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Response of white yam (Dioscorearotundata Poir.) to different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers at Ikenne   and Ibadan,...
Introduction• Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are important  staple food crop widely cultivated in  West Africa, Southeast Asia and ...
• Several studies have shown that yams respond  well to application of organic fertilizers• Combined use of organic and in...
ObjectivesEvaluate: Performance N, P and K uptake and use efficiency Residual soil nutrients after cropping Tuber stor...
Materials and Methods• Field trials were conducted at Ikenne (Longitude  3o 42’E and Latitude 6o 54’N) and           Ibada...
• Experimental design was a split plot arranged  in randomized complete block X 4 reps.• Four white yam land races (Cultiv...
• Data Analysis• GLM procedure of SAS (Version 9.1) was  used to determine ANOVA• Significant   treatment    means        ...
Table 1:    N P K contents of the fertilizer materialsTreatments                          N          P         K          ...
Table 2. Pre-planting soil chemical and physical properties              in the experimental sites in 2004 and 2005       ...
Table 3: chemical properties of Organic fertilizerNitrogen (%)              1.09Phosphorus (%)            0.70Potassium (%...
• Expt. 1: Estimation of growth and yield of  white yam grown with different levels of  organo- mineral fertilizer• Data C...
RESULTS:-        EXPT:          Growth parameters                   180.00                                IKENNE          ...
180.00                                 IKENNE                                     IBADAN                    No fertilizer ...
2.70                                   IKENNE                          IBADAN                                             ...
Table 3: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on tuber yield    of four cultivars of white yam at Iken...
Table4: Relative tuber yield of fertilized white yam plots over the unfertilized(control)                                 ...
Table 5:   Ikenne 2004 Yield: Cultivar X fertilizer interaction                                                           ...
Table 6:   Ibadan 2004 yield: Cultivar X fertilizer interactionFertilizer Treatments                                      ...
• Expt. 2: Evaluation of N, P and K uptake and use  efficiency of white yam plants grown with different  levels of organic...
60.00           IKENNE                              IBADAN                     50.00                                      ...
No fertilizer                                      IKENNE                            IBADAN                    2.5t/haOF  ...
IKENNE                                IBADAN                                                                              ...
Table 7: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on Nutrient     use efficiency of four white yam cultiva...
• Expt. 3: Evaluation of Soil mineral N, P and K  content in yam cropping system.• Soil samples (ten cores per sub-plot) t...
D = depth of soil sampled (m),DW = oven dried weight of soil sample (g) and10 = conversion factor to kg/ha.  The summation...
No fertilizer                               IKENNE                        IBADAN           2.5t/haOF                 110  ...
Table10: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on          residual effect of nutrients on soil after c...
Table 11: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on     residual effect of nutrients on soil after culti...
• Expt. 4: Evaluation of Shelf life of yam tubers  from plants treated with organo-mineral  fertilizers• Six healthy tuber...
Table 12: Effect of different levels of organic based fertilizers on weight                loss of four cloness of white y...
Summary & Conclusion Of all the treatment combinations; Organo-mineral  fertilizers at 5.0t/ha OF + 300kg/ha NPK gave the...
Soil NPK contents decreases with advancing  age of plant and increases latter towards  harvesting.Residual soil nutrient...
Acknowledgements•   Almighty ALLAH•   My profound gratitude to my supervisors:•   Prof. G.0. Adeoye•   Dr Robert Asiedu (I...
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Response of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) to different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers at Ikenne and Ibadan, southwest Nigeria

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Evaluate:
Performance
N, P and K uptake and use
efficiency
Residual soil nutrients after cropping
Tuber storability of white yam grown with different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers.
Evaluate soil N, P and K content over time in sole yam cropping system

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Transcript of "Response of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir.) to different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers at Ikenne and Ibadan, southwest Nigeria"

  1. 1. Response of white yam (Dioscorearotundata Poir.) to different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers at Ikenne and Ibadan, southwest Nigeria Lawal O. Isiaq
  2. 2. Introduction• Yams (Dioscorea spp.) are important staple food crop widely cultivated in West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean.• The poor tuber yields are attributable to declining soil fertility & inability of farmers to use inorganic fertilizers.• It therefore becomes exigent to source for cheaper alternatives to inorganic fertilizers. 2
  3. 3. • Several studies have shown that yams respond well to application of organic fertilizers• Combined use of organic and inorganic fertilizers in crop production is more beneficial than single use• Combination of organic and inorganic inputs that allows 50% cost reduction is one option validated through the Balanced Nutrient Management Systems project• Dearth of information exists on the use of compost with or without NPK fertilizer on yam production vis-à-vis the detailed composition of manure and the environmental conditions of the area where the results were obtained. 3
  4. 4. ObjectivesEvaluate: Performance N, P and K uptake and use efficiency Residual soil nutrients after cropping Tuber storabilityof white yam grown with different levelsof organo-mineral fertilizers. Evaluate soil N, P and K content over time in sole yam cropping system 4
  5. 5. Materials and Methods• Field trials were conducted at Ikenne (Longitude 3o 42’E and Latitude 6o 54’N) and Ibadan (longitude 3o 54’E and latitude 7o 30’N) in 2004 and 2005.• Pre-cropping soil and organic fertilizers used were chemically analyzed to determine nutrient contents. Organic fertilizer Grade B (Composted cowdung plus sorted city refuse): Pacesetter Fertilizer Company, Bodija, Ibadan Chemical fertilizer N. P. K. 12-12-12 (150 Kg/ha, 300 Kg/ha and 450 kg /ha) was formulated from urea, triple superphosphate and muriate of potash. 5
  6. 6. • Experimental design was a split plot arranged in randomized complete block X 4 reps.• Four white yam land races (Cultivar ‘Adaka’, ‘Amula’, ‘Danacha’ and ‘Omiefun ) were used as test crop.• Yam setts (60 g) were planted for each of 2 seasons at a spacing of 1 m X 0.5 m, 25 m2 plot size (50 plants/plot) Fertilizer treatments (Table 1) were applied one month after shoot emergence in grooves 10-15 cm from the base of each plant 6
  7. 7. • Data Analysis• GLM procedure of SAS (Version 9.1) was used to determine ANOVA• Significant treatment means were separated using the Duncan Multiple Range Test or the least significant difference (LSD) at 5% level of significant. 7
  8. 8. Table 1: N P K contents of the fertilizer materialsTreatments N P K (Kg/ha)1) No fertilizer (control) 0 0 02) 2.5 t/ha Organic Fertilizer 32 13 323) 5.0 t/ha Organic Fertilizer 64 26 644) 150 kg/ha NPK12-12-12 18 18 185) 300 kg/ha NPK12-12-12 36 36 366) 450 kg/haNPK12-12-12 54 54 547) 1.75 t/haOF+150 kg/ha NPK 32 23 368) 2.5 t/haOF+150 kg/ha NPK 56 31 569) 2.5 t/haOF+300 kg/ha NPK 64 49 68 810) 5.0 t/haOF+300Kg/haNPK 96 62 98
  9. 9. Table 2. Pre-planting soil chemical and physical properties in the experimental sites in 2004 and 2005 2004 2005Soil Properties Ikenne Ibadan Ikenne IbadanpH (H2O)(1:1) 5.7 5.5 5.9 6.0PH (KCl) (1:1) 4.1 5.0 4.7 5.4Nitrogen (g/Kg) 1.58 0.87 1.08 1.06Phosphorus (Mg/Kg) 15.7 6.18 8.43 16.36Potassium (Cmol/Kg) 0.38 0.17 0.15 0.28Calcium (Cmol/Kg) 1.47 1.65 4.81 1.82Magnesium (Cmol/Kg) 0.32 1.50 1.05 0.45Sodium (Cmol/Kg) 0.34 0.16 0.08 0.12Organic carbon 0.67 0.38 0.62 0.35CEC 3.68 2.92 3.68 2.92Sand (%) 74 78 73 76Silt (%) 10 10 10 11Clay (%) 16 12 17 13Classification (USDA 1994) Typic Oxic Kandiustalf Typic paleudalfs Oxic paleudalfs Sandy loam Sandy loam 9 Kandiustalf Sandy loam Sandy loam
  10. 10. Table 3: chemical properties of Organic fertilizerNitrogen (%) 1.09Phosphorus (%) 0.70Potassium (%) 1.27Calcium (%) 0.48Magnesium (%) 3.06Sodium (%) 0.75Iron (mgkg-1) 95.00Copper (mgkg-1) 39.45Zinc (mgkg-1) 286Manganese (mgkg-1) 330 10
  11. 11. • Expt. 1: Estimation of growth and yield of white yam grown with different levels of organo- mineral fertilizer• Data Collection:• Length of vines, number of leaves, number of vine branches and dry matter accumulation at monthly interval on 5 sample plants/plot;• leaf area index estimated;• Tuber weight estimated at harvest 11
  12. 12. RESULTS:- EXPT: Growth parameters 180.00 IKENNE IBADAN No fertilizer 160.00 2.5t/haOF 5.0t/haOFVine length (cm) 150Kg/haNPK 140.00 300Kg/haNPK 450Kg/haNPK 1.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 120.00 2.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 2.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 5.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 100.00 80.00 60.00 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 16 Weeks after fertilizer application Fig. 1: Effect of different levels of organic based fertilizers on vine length of four clones of white yam in Ikenne and Ibadan 2004 12
  13. 13. 180.00 IKENNE IBADAN No fertilizer 2.5t/haOF 160.00 5.0t/haOF 150Kg/haNPK 140.00 300Kg/haNPKNumber of leaves 450Kg/haNPK 120.00 1.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 2.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 2.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 100.00 5.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 16 Weeks after fertilizer application Fig. 3: Effect of different levels of organic based fertilizers on Number of leaves of four cultivars of white yam at Ikenne and Ibadan 2004 13
  14. 14. 2.70 IKENNE IBADAN No fertilizer 2.5t/haOF 2.65 5.0t/haOF 150Kg/haNPK 300Kg/haNPKLeaf area index 450Kg/haNPK 1.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 2.60 2.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 2.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 5.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 2.55 2.50 2.45 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 16 Weeks after fertilizer application Fig. 5: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on leaf area index of four cultivars of white yam at Ikenne 14 and Ibadan 2004
  15. 15. Table 3: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on tuber yield of four cultivars of white yam at Ikenne and Ibadan 2004 and 2005 Tuber yield (t /ha) 2004 2005 Fertilizer treatments Ikenne Ibadan Ikenne Ibadan No fertilizer 18.46ab 8.21d 8.08e 10.58d 2.5tha-1OF 19.88ab 10.06cd 9.36de 11.38cd 5.0tha-1 OF 22.60a 10.95bc 12.37bc 13.26bc 150kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 20.69ab 10.68bc 11.88cd 12.31bcd 300kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 21.31a 11.36bc 12.53bc 14.14b 450kgha-1NPK12-12-12 19.20a 15.91a 17.34a 19.84a 1.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 19.14ab 10.94bc 12.24bc 14.11b 2.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 20.58a 11.86bc 16.60b 17.94ab 2.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 21.65a 13.46ab 17.94a 20.43a 5.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 21.98a 15.97a 18.22a 20.72a 15 Means in the column followed by the same letters are not significantly different at 5% level by DMRT
  16. 16. Table4: Relative tuber yield of fertilized white yam plots over the unfertilized(control) 2004 2005 %Incre %Increa %Increa %IncreaFertilizer treatments ase se se se Ikenne /control Ibadan /control Ikenne /control Ibadan /control - -No fertilizer 18.46 - 8.21 - 8.08 10.582.5tha-1OF 19.88 7.8 10.06 22.4 9.36 15.8 11.38 16.65.0tha-1 OF 22.60 22.6 10.95 33.42 12.37 52.54 13.26 28.93150kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 20.69 12.2 10.03 30.2 11.88 47.0 12.31 16.7300kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 21.31 15.4 11.36 38.5 12.53 55.0 14.14 33.7450kgha-1NPK12-12-12 19.20 25.8 15.91 94.2 17.34 14.9 19.84 87.91.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 19.14 3.7 10.94 33.2 12.84 58.9 14.11 33.72.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 20.58 11.5 11.86 44.9 16.60 118.8 17.94 29.22.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 21.65 17.4 13.46 64.4 17.94 121.7 20.43 16 93.65.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 21.98 29.9 15.97 94.6 18.22 125.8 20.72 96.2
  17. 17. Table 5: Ikenne 2004 Yield: Cultivar X fertilizer interaction FertilizerFertilizer Adaka Amula Danacha Omiefun meansNo fertilizer 17.20 15.05 16.88 14.95 16.022.5tha-1OF 20.55 20.75 15.20 23.00 19.885.0tha-1 OF 23.45 21.00 19.65 26.30 22.60150kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 14.10 23.30 15.90 29.45 20.69300kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 21.45 22.20 19.05 22.55 21.31450kgha-1NPK12-12-12 19.95 22.50 14.75 19.60 19.201.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 16.50 23.25 18.15 18.65 19.142.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 20.60 24.20 17.80 19.70 20.582.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 22.00 20.65 23.95 20.00 21.655.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 21.25 22.40 17.00 19.25 19.98Variety means 19.71 21.53 17.83 21.35 SE ± F-testCultivar 1.11 Cultivar 0.0717 NSFertilizer 1.76 Fertilizer 0.4075 NS 17 Cultivar*fertilizer 0.8536 NS
  18. 18. Table 6: Ibadan 2004 yield: Cultivar X fertilizer interactionFertilizer Treatments Fertilizer Adaka Amula Danacha Omiefun meansNo fertilizer 8.20 9.60 7.35 8.68 8.462.5tha-1OF 6.90 7.25 10.05 8.90 8.285.0tha-1 OF 11.90 11.70 10.70 8.70 11.75150kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 13.60 8.20 5.85 13.85 10.38300kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 11.60 14.75 11.00 8.10 11.36450kgha-1NPK12-12-12 10.00 11.50 11.90 14.80 12.051.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 8.85 8.70 11.75 13.20 10.632.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 8.80 11.15 7.10 10.80 11.462.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 11.70 11.45 12.96 10.35 12.615.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 10.80 12.78 11.20 9.95 11.98Variety means 10.24 10.71 9.99 10.73 SE± F-testCultivar 0.59 Cultivar 0.7645 NSFertilizer 0.94 Fertilizer 0.0561 * Cult. X Fert. 0.1443 18 NS
  19. 19. • Expt. 2: Evaluation of N, P and K uptake and use efficiency of white yam plants grown with different levels of organic- based fertilizers Nutrient uptake = nutrient conc. (g) X Dry matter• The fertilizer NUE was estimated according to the procedure by Moll et al, 1982. -NUE = Tuber yield / Native + fertilizer N -Where NUE = Nutrient use efficiency in gkg-1.• same procedure was also used to calculate P and K use efficiency. 19
  20. 20. 60.00 IKENNE IBADAN 50.00 No fertilizer 2.5t/haOFN uptake (g/plant) 5.0t/haOF 40.00 150kg/haNPK 300kg/haNPK 450kg/haNPK 1.75t/haOF+150kg/haNPK 30.00 2.5t/haOF+150kg/haNPK 2.5t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 5.0t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 20.00 10.00 0.00 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 16 Weeks after fertilizer application Fig. 9: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizer on nitrogen uptake of four cultivars of white yam at Ikenne and Ibadan 2004 20
  21. 21. No fertilizer IKENNE IBADAN 2.5t/haOF 14.00 5.0t/haOF 150kg/haNPK 12.00 300kg/haNPKP uptake (g/plant) 450kg/haNPK 1.75t/haOF+150kg/haNPK 10.00 2.5t/haOF+150kg/haNPK 2.5t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 8.00 5.0t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 16 Weeks after fertilizer application Fig. 11: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizer on Phosphorus uptake of four cultivars of white yam at Ikenne and Ibadan 2004 21
  22. 22. IKENNE IBADAN No fertilizer 80.00 2.5t/haOF 5.0t/haOFK uptake (g/plant) 70.00 150kg/haNPK 300kg/haNPK 60.00 450kg/haNPK 1.75t/haOF+150kg/haNPK 50.00 2.5t/haOF+150kg/haNPK 2.5t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 40.00 5.0t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 16 Weeks after fertilizer application Fig. 9: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizer on Potassium uptake of four cultivars of white yam at Ikenne and Ibadan 2004 22
  23. 23. Table 7: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on Nutrient use efficiency of four white yam cultivars in Ikenne and Ibadan 2004. Nutrient use efficiency (g/kg) IKENNE 2004 IBADAN 2004 Fertilizer Treatments N P K N P KNo Fertilizer 29.82 29.44 34.37 26.75 36.69 25.752.5t/haOrganic Fertilizer 14.75 17.25 15.31 6.38 10.63 6.445.0t/haOrganic Fertilizer 9.75 13.63 8.69 4.75 8.38 4.13150Kg/ha NPK12-12-12 26.31 15.31 28.25 13.75 10.69 14.31300Kg/ha NPK12-12-12 14.19 10.50 14.63 7.69 6.88 7.81450Kg/haNPK12-12-12 8.69 6.88 8.88 4.69 4.38 4.811.75t/haOF+150Kg/haNPK 14.31 12.31 13.25 8.06 9.00 7.312.5t/haOF+150Kg/haNPK 9.00 11.06 10.31 4.13 6.38 4.752.5t/haOF+300Kg/haNPK 8.31 8.38 8.06 4.31 5.00 3.945.0t/haOF+300Kg/haNPK 5.38 6.50 5.00 2.44 3.25 2.25SE 4.77 1.48 4.58 8.10 1.34 4.40 23
  24. 24. • Expt. 3: Evaluation of Soil mineral N, P and K content in yam cropping system.• Soil samples (ten cores per sub-plot) taken at 0-30 cm depth at monthly intervals were processed using the procedure described by Murphy and Riley (1962), Vander paauw et al., (1971) and Inskeep and Bloom (1984). The amount (Y) of Mineral N, P or K in Kg/ha was calculated using the formular:• Y = C * T * BD * D * 10 DWWhere C = mineral N (NO3-N and NH4-N), P or K concentration in (µg/g)T = total amount of extract used (cm3),BD = bulk density of soil in the profile (Kgm-3) 24
  25. 25. D = depth of soil sampled (m),DW = oven dried weight of soil sample (g) and10 = conversion factor to kg/ha. The summation of NO3-N and NH4-N content will give the available soil mineral N. Mineral P and K content was also be determined by calculation.Residual soil nutrients after the cropping of yams was also determined thus:• Ten core per plot were taken around the spots where yam tubers were harvested,• These were bulked together processed and taken to laboratory for Physico-chemical analyses for essential nutrients. 25
  26. 26. No fertilizer IKENNE IBADAN 2.5t/haOF 110 5.0t/haOF 150kg/haNPK 100 300kg/haNPK 450kg/haNPK 90 1.75t/haOF+150kg/haNPK 2.5t/haOF+150kg/haNPKSoil N (kg/ha) 80 2.5t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 5.0t/haOF+300kg/haNPK 70 60 50 40 30 20 4 8 12 16 4 8 12 16 Weeks after fertilizer applicationFig. 11: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on soil nitrogen contentin soils over time in yam based cropping system at Ikenne and Ibadan 2004. 26
  27. 27. Table10: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on residual effect of nutrients on soil after cultivation of white yam in Ikenne 2004 Ikenne 2004 Residual Soil Nutrient Fertilizer Treatment pH( Org.C N P K Ca Mg Na Fe Zn H2O) % Mg/kg Cmol/kg Mg/kg Pre-planting 5.70 0.67 0.14 10.70 0.38 1.47 0.32 0.34 69.9 0.83No fertilizer 5.76 1.02 0.12 11.18 0.20 2.07 0.50 0.19 117.65 1.022.5tha-1OF 5.78 1.23 0.16 16.98 0.46 1.79 0.53 0.17 109.79 1.635.0tha-1 OF 5.80 1.41 0.37 19.46 0.65 2.14 0.51 0.28 147.01 1.95150kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 5.78 1.35 0.17 19.39 0.17 1.90 0.48 0.28 128.56 1.99300kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 5.79 1.37 0.18 22.70 0.24 2.43 0.84 0.22 122.14 1.02450kgha-1NPK12-12-12 5.74 1.24 0.17 17.81 0.17 2.10 0.51 0.20 129.06 2.651.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 5.76 1.33 0.19 20.06 0.29 2.20 0.57 0.23 157.37 2.522.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 5.80 2.26 0.27 32.35 0.41 2.11 0.51 0.19 163.30 2.862.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 5.89 3.36 0.29 35.67 0.51 2.47 0.58 0.23 175.52 1.475.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 5.88 4.41 0.39 24.48 0.76 2.25 0.53 0.21 146.07 1.87 SE ± 0.05 0.05 0.01 3.32 0.02 0.14 0.04 0.02 14.21 27 1.07
  28. 28. Table 11: Effect of different levels of organo-mineral fertilizers on residual effect of nutrients on soil after cultivation of white yam in Ibadan 2004 Ibadan 2004 Residual Soil Nutrient pH( Fertilizer Treatment H20) Org. N P K Ca Mg Na Fe Zn C % Mg/kg Cmol/kg Mg/kg Pre-planting 5.00 0.38 0.17 0.17 0.17 1.65 1.50 0.16 60.10 0.57No fertilizer 6.17 1.40 0.23 10.15 0.14 4.13 1.35 0.23 441.01 4.402.5tha-1OF 6.15 2.97 0.21 12.96 0.35 3.74 1.16 0.17 453.41 4.825.0tha-1 OF 6.23 4.15 0.22 13.80 0.58 4.02 1.27 0.24 428.75 3.56150kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 6.12 2.01 0.22 9.88 0.17 3.89 1.17 0.30 431.40 4.34300kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 6.45 2.36 0.24 10.66 0.21 4.71 1.32 0.35 378.04 2.91450kgha-1NPK12-12-12 6.40 2.22 0.22 11.53 0.15 4.65 1.32 0.27 394.37 3.431.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 6.10 2.04 0.24 12.68 0.30 4.09 1.58 0.29 372.84 3.472.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 5.95 3.90 0.22 12.89 0.46 3.95 1.27 0.24 423.11 3.112.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 6.54 4.20 0.23 16.59 0.69 5.03 1.31 0.22 430.83 3.895.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 6.08 5.12 0.22 18.63 0.85 3.92 1.25 0.20 447.46 4.30 28 SE ± 0.13 0.11 0.01 2.92 0.02 0.23 0.06 0.04 19.82 0.30
  29. 29. • Expt. 4: Evaluation of Shelf life of yam tubers from plants treated with organo-mineral fertilizers• Six healthy tubers from each plots were selected, bagged, tagged and weighed.• These were put in rectangular plastic basket and kept on the shelves of the yam barn for data collection• initial weight of tubers before and during storage were measured. 29
  30. 30. Table 12: Effect of different levels of organic based fertilizers on weight loss of four cloness of white yam in Ikenne 2004Fertilizer treatments Initial Wt 4WAS* 16WAS (kg) Wt (kg) Wtloss(%) Wt (kg) Wtloss(%)No fertilizer 4.85 4.61 4.81 2.94 18.882.5tha-1OF 5.33 5.05 5.18 3.16 19.335.0tha-1 OF 5.44 5.16 4.91 3.23 19.17150kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 5.43 5.15 5.02 3.23 18.95300kgha-1NPK 12-12-12 5.89 5.61 4.72 3.56 19.24450kgha-1NPK12-12-12 5.10 4.84 5.14 3.03 19.191.75tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 5.38 5.11 5.01 3.12 19.602.5tha-1OF+150kgha-1NPK 5.33 5.06 4.98 3.10 19.732.5tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 5.46 5.20 4.85 3.34 18.195.0tha-1OF+300kgha-1NPK 5.28 5.02 4.90 3.10 20.28SE ± 0.46 0.44 0.14 0.27 0.51 30
  31. 31. Summary & Conclusion Of all the treatment combinations; Organo-mineral fertilizers at 5.0t/ha OF + 300kg/ha NPK gave the best performance followed by 2.5t/haOF + 300 kg/ha NPK, then 450 kg/ha NPK and 5.0 t/ha OF. Although nutrient uptake and crop performance increases with increase fert. rate; 5.0t/ha OF + 300kg/ha NPK, 2.5t/haOF +300kgNPK and 2.5t/haOF +150kgNPK gave similar result. NPK use efficiency decreases with increasing fertilizer rates. Thus plots with no fertilization had the highest NPK use efficiency. 31
  32. 32. Soil NPK contents decreases with advancing age of plant and increases latter towards harvesting.Residual soil nutrients in experimental plots increases with increasing organic matter content of fertilizer materials.Storage assessment of yam tubers indicated no significant difference in tubers grown with the different fertilizer materials.. 32
  33. 33. Acknowledgements• Almighty ALLAH• My profound gratitude to my supervisors:• Prof. G.0. Adeoye• Dr Robert Asiedu (IITA)• IITA Yam breeding Unit Staff.• IARSAF-IITA• Family and friends 33
  34. 34. 34
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