www.ijcsit-apm.com International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 1
IJCSIT, Vol. 1, Issue 3 (June 2014...
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 2 www.ijcsit-apm.com
network join
time
sec
typically
ty...
www.ijcsit-apm.com International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 3
Fig. 4 Payload format of zigbee MA...
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 4 www.ijcsit-apm.com
is lower than the threshold and an...
www.ijcsit-apm.com International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 5
[22] B.Giovanni, “Experimental Inv...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

A REVIEW ON TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING CONNECTIVITY AND LIFE OF ZIGBEE NETWORKS

73

Published on

In this paper, we are defining techniques for reducing the isolated nodes in the Zigbee network. To reduce the isolated nodes, a connectivity improving mechanism is proposed which utilizes a connection shifting scheme to increase the join ratio of established devices.

Published in: Engineering, Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
73
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "A REVIEW ON TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING CONNECTIVITY AND LIFE OF ZIGBEE NETWORKS"

  1. 1. www.ijcsit-apm.com International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 1 IJCSIT, Vol. 1, Issue 3 (June 2014) e-ISSN: 1694-2329 | p-ISSN: 1694-2345 A REVIEW ON TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING CONNECTIVITY AND LIFE OF ZIGBEE NETWORKS1 Roop kamal kaur, 2 Dr. Dinesh Arora 1,2 Gurukul Vidyapeeth Institute of Engg. & Technology, Banur, Punjab, India 1 roopkamal7@gmail.com, 2 drdinesh169@gmail.com Abstract: Zigbee is a wireless communication standard based on IEEE 802.15.4. Zigbee standard is designed for wireless sensor network and control networks with low power consumption, low data rate and low cost. Sensor devices are randomly established in some applications and some of these devices may become isolated from the network due to the constraints of configuration parameters in Zigbee networks. Due to the isolated nodes, an expected network operation become unreached. In this paper, we are defining techniques for reducing the isolated nodes in the Zigbee network. To reduce the isolated nodes, a connectivity improving mechanism is proposed which utilizes a connection shifting scheme to increase the join ratio of established devices. Another approach to reduce isolated node is Extended joining procedure which can efficiently reconstructs the part of the network. We also introduce a swapping method which extends the life of the network and balance the energy consumption of the nodes. This paper also proposes an optimized connectivity scheme which decreases the isolated nodes and prolongs the life of the network. In this paper we are describing these approaches in detail. Keywords: Zigbee network, connectivity, isolated, wireless sensor networks. I. INTRODUCTION Zigbee is a wireless communication standard based on IEEE 802.15.4. Zigbee standard is designed for wireless sensor network and control networks with low power consumption, low data rate and low cost. Zigbee is used in various applications: Electrical meters with in home displays, traffic management systems, industrial automation, building automation, lighting control, energy automation etc. Zigbee includes two layers specified by 802.15.4 : PHY and MAC. The PHY layer defines the physical and electrical characteristics of the network. The basic task of the PHY layer is data transmission and reception. The MAC layer is responsible for beacon generation if device is a coordinator, implementing carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA-CA), handling guaranteed time slot (GTS) mechanism, data transfer services for upper layers. Zigbee Stack This gives an overview of Zigbee specification. ZigBee is built on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. ZigBee provides routing and multi-hop functions to the packet- based radio protocol. Fig. 1 Zigbee stack Zigbee stack resides on a Zigbee logical device and there are three logical device types: a. Coordinator b. Router c. End device Wireless standards comparasion Wireless parameter Bluetooth Wi-fi Zigbee Frequency 2.5GHz 2.5GHz 2.5GHz Physical/MA C layers IEEE 802.15.1 IEEE 802.11b IEEE 802.15.4 Range 9m 75 to 90m Indoors: upto 30 m Outdoors(li ne of sight): upto 100m Current Consumption 60 mA (Tx mode) 400 mA (Tx mode) 20 mA (Standby mode) 25-35 mA (Tx mode) 3 µA (Standby mode) Raw data rate 1 Mbps 11 Mbps 250 Kbps Protocol stack size 250 KB 1 MB 32 KB 4 KB (for limited function end devices) Typical >3 sec variable, 1 30 ms
  2. 2. International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 2 www.ijcsit-apm.com network join time sec typically typically Interference avoidance method FHSS(Fre quency hopping spread spectrum) DSSS(Dire ct sequence spread spectrum) DSSS(Dire ct sequence spread spectrum) Minimum quiet bandwidth required 15 MHz(dyn amic) 22 MHz(static ) 3MHz(stati c) Maximum number of nodes per network 7 32 per access point 64 K Number of channels 19 13 16 Zigbee Features Throughput: 250 Kbps at 2.4 Ghz with 16 Channels/40 Kbps at 915 Mhz with 10 Channels. Battery life: Low power design ,Around 1000 Days. Scalability: Highly scalable network that can accomodate up to 64,000 nodes using a single coordinator. Cost: As compared to Wi-Fi,Zigbee Routers and sensors cost very less and hence are more suitable for bulk deployment. Network Topology: Zigbee uses Mesh Topology, Star Topology and Peer-to-peer Topology and and can work any one of them. Zigbee Network Joining Scheme Three types of devices are defined by Zigbee are: Zigbee Coordinator (ZC), Zigbee Router (ZR), Zigbee End Device (ZED). In Zigbee Neworks only one ZC and multiple ZRs are used. In Zigbee only ZC and ZRs are responsible for packet forwarding and can accepts join request. Every device can join to one device at most. Zigbee can support three types of topologies: Star , Mesh, Tree. Hardware requirement of a device is very simple to join in a network with tree topology. Figure shows Zigbee network with tree topology. Fig. 2 Zigbee Network with tree topology A mechanism that is Distributed Address Assignment is designed which is also known as Cskip, to allocate network addresses for the joined node in Zigbe networks. To allocate their child nodes, each device has an address space. Three configuration parameters defined by Zigbee to control the network are nwkMaxChildren, nwkMaxDepth and nwkMaxRouters. [I] Connectivity Improving Mechanism Figure 3 shows an example of Zigbee network. The network configuration parameters described in the previous section will cause some join failures is shown in Fig 3(a). Now assume that three parameters nwkMaxChildren, nwkMaxRouters, nwkMaxDepth are equal to 3, 2, and 3 respectively. Through node A or B node will get ZR node will get failures to join the network due to the excesses of the children of A or B even though A and B are both in the communication range of D.Due to the excess of depth limitation, D will still get failure to join to C. Due to this reason, node D becomes an isolated node of the Zigbee network.Because only the joined nodes are allowed to accept the join requests of other unjoined nodes in the network so it is unable to accept any join request comes from other nodes. So the ZR device M and ZED device N will become isolated nodes, too. The node P will become isolated from the network because of the similar situation. Fig 3(b) shows the network connectivity improvement. Node G has a capacity of one ZR children, in fact, the ZR child E of node A does not have to join the network through A.An other choice can be node G to which allows ZR node E to join. Node A will become joinable for the isolated node D, if node E selects G rather than node A to join. Then ZR node M and ZED node N will be allowed to join to D. After the ZED node R performed the change of join target from Z to G, similarly ZED node P can successfully join to node Z. Connection change of node E from node A to G and connection change of node R from Z to G is called shifting. Shifting node E and R will make the Zigbee network an increase of four nodes. By this improvement not only the reduction of isolated sensors and wasted costs is improved but the performance growth of the Zigbee sensor network is also improved. Fig. 3 Illustration of Zigbee connectivity issue Zigbee MAC Beacon Format Figure 4 shows the format of Zigbee MAC beacon. MAC payload consists of four fields: Superframe specification, GTS Field, Pending address field and Beacon payload. And beacon payload is further divided into 10 fields. Every fields do different tasks. Figure 4(a) shows that reserved field consists of tw parts. Each part is of one bit. One bit is for swapping and one bit is for shifting information.
  3. 3. www.ijcsit-apm.com International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 3 Fig. 4 Payload format of zigbee MAC beacon Fig. 4(a) The MAC beacon payload with the shiftable flag [II] Extended Joining Scheme Extended joining scheme consists of two methods. First method is to reconstructs the part of the network to connect more devices (Enhancement Connectivity Scheme) and the second method is swapping to improve the connectivity. If a potential parent receives join requests from multiple isolated nodes then its selection cannot achieve the best connectivity of the network while using the method in the previous scheme. Description Extended joining process is shown in the figure 5. In this example there are five isolated nodes that contains B and I as ZRs and J, K and R as ZEDs. In Fig. 5, node G has a capacity to accept one more child so children C of potential parent A and children M of potential parent L can connect to G. In this method, beacons are used to announce the acceptance of th child. So nodes A and L use beacons to announce the acceptance of more children.If node B wants to join to its potential parent A and node I wants to join to its potential parent L then they have to scan how many isolated nodes come within their communication range. Now, From an example, node B has one child and node I has two children. Due to network parameters, node G has capacity to accept one more child. After the joining of So node M to node G, node L accepts node I as its child and isolated nodes J and K can successfully join in the network through node I but nodes B and R cannot join in the network. Our Extended Joining Procedure decreases three isolated nodes. After the first part of Extended Joining Process, Fig. 6 shows the Zigbee Network of Fig. 5. Fig. 5 An example of Extended Joining Process Fig. 6 The Zigbee Network of Fig. 5 after our Extended Joining Process [a] Swapping Process In the Swapping process, swapping of nodes will be done so that connectivity and life of the Zigbee Networks can be improved. In Fig. 5, node P announces the acceptance of more ZRs as its children. When node P receives the joining request from the node B then node P disconnects its child node Q and connects a new node B as its child. Now, node B is successfully connected with a node P and node B has capacity to accept more nodes as its child. So, node Q and node R will be connected to node B as its child. Figure 7 shows our Swapping process. Fig. 7 Zigbee Network of Fig. 5 after our Swapping process The Swapping Process is stopped when two situations occur. First, when all residual energies of leaf ZRs are lower than that of internode ZR, then the swapping process is stopped. Second, it is necessary that the communication range of the selected node has to reach to all those nodes that connects to the internode ZR. If this condition is not satisfied by all children then the swapping process is stopped. The process of swapping is as follows: Step 1. The ZR sets the swapping flag as TRUE, if the residual electric voltage of the battery in an internode ZR
  4. 4. International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 4 www.ijcsit-apm.com is lower than the threshold and announces that its energy is exhausted. Step 2. The internode ZR selects highest residual electric voltage leaf ZR after receiving statuses of residual electric voltages from all leaf ZRs. Swapping process is terminated if residual energies of all the leaf ZRs are lower than that of internode ZR. Step 3. The internode ZR, then notifies about the selected leaf ZR and also then transfer the routing infomation to the selected leaf ZR. Step 4. After that, the selected leaf ZR announces to all the nodes that it is the new router and wait for the replies from all the devices. Step 5. If the selected leaf ZR fails to receive replies from some devices that connecs to the internode ZR then leaf ZR has to send the transfer failure message to the internode ZR. Step 6. If the transfer failure message is received by the internode ZR then the leaf ZR with the highest residual electric voltage is selected by the internode ZR from the remaining leaf ZRs. Step 7. The selected leaf ZR becomes a new internode ZR after receiving all the replies and send acknowledge to the old internode ZR that the tranfer is successfully done. Step 8. The old internode ZR stops routing while it receives the successful transfer message and becomes the leaf ZR of the new internode ZR. [III] Optimized Connectivity Scheme An energy depletion limitation is found in the swapping process. When energy is depleted then the internode Zigbee router send requests to its child nodes and then find all the replacements bases of residual energy that should be more than threshold. Swapping process is terminated if energy level is less and router goes to sleep[3]. A new technique is proposed called Optimized Connectivity Scheme.In Optimized Connectivity Scheme the Zigbee router swapping process is updated by energy level checking of the isolatd nodes. Energy level of each isolated is checked. By selecting nodes having better energy carrying capacity, the connectivity and life of the Zigbee Networks is increases. These all techniques shows how the connectivity and life of the Zigbee Networks increases and isolated nodes decreases. These can be implemented using Opnet simulator. CONCLUSION Zigbee is a wireless communication standard based on IEEE 802.15.4. Zigbee standard is designed for wireless sensor network and control networks with low power consumption, low data rate and low cost. Zigbee is uesd is in various applications like home automation, industrial automation, building automation etc. This paper is based on increasing the connectivity and life of the Zigbee Networks by various techniques and hence improve the network efficiency. In these techniques specific depth is considered so that scalability can be increased. As compared to the previous techniques, throughput is high in optimized connecivity scheme due to the energy saving while swapping devices. REFERENCES [1] ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee Specification, V1.0, Dec. 2004. [2] ZigBee Alliance, ZigBee-2007 Specification, Oct. 2007. [3] C.M. Wu, R.S. Chang, P.I. Lee, J.H. Yen, “An innovative scheme for increasing connectivity and life of ZigBee networks,” Spri Business Media, LLC 2011. [4] Song TW, Yang CS (2008) A connectivity improving mechanism for Zigbee wireless sensor networks, In: Proceedings conference on embedded and ubiquitous computing, pp 495 [5] IEEE Standard Committee, IEEE Standard 802, Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), Oct. 2003. [6] K.K. Lee, S.H. Kim, and H.S. Park, “Cluster Labelbased ZigBee Routing Protocol with High Scalability”, 2nd International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications (ICSNC'07), Cap Esterel, France, Aug. 25- 31, 2007, pp.12. [7] G. Ding, Z. Sahinoglu, P. Orlik, J. Zhang, and B. Bhargava, “Tree-Based Data Broadcast in IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee Networks”, IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, 5 (11), 2006, pp. 1561-1574. [8] T. Clouqueur, V. Phipatanasuphorn, P. Ramanathan, and K.K. Saluja, “Sensor Deployment Strategy for Target Detection”, 1st ACM International Workshop on Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications (WSNA'02), Atlanta, USA, Sep. 28, 2002, pp. 42-48. [9] Antonopoulos E, Kosmatopoulos K, Laopoulos T (2009) Reducing power consumption in pseudo-ZigBee sensor networks. In: Proceedings of instrumentation and measurement technology conference, Singapore, pp 300–304 [10] Casilari E, Cano-Garcia JM, Campos-Garrido G (2010) Modeling of current consumption in 802.15.4/ZigBee sensor motes. Trans Sens 2010(10):5443–5468. doi:10.3390/ s100605443 [11] Cook DJ, Das SK (2004)Wireless sensor networks. Smart environments: technologies, protocols, and applications. Wiley, New York. [12] Dil B, Dulman S, Havinga P (2006) Range-based localization in mobile sensor networks. In: Proceedings of third European workshop on wireless sensor networks, Zurich, Switzerland, pp 164–179 [13] Ding G, Sahinoglu Z, Bhargava B, Orlik P, Zhang J (2006) Reliable broadcast in ZigBee networks. In: Proceedings of 2nd annual IEEE communications society conference on sensor and ad hoc communications and networks, Santa Clara, USA, pp 510–520 [14] Ding G, Sahinoglu Z, Orlik P, Zhang J, Bhargava B (2006) Tree-based data broadcast in IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 5(11):1561–1574 [15]IEEE 802.15.4 standard (2003) Wireless medium access control and physical layer specifications for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos [16] Kim T, Kim D, Park N, Yoo S, Lopez TS (2007) Shortcut tree routing in ZigBee networks. In: Proceedings of 2nd international symposium on wireless pervasive computing (ISWPC’07), San Juan, Puerto Rico, pp 42–47 [17] Lin S, Liu J, Fang Y (2007) ZigBee based wireless sensor networks and its applications in industrial. In: Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE international conference on automation and logistics, NJ USA, pp 1979–1983 [18] Pan MS, Tsai CH, Tseng YC (2009) The orphan problem in ZigBee wireless networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput, 8(11):1573–1584 [19] Wheeler A (2007) Commercial applications of wireless sensor [20] J. Zheng, J.M. Lee, Senior Member and Michael Anshel, “Toward Secure Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks,” Computing, vol. 5, no. 10, October 2006. [21] A. Giuseppe, C. Marco, and M.D. Francesco, “A Comprehensive Analysis of the MAC Unreliability Problem in IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Networks,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics
  5. 5. www.ijcsit-apm.com International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology 5 [22] B.Giovanni, “Experimental Investigation of the Electromagnetic Interference of Zigbee Transmitters on Measurement Instruments,” on Instrumentation and Measurement, pp 172 [23] Y.H. Lin, I.C. Jan, P. C.I. KO, Y.-Y. Chen, J.M. Wong, and G. IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biome., Vol. 8, Issue. 4, pp. 439 [24] M. Dunbar, “ Plug-and-play sensors in wireless networks,” IEEE Instrumentation and measurements Magazine, Vol. 4, Issue. 1, pp. 19–23, Mar. 2001. [25] J. Han, “ Global Optimization of ZigBee Parameters for EndEnd-to-End Deadline Guarantee of Real-Time Data,” IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 9, No. 5, May 2009.

×