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Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse

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In this paper, a new bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter(SEPIC) power-factor-correction(PFC) rectifier is introduced. The proposed circuit provides lower conduction losses with …

In this paper, a new bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter(SEPIC) power-factor-correction(PFC) rectifier is introduced. The proposed circuit provides lower conduction losses with reduced components simultaneously. In conventional PFC converters(continuous-conduction-mode boost converter), a voltage loop and a current loop are required for PFC.Simulation is done on bridgeless SEPIC and full bridge SEPIC and found that by working both in DCM conduction losses is less for bridgeless. In the proposed converter, the control circuit is simplified, and no current loop is required while the converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode.

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  • 1. International OPEN ACCESS Journal Of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 15 | Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse Danly Elizabeth Mathew1 , Jyothi G. K.2 1 (Student, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, FISAT, MG university, Kerala, India) 2 (Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, FISAT, MG university, Kerala, India) I. Introduction Today’s commercial, industrial, retail and even domestic premises are increasingly populated by electronic devices such as PCs, monitors, servers and photocopiers which are usually powered by switched mode power supplies (SMPS). If not properly designed, these can present non-linear loads which impose harmonic currents. Harmonics can damage cabling and equipment within this network, as well as other equipment connected to it. Problems include overheating and fire risk, high voltages and circulating currents, equipment malfunctions and component failures, and other possible consequences. A non-linear load is liable to generate these harmonics if it has a poor power factor. Today’s standards like International Electro technical Commission (IEC) 61000-3-2 limit the harmonics produced by these devices. Therefore, to satisfy the standards, power-factor-correction (PFC) converters are used for ac–dc conversion. The conventional PFC converter is a boost converter, and thus, the output voltage must be greater than the input voltage. In spite of this problem, this converter is widely used because of its simplicity. In large number of applications, like offline low-voltage power supplies, where it is preferred to have the PFC output voltage lower than the input ac voltage, a buck-type converter is required. However, the input current of buck converter is discontinuous, and to filter this current, another passive filter must be used at the buck converter input. This is the characteristic of all converters in which a buck converter is at its input, such as buck–boost, non-inverting buck–boost, fly back, etc.. To resolve this problem, boost–buck converters like single-ended primary-inductor converter (SEPIC) and C´uk converters must be used. SEPIC is a DC to DC converter and is capable of operating in either step up or step down mode and widely used in battery operated equipment by varying duty cycle of gate signal of MOSFET. We can step up or step down voltage .For duty cycle above 0.5 it will step up and below 0.5, it will step down the voltage to required value. Various conversion topologies like buck, boost, buck-boost are used to step up or step down voltage. Some limitation like pulsating input and output current, inverted output voltage, in case of buck converter floating switch make it unreliable for different application. So it is not easy for conventional power converter design to maintain high efficiency especially when it step or step down voltage. All these characteristics are obtained in SEPIC DC to DC power conversion . Consequently, the input current would be continuous and also the output voltage can be lower than the input voltage. All these converters can be used in either discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) or continuous conduction mode (CCM). In CCM, a control circuit is required, but in DCM, the converter can operate at a fixed duty cycle to correct the input power factor (PF). DCM operation of boost converter causes the input current to become discontinuous. Therefore, extra passive filter is needed to shape the input current toward sinusoidal waveform. In case of SEPIC and C´uk converters, due to the existence of two inductors in each converter, the input current is continuous even when the converter is operating in DCM. ABSTRACT: In this paper, a new bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter(SEPIC) power- factor-correction(PFC) rectifier is introduced. The proposed circuit provides lower conduction losses with reduced components simultaneously. In conventional PFC converters(continuous-conduction-mode boost converter), a voltage loop and a current loop are required for PFC.Simulation is done on bridgeless SEPIC and full bridge SEPIC and found that by working both in DCM conduction losses is less for bridgeless. In the proposed converter, the control circuit is simplified, and no current loop is required while the converter operates in discontinuous conduction mode. Keywords: Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM), Discontinuous Conduction Mode (DCM), Duty cycle (D), IPower factor correction (PFC), Single ended primary inductance converter(SEPIC).
  • 2. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 16 | II. Review of Literature and Statement of Problem Conventional PFC converter is a rectifier followed by a boost converter as shown in Fig. 2.1. There are several disadvantages in this combination. At any given instant, three semiconductor devices exist in the power flow path. Also, special design of the dc-side inductor is necessary to carry the dc current as well as high- frequency ripple current. To overcome these problems, the bridgeless ac to dc rectifier is proposed as shown in Fig. 2.2. Fig. 2.3 shows a conventional SEPIC PFC converter. In the literature, an interesting and novel bridgeless SEPIC PFC is introduced to minimize the conduction losses . This topology is similar to the bridgeless boost PFC rectifier .Despite the mentioned advantage, in comparison to the conventional SEPIC rectifier, this converter has three extra passive elements which contribute to the volume and weight of the converter. Another major problem with this converter is that it doubles the output voltage which considerably increases the size of output filter. To overcome these limitations, a new bridgeless SEPIC PFC is introduced in this paper. This converter has no extra (passive or active) elements in comparison to conventional SEPIC PFC. Also, in this converter, the conduction losses (number of active elements in the current path) are reduced in comparison to the conventional SEPIC PFC. Figure. 2.1: Conventional PFC converter Figure 2.2: Conventional bridgeless boost PFC.
  • 3. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 17 | Figure 2.3 Conventional SEPIC PFC rectifier III. Modified Bridgeless PFC Circuit Operation Fig. 3.1 shows the power stage of a bridgeless SEPIC PFC rectifier. In this circuit, the SEPIC converter is combined with the input rectifier and operates like a conventional SEPIC PFC converter. The operation of this converter is symmetrical in two half-line cycles of input voltage. Therefore, the converter operation is explained during one switching period in the positive half-line cycle of the input voltage. It is assumed that the converter operates in DCM. It means that the output diode turns off before the main switch is turned on. In order to simplify the analysis, it is supposed that the converter is operating at a steady state, and all circuit elements are ideal. In addition, the output capacitance is assumed sufficiently large to be considered as an ideal dc voltage source ( 𝑉0) as shown in Fig. 3.2. Also, the input voltage is assumed constant and equal to Vac (t0)in a switching cycle. Figure 3.1: Proposed bridgeless SEPIC PFC Figure 3.2: Equivalent circuit of the proposed bridgeless SEPIC PFC in a switching cycle.
  • 4. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 18 | Based on the aforementioned assumptions, the circuit operation in a switching cycle can be divided into three modes as shown by the equivalent circuits in Fig. 3.3. The theoretical waveforms are shown in Fig. 4.1. Before the first mode, it is assumed that the converter is in freewheeling mode. Therefore, D1 and the body diode of S2 are conducting, and all other semiconductor devices are off. Note that the voltage of C1 follows the input voltage in DCM. Mode 1: [t0−t1] This mode starts by turning 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 on. Input inductor current ( 𝐿1 current) starts to rise linearly by a slope of 𝑉𝑎 𝑐 (𝑡0)/𝐿1. The voltage across 𝐿2 is equal to the voltage of 𝐶1 which follows the input voltage. Thus, 𝑖 𝐿2 decreases linearly by a slope of −Vac (t0)/L2. This mode ends by turning off S1. Based on the aforementioned operation, the following equations can be obtained: 𝑖𝑖𝑛 (t)= 𝑖 𝐿1(t)= 𝑖𝑓𝑤 + 𝑉𝑎𝑐 (𝑡0) 𝐿1 (t- 𝑡0) (1) 𝑖 𝐿2(t)= 𝑖𝑓𝑤 - 𝑉𝑎𝑐 (𝑡0) 𝐿2 (t- 𝑡0) (2) 𝑖 𝑠𝑤1(t)= 𝑖 𝐿1 − 𝑖 𝐿2 = ( 𝑉𝑎𝑐 (𝑡0) 𝐿1 + 𝑉𝑎𝑐 (𝑡0) 𝐿2 )t (3) whereifw is the freewheeling current which is equal to the input current. From (3), it can be concluded that S1 turns on under zero-current (ZC) switching condition. Mode 2: [ 𝑡1− 𝑡2] By turning 𝑆1 and 𝑆2 off, 𝐷3 begins to conduct. Input inductor current decreases linearly by a slope of − 𝑉0/ 𝐿1, and 𝑖 𝐿2 increases linearly by a slope of 𝑉0/𝐿2 until it reaches to 𝑖𝑓𝑤 . By substituting t = 𝑡1 in (2), 𝑖 𝐿2 is obtained as the following: 𝑖 𝐿2(t)= 𝑖 𝐿2 𝑡1 + 𝑉0 𝐿2 (t- 𝑡1) (4) Thus, the duration of this mode is 𝑡2- 𝑡1= 𝑉𝑎𝑐 (𝑡0) 𝑉0 ( 𝑡1 − 𝑡0) (5) Mode 3: [ 𝑡2− 𝑡3] This mode begins when 𝐷3 turns off and the freewheeling mode starts. This mode ends by starting the next switching cycle at 𝑡3. The current through inductors 𝐿1 and 𝐿2 are equal. The duration of this mode is 𝑡3 − 𝑡2 = 𝑇𝑠 − (𝑡2 − 𝑡0) (6) whereTs is the switching period.
  • 5. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 19 | Figure 3.3: Equivalent waveforms of different modes of operation The above equivalent circuit holds if the switching pulse is as in Fig 3.6 .If the switching pulse is as in Fig 3.7 then instead of body diode the switch path is taken in Fig 3.3 (b) and (c) i.ethe current via an intrinsic body diode is forced to flow through the channel of the switch. It can reduce the conduction loss on the switch further and the efficiency can be improved.
  • 6. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 20 | 3.1 Comparison of Full Bridge and Bridgeless SEPIC Converter Figure 3.4: Full bridge SEPIC converter Figure 3.5: Bridgeless SEPIC converter Conventional full bridge SEPIC converter is given PWM pulses and operated in switch on mode, switch off mode and freewheeling mode. Bridgeless SEPIC converter is given switching pulses such that one switch is continuously turned on during on half cycle with other switch is given PWM pulses, in the next half the switches are reversed. So in effect both switches off condition don’t exist, so the conduction through the body diode can be omitted and thus reduce conduction losses and efficiency can be improved. Figure 3.6: Switching pulses for full bridge SEPIC converter Figure 3.7:Switching pulses for Bridgeless SEPIC converter IV. Design Procedure and Efficiency Improvement Design procedure of this converter is similar to the conventional SEPIC PFC converter. Therefore, in this section, the design procedure is explained by an example. A converter with the following specifications is designed: 𝑉𝑎𝑐 = 𝑉1sin(ωt) = 180√2 sin(2π50t) 𝑉0=150 ± 5 Vdc 𝑃0=150 W 𝑓𝑠=100 kHz Δ 𝐼𝐿=20% 𝐼1
  • 7. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 21 | where 𝑉 𝑎𝑐 is the input sinusoidal voltage, 𝑉0is the output dc voltage, 𝑃0is the output power, 𝑓𝑠is the switching frequency, Δ 𝐼𝐿is the input current ripple, and 𝐼1 is the input current peak. Step 1: Input Current From the output power and converter efficiency, the following equation can be obtained: 𝐼𝑖𝑛 = 𝐼1sin(ωt)= 2𝑃0 𝑉1 𝜂 sin(ωt) (7) if efficiency, (η) is set equal to 90%, then 𝐼𝑖𝑛 =1.32sin(2π50t), △𝐼𝐿=0.26A (8) Fig. 4 shows that input current ripple is △𝐼𝐿= 𝑉𝑎𝑐 𝑡0 𝑑 𝐿1 𝑓𝑠 (9) Step 2: Output Current The output current is the average current of D3. Therefore, the output average current in a switching cycle can be obtained from the following equation: 𝑖0,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 𝑖 𝑜𝑝 𝑑1 2 (10) where 𝑑1 is the duty ratio of diode 𝐷3 and is the peak current of 𝐷3 which can be obtained from the following relation: 𝑖 𝑜𝑝 =𝑖 𝐿1(𝑡1) + 𝑖 𝐿2(𝑡1) = 1 𝐿1 + 1 𝐿2 𝑉𝑎𝑐 𝑡0 𝑑𝑇𝑠 (11) Assuming 1/ 𝐿 𝑒= (1/ 𝐿1) + (1/ 𝐿2), then, from (5), (10), and (11), the following can be deduced: 𝑖0,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 𝑉𝑎𝑐 2(𝑡0)𝑑2 2𝐿 𝑒 𝑉0 𝑇𝑠 (12) The average output current in one half of the line cycle becomes 𝐼0,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 1 𝜋 𝑖0,𝑎𝑣𝑔 𝜋 0 dωt = 𝑉12 𝑑2 4𝐿 𝑒 𝑉0 𝑇𝑠 (13) Step 3: Ensuring DCM Operation To operate at DCM, the following inequality must hold: 𝑑1<1-d (14) By substituting (5) in the previous equation, the following inequality is obtained. This ensures that the converter operates at DCM. d≤ 𝑉0 𝑉𝑎𝑐 𝑡0 + 𝑉0 0.392 (15) Using (4.8) and selecting d = 0.3, thus 𝐿 𝑒 = 𝑉12 𝑑2 4𝑉0 𝑓𝑠 𝐼 𝑜,𝑎𝑣𝑔 =147μH (16) From (9), L can be calculated as 𝐿1 = 𝑉𝑎𝑐 𝑡0 𝑑 𝑓𝑠 𝐼 𝑟𝑖𝑝 = 3.4mH (17) Therefore, 𝐿2 can be calculated from the following equation:
  • 8. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 22 | 1 𝐿2 = 1 𝐿 𝑒 − 1 𝐿1 (18) Step 4: Output Capacitor ( 𝑪 𝟎) Output ripple frequency is two times the input frequency, and at the worst case, the output current during the half period of ripple frequency must be provided by the output capacitor. Therefore, CO can be obtained from the following equation: 𝐶0 = 𝑃0 4𝑓1 𝑉0∆𝑉0 =1000μH (19) where 𝑓1 is the input frequency and Δ 𝑉0is the output ripple. Step 5: Maximum Ratings of Semiconductor Elements The maximum switch voltage and current can be obtained from the following equations: 𝑉𝐷,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑉𝑆𝑊,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑉1 + 𝑉0 = 400𝑉 (20) 𝐼 𝐷,𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐼𝑆𝑊,𝑚𝑎𝑥 ≈ 𝐼1 + ∆𝐼𝐿 − 𝐼𝐿2,𝑚𝑖𝑛 =7.68 A (21) where 𝑉1 and 𝐼1 are the input voltage and current peaks, respectively. Figure 4.1: Theoretical waveform of proposed PFC converter
  • 9. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 23 | Step 6: Control Circuit Based on the aforementioned operation of the proposed PFC circuit in DCM and the model given in for SEPIC PFC rectifier, the control circuit does not require a current loop to shape the input current. Therefore, any pulse width modulation IC can be used to control this PFC converter. The block diagram of the controller is shown in Fig. 4.1. It must be noted that, similar to conventional PFC, the voltage loop cannot compensate the 2fin output voltage ripple (fin is the input voltage frequency). Thus, the voltage loop must be designed so that the control circuit would neglect the 2fin ripple. 4.1 Efficiency Improvement Based on circuit operation, it can be observed that one diode of rectifier is omitted in the current flow path and another diode is replaced by a switch. The voltage drop of a MOSFET is usually lower than a diode at low currents (In this application, the current is not so high). Therefore, it can be assumed that the losses of rectifier diodes are reduced from the total losses. By the following equations, the losses of these two diodes can be calculated 𝑃𝐷,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 1 𝑇 𝑉𝐷 𝐼 𝐷 𝑑𝑡 = 1 𝜋 1 ∗ 1.3 sin 𝜔 𝑑𝜔 𝜋 0 𝑇 0 (22) 𝑃𝐷,𝑎𝑣𝑔 = 0.83𝑊 where 𝑃𝐷,𝑎𝑣𝑔 is the average power loss in one diode of the input rectifier. Thus, the efficiency improvement of 150-W converter can be calculated from the following equation: ηimprovement = 2𝑃 𝐷,𝑎𝑣𝑔 150 = 1.11% Figure 4.2: Control circuit V. Simulation Results The proposed bridgeless SEPIC PFC is simulated by MATLAB when 𝑉𝑎𝑐 = 180 Vrms, 𝑉0= 150 ± 5 Vdc, Δ 𝐼𝐿= 20% I1, 𝑓𝑠 𝑤 = 100 kHz and 150Woutput power. According to the aforementioned design considerations, the circuit elements are obtained as 𝐶1 =1 μF, 𝐿1 = 3.4 mH, 𝐿2 = 100 μH, and 𝐶0= 1000 μF.Fig. 5.2,5.3 shows the input current and voltage at full load .Fig 5.1Output waveform without controller. It can be observed from this figure that input current is in phase with input voltage and is practically sinusoidal with low total harmonic distortion and high Power Factor. Current waveforms of L1 and L2 are shown in Fig. 5.4. The voltage of C1 is shown in Fig.5.3.Simulation was done on full bridge SEPIC converter also in discontinuous conduction mode and could see that the conduction losses is more for this than full bridge SEPIC. Figure. 5.1: Output Figure 5.2: Input current 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x10 5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Time Vout OutputVoltagePlot 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Iin Time Inputcurrent
  • 10. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 24 | Figure 5.3: Input voltage Figure 5.4: capacitor Time (sec) Figure 5.5: waveforms of open loop fullbridge SEPIC 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x 10 5 -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 Time Vinput Inputvoltage
  • 11. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 25 | Figure 5.6: Simulink diagram of fullbridge SEPIC Figures 5.1 ,5.2,5.3,5.4,5.5,5.6 shows the different waveforms of full bridge SEPIC converter. Time(sec) Figure 5.7: Diode voltage and current of bridgeless SEPIC
  • 12. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 26 | Time(sec) Figure 5.8: waveforms of bridgeless SEPIC converter Figure 5.9: Simulink diagram of bridgeless SEPIC
  • 13. Simulation of Bridgeless SEPIC Converter with Modified Switching Pulse | IJMER | ISSN: 2249–6645 | www.ijmer.com | Vol. 4 | Iss. 3 | Mar. 2014 | 27 | Figure 5.10: Closed loop SEPIC converter Vout Figure 5.11: Controller circuit VIII. Conclusion In this paper, a new bridgeless SEPIC PFC rectifier has been introduced. The proposed circuit provides lower conduction losses with reduced components simultaneously. Two diodes of input rectifier are substituted with two switches in order to use one switch for SEPIC converter. In conventional PFC converters (CCM boost converter), a voltage loop and a current loop are needed for PFC.Here conventional is operated in DCM and compared with the bridgeless SEPIC. By using DCM operation in the proposed converter, the control circuit is simplified, and the current loop is omitted. The main features of the proposed converters include high efficiency, low voltage stress on the semiconductor devices, and simplicity of design. These advantages are desirable features for low-voltage power-supply applications. REFERENCE [1] Jae-Won Yang and Hyun-Lark Do, Bridgeless SEPIC Converter With a Ripple-Free Input Current IEEE Transactions On Power Electronics, Vol. 28, No. 7, July 2013 [2] Y. Jang and M. M. Jovanovic, Bridgeless high-power-factor buck converter IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 2, Feb.2011. [3] M. Mahdavi and H. Farzanehfard, “Bridgeless SEPIC PFC rectifier withreduced components and conduction losses,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron.,vol. 58, no. 9, Sep. 2011. [4] W.-Y. Choi, J.-M.Kwon, E.-H.Kim, J.-J.Lee, and B.-H. Kwon, Bridgeless boost rectifier with low conduction losses and reduced diode reverse recovery problemsIEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 54, no. 2Apr. 2007.