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A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm
A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm
A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm
A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm
A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm
A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm
A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm
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A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm

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Abstract: A Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter is a power electronic converter built to synthesize a desired ac voltage …

Abstract: A Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter is a power electronic converter built to synthesize a desired ac voltage
from several levels of dc voltages with better harmonic spectrum. Such inverters are suitable for high voltage and high
power applications and have been an important development in recent years. This paper presents the performance of a
eleven level cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter topology with multicarrier pulse width modulation technique for
photovoltaic cell. This inverter is capable of producing eleven levels of output voltage from the dc supply voltage. This
topology magnifies the fundamental output voltage with reduction in total harmonic distortion . The output is drawn near the
sine wave because of more levels. It can also be easily extended to an m-level inverter. The performance of the proposed
PWM strategy in terms of output voltage and THD is shown using MATLAB/Simulink.
Keywords: Multilevel inverter, Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter, Multicarrier pulse width modulation, PV cell, Total
harmonic distortion.

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  • 1. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4703-4709 ISSN: 2249-6645 A Single Phase Eleven Level Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems Using Multicarrier Pwm M.S.Sivagamasundari, 1 P.Melba Mary2 1(Assistant Professor, Department of EEE,V V College of Engineering,Tamilnadu,INDIA) 2 (Principal, Department of EEE,V V College of Engineering,Tamilnadu,INDIA)Abstract: A Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter is a power electronic converter built to synthesize a desired ac voltagefrom several levels of dc voltages with better harmonic spectrum. Such inverters are suitable for high voltage and highpower applications and have been an important development in recent years. This paper presents the performance of aeleven level cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter topology with multicarrier pulse width modulation technique forphotovoltaic cell. This inverter is capable of producing eleven levels of output voltage from the dc supply voltage. Thistopology magnifies the fundamental output voltage with reduction in total harmonic distortion . The output is drawn near thesine wave because of more levels. It can also be easily extended to an m-level inverter. The performance of the proposedPWM strategy in terms of output voltage and THD is shown using MATLAB/Simulink.Keywords: Multilevel inverter, Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter, Multicarrier pulse width modulation, PV cell, Totalharmonic distortion. I. INTRODUCTION Renewable energy is a challenging aspect for now and future of the worlds increasing energy demand. Since lastthree Decades, there is a growing effort to make renewable energy more feasible due to its particular characteristics and highcosts. Among renewable energy sources, photovoltaic energy is one of the most considerable sources because of itsadvantages like being widely available and cost free, clean and abundant. Furthermore, being a semiconductor device it is free of moving parts which results little operation and maintenancecosts [1].PV cell is especially attractive for applications in where sunshine is available for most of the time. Such a systemgenerates electricity by converting the Sun’s energy directly into electricity. [2]. Power switches with the suitable switching frequency at ratings above 5kV are rare; hence it is difficult to achieveinverter output voltage which is compatible to the medium voltage grid. One approach is to utilize the MLI structure.Multilevel inverter is an array of power semiconductor switches and voltage sources which is switched in a manner that anoutput voltage of stepped waveform is generated. Several multilevel topologies have evolved: most common are the diode-clamped inverter (neutral-point clamped), capacitor-clamped(flying capacitor) requiring only one dc source and the cascadedbridge inverter requiring separate dc sources.[3]. The latter characteristic, which is a drawback when a single dc source isavailable, becomes a very attractive feature in the case of PV systems, because solar cells can be assembled in a number ofseparate generators. In this way, they satisfy the requirements of the Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverter, obtainingadditional advantages such as a possible elimination of the dc/dc booster (needed in order to adapt voltage levels), asignificant reduction of the power drops caused by sun darkening (usually, it influences only a fraction of the overall PVfield), and, therefore, a potential increase of efficiency and reliability [4]. Performance of the multilevel inverter (such as switching loss and THD) is mainly decided by the modulationstrategies. For the cascaded multilevel inverter there are several well known pulse width modulation strategies. [5]. Compared to the conventional method, the proposed method is subjected to a new modulation scheme adopting themulticarrier pulse width modulation concept which uses multiple modulating signals with a single carrier reduces the totalharmonic distortion and switching losses. In this paper, a PV array is connected to eleven level cascaded H-bridge multilevelinverter to achieve sinusoidal output voltage waveforms and the simulation results are shown. II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PV ARRAY2.1. Equivalent model A Photovoltaic cell is a device used to convert solar radiation directly into electricity. It consists of two or more thinlayers of semiconducting material, most commonly silicon. When the silicon is exposed to light, electrical charges aregenerated. A PV cell is usually represented by an electrical equivalent one-diode model shown in fig.1. Fig. 1. Single PV cell model www.ijmer.com 4703 | Page
  • 2. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4703-4709 ISSN: 2249-6645 The model contains a current source, one diode, internal shunt resistance and a series resistance which representsthe resistance inside each cell. The net current is the difference between the photo current and the normal diode currentwhich is given by the equation.ID = IO [ – 1] ………………………… (1)I = IL – IO [ – 1]– …………………… (2)WhereI is the cell current (A).q is the charge of electron (coul).K is the Boltzmanns constant (j/K).T is the cell temperature (K).IL is the photo current (A).Io is the diode saturation current.(A)Rs , Rsh are cell series and shunt resistances (ohms).V is the cell output voltage (V).2.2. Current – Voltage Curve for PV cell Fig.2.Current – Voltage curve The Current – Voltage characteristic curve of a PV cell for a certain irradiance at a fixed cell temperature is shownin fig.2. The current from a PV cell depends on the external voltage applied and the amount of sunlight on the cell. When thePV cell circuit is short, the current is at maximum and the voltage across the cell is zero. When the PV cell circuit is open,the voltage is at maximum and the current is zero.2.3. Power – Voltage Curve for PV cell Fig.3.Power – Voltage curve www.ijmer.com 4704 | Page
  • 3. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4703-4709 ISSN: 2249-6645 The Power – Voltage curve for PV cell is shown in fig.3. Here P is the power extracted from the PV array and V isthe voltage across the terminals of the PV array. This curve varies due to the current insolation and temperature. Wheninsolation increases, the power available from PV array increases whereas when temperature increases the power availablefrom PV array decreases.[5].2.3. Variation in Available Energy due to Sun’s Incident Angle Fig.4.Variation in Available Energy due to Sun’s Incident Angle PV cell output with respect to sun’s angle of incidence is approximated by cosines function at sunangles from 0° to 50°. Beyond the incident angle of 50° the available solar energy falls of rapidly as shown in the fig.4.Therefore it is convenient and sufficient within the normal operating range to model the fluctuations in photo current versusincident angle is given by Eq (3).[5].Iph = Imaxcosθ …………………… (3) III. CASCADED H-BRIDGE MULTILEVEL INVERTER TOPOLOGY A single-phase structure of an m-level cascaded inverter is illustrated in Figure.5. Each separate dc source isconnected to a single-phase full bridge, or H-bridge, inverter. Each inverter level can generate three different voltageoutputs, +Vdc, 0, and –Vdc by connecting the dc source to the ac output by different combinations of the four switches,S1, S2, S3, and S4. To obtain +Vdc, switches S1 and S4 are turned on, whereas –Vdc can be obtained by turning onswitches S2 and S3. By turning on S1 and S2 or S3 and S4, the output voltage is 0. The ac outputs of each of the differentfull-bridge inverter levels are connected in series such that the synthesized voltage waveform is the sum of the inverteroutputs. The number of output phase voltage levels m in a cascade inverter is defined by m = 2s+1, where s is the numberof separate dc sources. An example phase voltage waveform for an 11-level cascaded H-bridge inverter with 5 SDCSs and 5 full bridges isshown in Figure.6. The phase voltage van = va1 + va2 + va3 + va4 + va5.The Fourier Transform for a stepped waveform such as the one depicted in Figure 6 with s steps is as follows [6]: V (ωt) = ( ) Σ [cos (n θ1)+ cos (n θ2)+ where n = 1, 3, 5, 7, …(4) www.ijmer.com 4705 | Page
  • 4. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4703-4709 ISSN: 2249-6645 Fig.5.Single-phase structure of an m level cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter Fig.6.Output voltage waveform of an 11-level cascade inverterThe conducting angles, θ1, θ2, ..., θs, can be chosen such that the voltage total harmonic distortion is minimum. Generally,these angles are chosen such that predominant lower frequency harmonics 5th, 7th, 11th, and 13th harmonics are eliminated.[7]. IV. MULTICARRIER PWM TECHNIQUE The Multicarrier PWM technique was introduced and uses several triangular carrier signals and only onemodulating sinusoidal signal as reference wave to generate the PWM switching signals. If an n level inverter is employed,n-1 carriers will be needed. At every instant each carrier is compared with the modulating signal. Each comparison givesone if the modulating signal is greater than the triangular carrier, zero otherwise. The results are added to give the voltagelevel, which is required at the output terminal of the inverter. [8].Frequency modulation ratio is defined as the ratio of carrier frequency and modulating frequency. Mf = fc / fm ............................... (5) Amplitude modulation ratio is defined as the ratio of amplitude of modulating signal and amplitude of carrier signal. Ma Am/ 1 n− Ac …………….(6) = Using this technique THD value can be reduced. V. PROPOSED TOPOLOGY Fig.7.Block diagram of the proposed multilevel inverter Fig.7. shows the block diagram of the proposed multilevel inverter. The PV array which is connected to theCascaded H-Bridge Multilevel inverter converts sunlight directly into DC power. Cascaded H-Bridge multilevel inverterconverts DC power into AC power for AC load and it is controlled by multicarrier PWM technique. The Proposed Cascaded Multilevel Inverter is simply a number of conventional five-level bridges, whose ACterminals are simply connected in series to synthesize a five level square wave output voltage waveform. The circuitneeds independent dc source which is supplied from photovoltaic cell. Fig.8. shows the power circuit for a singlephase eleven level cascaded H-bridge inverter and the cascaded output is shown in fig.9. www.ijmer.com 4706 | Page
  • 5. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4703-4709 ISSN: 2249-6645 Fig.8. Proposed power circuit for an eleven-level inverter Fig.9.Output voltage waveform of an eleven level inverter The switching angles of the waveform will be adjusted to obtain the lowest output voltage THD. Harmonics aredisagreeable in current or voltage waveform. They exist at some fraction or multiple of the fundamental frequency. Theharmonics order and magnitude are depending upon the type of inverter and the control techniques for example in singlephase VSI, the output voltage waveform typically consists only of odd harmonics. The even harmonics are not existing dueto the half wave symmetry of the output voltage harmonics. [9]. In this paper, the simulation model is developed using MATLAB/Simulink. The SIMULINK model for the powercircuit is shown in figures.10.1, 10.2, 10.3 &10.4. Fig.10.1.Simulation circuit of the proposed method Fig.10.2.Sub circuit www.ijmer.com 4707 | Page
  • 6. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4703-4709 ISSN: 2249-6645 Fig.10.3.Sub circuit 1 Fig.10.4.Sub circuit 2 Fig.11.Output voltage waveform of the proposed method Fig.12.Harmonic spectrumFig.11.and Fig.12.shows the simulation results of output voltage and current harmonics spectrum waveforms respectively. www.ijmer.com 4708 | Page
  • 7. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research (IJMER) www.ijmer.com Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4703-4709 ISSN: 2249-6645 VI. CONCLUSION In this work , a Photovoltaic cell based eleven level Cascaded H-bridge Inverter employing multicarrier pulse widthmodulation tehnique is developed which enhances the fundamental output voltage and hence reduces the total harmonicdistortion to 10.58% compared to the conventional method .The operation and performance of the proposed multilevelinverter is verified through MATLAB/SIMULINK. It can be also shown for any number of phases or levels. REFERENCES[1] H. L. Tsai, C. S. Tu, Y.J. Su, "Development of generalized photovoltaic model using MATLAB/SIMULINK",Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science (WCECS), San Francisco, CA, 2008.[2] K.Surya Suresh, M.Vishnu Prasad,”PV Cell Based Five Level Inverter Using Multicarrier PWM “International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol.1, Issue.2, pp-545-551.[3] Jae-hyun Jeon, Tae-Jin Kim, Dae-wook Kang, and Dong-seok Hyun, A Symmetric Carrier Technique of CRPWM for Voltage Balance Method of Flying Capacitor Multi-level Inverter, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol.52 , No. 3, June 2005, pp. 2759-2763.[4] Elena Villanueva, Pablo Correa, José Rodriguez, and Mario Pacas, “Control of a Single-Phase Cascaded H- Bridge Multilevel Inverter for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems”,IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56, No. 11, Nov. 2009.[5] L. M. Tolbert, F. Z. Peng, T. G. Habetler, “Multilevel converters for large electric drives,” IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 35, no. 1, Jan./Feb. 1999, pp. 36-44.[6] L. M. Tolbert, F. Z. Peng, T. G. Habetler, “Multilevel Inverters for Electric Vehicle Applications,” IEEE Workshop on Power Electronics in Transportation, Oct 22-23, 1998, Dearborn, Michigan, pp. 1424-1431.[7] R.W.Menzies, Y. Zhuang, “Advanced Static Compensation Using a Multilevel GTO Thyristor Inverter,” IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 10, no. 2, April 1995, pp. 732-738.[8] R.Seyezhai, Dr.B.L.Mathur,” Performance evaluation of inverted sine PWM technique for an asymmetric cascaded multilevel inverter” Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology, 2009, pp.91-98.[9] M.Balachandran, P.Senthilkumar, and N.P. Subramaniam,”Performance Evaluation of a Cascaded Multilevel Inverter with a Single DC Source using ISCPWM”International Journal of Electrical Engineering, Volume 5, Number 1 (2012), pp. 49-60.[10] Nasr din A. Rahim, Krismadinata Chaniagoand Jeyraj Selvaraj,”Single-Phase Seven-Level Grid-Connected Inverter for Photovoltaic System,” IEEE Transactions on Indstrial Electronics, June 2011.[11] Carlo Cecati, Fabrizio Ciancetta, and Pierluigi Siano, “A Multilevel Inverter for Photovoltaic Systems with Fuzzy Logic Control” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, No. 12,pp 4115-4124 Dec. 2010.[12] Thanuj Kumar. Jala, G. Srinivasa Rao, “A Novel Nine Level Grid-Connected Inverter for Photovoltaic System” International Journal of Modern Engineering Research, Vol.2, Issue.2, Mar-Apr 2012 pp-154-159.[13] Philip T.Krein ,Robert S.Balog and Xin Geng,”High-Frequency Link Inverter for fuel cells Based on Multiple Carrier PWM”, IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, Vol 19, N0.5, Sep 2004.[14] G.Carrara, S.Gardella, M.Marchesoni, R.salutari,and G.sciutto, “A New Multilevel PWM Method; A theoretical analysis”, IEEE Trans. Power. Electron. vol.7, no.3, pp.497-505. Jul.1992.[15] A.M Hava, R.JKerman, and T.A Lipo, “Carrier-based PWM-VSI Over modulation Strategies: Analysis, Comparison, and Design,” IEEE Trans. Power. Electron., vol.13, no.4, pp.674-689. Jul.1998.[16] B.P.McGrath and Holmes, “Multicarrier PWM strategies for multilevel inverter,” IEEE Trans.Ind.Electron., vol.49, no.4, pp.858-867. Aug.2002.[17] Multilevel Power Converters book chapter by Surin Khomfoi and Leon M. Tolbert pp31.1-31.14 www.ijmer.com 4709 | Page

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