translation of Narrative CM into Pre-Artifact Its Thursday morning. I get site-specific weather information when I am brushing my teeth in the bathroom. Step 4: Definition of Site-specific supporting InternalInfosphere Global Weather Weather Location Information Information Services create usedIn s Goals a) Getting weather information for user„s usedIn usedIn location supports [User] ActionSocial System Personalized Weather r-interacts User Assistant takes RoleService System Notation Action supports Action Information Role Object User Context Weather Service s-interacts Personalized s-interacts Weather Service Service www.iks-project.eu Interface Service Slide 43 Internal Service © Prof. Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Maass Mai 2011
  • 44. Page: 44SiDIS Task 3: Construction of Pre-Artifacts Step 5 Step 5: Definition of user initiative  If a user role initiates an interaction with the system  situation is modeled by using the Role uses Service or Role uses Information Object pattern  role uses a service to create or receive an information object, for instance, the user wants to leave a message for another user  action is indirectly supported by a service www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 45. Page: 45Literature on SiDIS Maass, W. & Janzen, S.: Pattern-Based Approach for Designing with Diagrammatic and Propositional Conceptual Models, 6th International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology, DESRIST 2011, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, 2011. Janzen, S., Kowatsch, T. & Maass, W.: A Methodology for Content- Centered Design of Ambient Environments, DESRIST 2010: Global Perspectives on Design Science Research, St. Gallen, Switzerland, 2010. Maass, W. & Varshney, W.: A Framework for Smart Healthcare Situations and Smart Drugs. SIG-Health Pre-AMCIS Workshop at the 15th Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS 2009). San Francisco, USA. www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 46. Page: 46Further Publications Walls, J.G., Widmeyer, G.R., Sawy, O.E.: Building an information system design theory for vigilant eis. Information Systems Research 3(1) (1992) 36-59 Markus, M.L., Keil, M.: If we build it, they will come: Designing information systems that people want to use. Sloan Management Review 35 (1994) 11-25 Markus, L.M., Majchrzak, A., Gasser, L.: A design theory for systems that support emergent knowledge processes. MIS Quarterly 26(3) (2002) 179-212 Pries-Heje, J., Baskerville, R.: The design theory nexus. MIS Quarterly 32(4) (January 2008) 731-755 Hevner, A.R., March, S.T., Park, J., Ram, S.: Design science in information systems research. MIS Quarterly 28(1) (2004) 75-105 March, S.T., Smith, G.F.: Design and natural science research on information technology. Decis. Support Syst. 15(4) (1995) 251-266 Pfeffers, K., Tuunanen, T., Gengler, C.E., Rossi, M., Hui, W., Virtanen, V.e.a.: The design science research process: A model for producing and presenting information systems research. In: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology (DESRIST 2006), Claremont, CA, USA (2006) 83106 Rossi, M., Sein, M.K.: Design research workshop: A proactive research approach. (2003) Kuechler, W.L.J., Vaishnavi, V.K.: An expert system for dynamic re-coordination of distributed workows. Expert Syst. Appl. 34(1) (2008) 551-563 Ross, P., Keyson, D.V.: The case of sculpting atmospheres: towards design principles for expressive tangible interaction in control of ambient systems. Personal Ubiquitous Comput. 11(2) (2007) 69-79 Le Rouge, C.M., Niederman, F.: Information systems and health care xi: Public health knowledge management architecture design: A case study. Communications of the Association for Information Systems 18 (2006) Schmidt, A., Terrenghi, L., Holleis, P.: Methods and guidelines for the design and development of domestic ubiquitous computing applications. Pervasive Mob. Comput. 3(6) (2007) 721-738 www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium
  • 47. Page: 47Further Publications (cont.) Perrone, V., Bolchini, D., Paolini, P.: A stakeholders centered approach for conceptual modeling of communication-intensive applications. In: SIGDOC 05: Proceedings of the 23rd annual international conference on Design of communication, New York, NY, USA, ACM (2005) 25-33 Strömberg, H., Pirttila, V., Ikonen, V.: Interactive scenarios|building ubiquitous computing concepts in the spirit of participatory design. Personal Ubiquitous Comput. 8(3-4) (2004) 200-207 Mackay, W.E.: The interactive thread: exploring methods for multi-disciplinary design. In: DIS 04: Proceedings of the 5th conference on Designing interactive systems, New York, NY, USA, ACM (2004) 103-112 Maiden, N., Manning, S., Robertson, S., Greenwood, J.: Integrating creativity workshops into structured requirements processes. In: DIS 04: Proceedings of the 5th conference on Designing interactive systems, New York, NY, USA, ACM (2004) 113-122 Buur, J., Jensen, M.V., Djajadiningrat, T.: Hands-only scenarios and video action walls: novel methods for tangible user interaction design. In: DIS 04: Proceedings of the 5th conference on Designing interactive systems, New York, NY, USA, ACM (2004) 185-192 Chung, E.S., Hong, J.I., Lin, J., Prabaker, M.K., Landay, J.A., Liu, A.L.: Development and evaluation of emerging design patterns for ubiquitous computing. In: DIS 04: Proceedings of the 5th conference on Designing interactive systems, New York, NY, USA, ACM (2004) 233-242 Aaen, I.: Essence: Facilitating agile innovation. In: XP. (2008) 1-10 Alexander, C.: The timeless way of building. Oxford University Press, New York (1979) Clark, P., Thompson, J., Porter, B.: Knowledge patterns. In: In Proc. of KR-2000, Morgan Kaufmann (2000) 591-600 Gangemi, A.: Ontology design patterns for semantic web content. In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Semantic Web Conference, Springer (2005) 262-276 Y. Yoo, Computing in Everyday Life: A Call for Research on Experiential Computing, Mis Quart, 34(2) (2010) 213-231. P. Chen, The Entity-Relationship Model--Toward a Unified View of Data, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, 1(1) (1976) 9-36. Davis, F.D. (1989). Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319-339. www.iks-project.eu Copyright IKS Consortium

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