A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit organizations.
Where managers work (manage).
Common Characteristics of Organizations
Management Activities Model of Management Planning Defining goals and establishing action plans Controlling Monitoring activities to ensure that they are achieving results Leading Guiding and motivating all involved parties Organizing Determining what needs to be done, in what order, and by whom Effective Management
The manager’s abilities both to convey ideas and information effectively to others and to receive ideas and information effectively from others.
The manager’s ability to recognize and define problems and opportunities correctly and then to select an appropriate course of action to solve the problems and capitalize on opportunities.
The manager’s ability to prioritize work, to work efficiently, and to delegate appropriately.
Fundamental Management Skills (cont’d)
A Definition of Personnel Management Managing personnel is the process of making sure the employees (not the customers) are as productive as they can be. This can include hiring, firing, or transferring people to/from jobs they can do most productively.
A Definition of HRM? Human resource management is a distinctive approach to employment management which seeks to achieve competitive advantage through the strategic deployment of a highly committed and capable workforce, using an array of cultural, structural and personnel techniques (Storey J., Human Resource Management - A Critical Text)
“ Human ” represents the dimension of HRM which relates to the soft aspects such as commitment of employees through participation and the most important assets being the employees.
“ Resource ” represents the hard aspects such as the strategy link of HRM and the importance of efficient utilization of employees.
“ Management ” represents the role of HRM as part of management that implies that it’s not only an administrative function that carries out the formulated policies but also a managerial function that contributes to strategy formulation.
Key principles and practices associated with HRM date back to the beginning of mankind . Mechanisms were developed for the selection of tribal leaders, for example. More advanced HRM functions were developed as early as 1000 and 2000 B.C. Employee screening tests have been traced back to 1115 B.C. in China, for instance.
The terminology used to describe the role and function of workers has evolved from " personnel " to " industrial relations " to " employee relations " to " human resources ."
The need for an organized form of HRM emerged during the industrial revolution , as the manufacturing process evolved from a cottage system to factory production. As the United States shifted from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy , companies were forced to develop and implement effective ways of recruiting and keeping skilled workers .
There were two other particularly important contributing factors to the origination of modern HRM during 1880s to 1940s . The first was the industrial welfare movement , which represented a shift in the way that managers viewed employees—from nonhuman resources to human beings.
The second factor was Frederick W. Taylor's (1856-1915) Scientific Management , a landmark book that outlined management methods for attaining greater productivity from low-level production workers.
In the 1960s and 1970s the federal government furthered the HRM movement with a battery of regulations created to enforce fair treatment of workers , such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA)
Furthermore, during the 1970s, HRM gained status as a recognized profession with the advent of human resource programs in colleges
The whole evolutionary activities and concept of HR recently help to shift the orientations: such as changes from personnel to human resources, from administration to management, and from human relations to organizational effectiveness so n ow HR has aligned with Senior Management.
HR also now has more input on business strategies - training, safety, globalization, etc
Evolution of HR in the Subcontinent (Specially in India) Period Development Status Outlook Emphasis Status 1920-1930 Beginning Pragmatism of Capitalists Statutory, welfare, paternalism Clerical 1940-1960 Struggling for recognition Technical, legalistic Introduction of techniques Administrative 1970-1980 Achieving sophistication Professional, legalistic and impersonal Regulatory, conforming, imposition of standards on other functions Managerial 1990-2000 Promising Philosophical Human Values, Productivity through people Executive 2000- Strategic Professional Dynamism Business Partner and change agent
There is no specific records for the evolution of HRM in Bangladesh. But it is assumed that Before 1970 the whole activities was maintained directly under the administrative department
1970-80: the importance of Personnel management or HRM is being recognized for the settlement of some industrial disputes under the Factory, Industrial & labor law.
1980 to 90: The Personnel management concept has started with recognition
1990 to till date: After 1990 The HR concept has started narrowly. From 1997 to 2000 HR concepts tried to achieve the recognition. After that it has recognized. Some organization started to set HR department. But till today this concept is struggling to achieve the mass recognition.
Societal Objectives : To be ethically and socially responsible to the needs and challenges of the society while minimizing the negative impact of such demands upon the organization. Example - Legal compliance, union management, benefits
Organizational Objectives : To recognize the role of HRM in bringing about organizational objectives. Example-HRP, Employee relation, Selection, TRD, PA etc
Functional Objectives : To maintain the department’s contribution at a level appropriate to the organization’s needs. Ex-Recruitment, selection, PA etc
Personal Objectives : To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, at least insofar as these goals enhance the individual’s contribution to the organization. Ex-TRD, Placement, compensation, assessment
Relationship: Employer - Employee relationships is better than the past. But till now there are a lot of scope to improve in the employer-employee relation as well as employee-employee relations.
Recognition: Employers now started to recognition of the employees’ participation in business planning, major decision making and organizational change process has increased. But till today this practice is suffering with lots of limitations
Formation of the Bangladesh Society for Human Resources Management- A platform for HR Professionals in Bangladesh