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Postharvest and Food Safety Management for Improved Health and Income
 

Postharvest and Food Safety Management for Improved Health and Income

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Factors that influence post harvest quality,Research to address post harvest constraints,Mycotoxin research,Future needs

Factors that influence post harvest quality,Research to address post harvest constraints,Mycotoxin research,Future needs

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    Postharvest and Food Safety Management for Improved Health and Income Postharvest and Food Safety Management for Improved Health and Income Presentation Transcript

    • Postharvest and Food Safety Management for Improved Health and Income Kerstin HellInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Outline Introduction Factors that influence post harvest quality Research to address post harvest constraints - post harvest systems analysis - control of pests - diffusion and adoption of new technologies Mycotoxin research Future needs International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Food Systems Large Scale and Regulated – Developed countries – Trade based – Advanced infrastructure – Capital intensive Small Scale and Unregulated – Developing countries – Informal markets – Subsistence – High food insecurity Tim Williams, Peanut CRSP International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Post harvest systems in Africa - constraints• Almost all operations are manual – leading to high losses and poor quality• Potential for rapid drying low – high moisture and increased fungal development• Storage structures open and often poorly ventilated - increased losses due to pest and diseases• Long holding periods in open stores – leading to theft, infection with pests and diseases• Poor to no access to storage insecticides• Poor marketing system - leading to increased losses and low prices low incentive for increased production International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Evaluation of post harvest system • Development of post harvest insects and fungi in three different traditional storage structures in Benin • Vegetable material stores (VMS) • Mud silo store (MSS) • Polyethylene bag storage (PBS) • 4 sites in different agroecological zones, monitored monthly for 7 months • Serious levels of Sitophilus zeamais (highest in the south and in the VMS) and Prostephanus truncatus (high levels in the VMS and later in the season in the PBS) • Highest moisture content in the coastal zone decreasing towards the north (16,5% south to 9,9% north) • Most prevalent fungi were Fusarium spp. highest levels observed in Aplahoué (south), whereas Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. were found mostly in Ouessè (middle)Hell et al. 2008 submitted to Journal of Applied Entomology International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Effects of four temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35 C) and two relative humidity levels (44 and 80% RH) on development time, survivorship, age-specific fecundity, sex ratio and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) of S. cerealella• Minimum development time occurred close to 32 C and 80% RH for both males and females. 0,03 High RH• Development time of females was significantly 0,02 shorter than that of develop males. ment 0,01 rate• Immature survivorship (day-1) 0 was highest between 25- 15 20 25 30 35 40 30 C and 80% RH and lowest at 35 C. 0,03 females• The greatest fecundity Low RH males (124 eggs per female) 0,02 occurred at 20ºC, 80% RH. The maximum rm - 0,01 value was 0.086 d-1 at 30 C and 80% RH, but 0 the growth rate declined 15 20 25 30 35 40 ºC dramatically at 35 C. L. Stengård Hansen et al. 2004 Journal of Economic Entomology International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Prostephanus truncatus Prostephanus truncatus serious pest of stored maize and dried cassava roots Quarantine pest affects international trade Maize losses after 6 months from 11% before the introduction of P. truncatus to more than 35% afterwards IITA had projects from 1990 till 2003 (estimated more than 10 mill $ were spent) Predator released for the control Impact of this effort was not evaluated Teretrius nigrescens G.Goergen International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Augmented release Cassava chips stored for 5 months in mud silos and 50 adults of T. nigrescens added Chip weight and number of NoTn PlusTn holes on chips differed between treatments from 2 50 50 months of storage 43 41 45 After 3 months of storage, 40 losses reached 40 to 50% 35 31 without predator and 30 to Losses (Kg) 30 25 40% with T. nigrescens. 25 A farmer can increase his 20 18 18 profit by 1437 fcfa/100kg and 15 12 11 losses are reduced by 11% 10 7 Twice as many P. truncatus 5 0 0 and holes on chips in stores 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 where T. nigrescens was not released Month of storage Farmers were able to prolong storage period by 2 months. Hell et al. 2006 Journal of Stored Products Research International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Bruchid control• Twelve indigenous and exotic isolates of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were evaluated• Indigenous isolates from C. maculatus were more virulent in laboratory bioassays than exotic isolates from other insects.• B. bassiana 0362 at both 1x107 and 1x108 conidia g-1 grain led to significant adult mortality and reduced F1 emergence relative to Most serious pest of cowpea untreated and beans in Africa• Effect of the fungus persisted into the F1 generation. The net reproductive rates, R0, The development of a single measured 26 days after insects were released larva in a kernel can lead to were 5.16 and 7.32 for the high and low doses weight losses of 8–22% compared to 9.52 for the untreated control.• No evidence that cadavers were sporulating in Significant impact on stored grain need for persistence would depend commercial value – price on initial inoculum reduced by 40% Cherry et al. 2005 Journal of Stored Products Research & Cherry et al. 2007 Annals of Applied Biology International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Adoption of Improved Mud Silo Impact of farmers’ socio- 210 Courbe de diffusion du grenier fermé en terre amélioré economic factors, 200 Yt=199/(1+ e -666,99691-0,33281*t ) technology characteristics 190 180 and farm specific factors, 170 on the adoption of Nombre de paysans ayant adopté le grenier 160 improved mud silo 150 140 130 120 Farmers’ socio-economic 110 factors such as the years 100 90 of farming experience, 80 access to extension 70 service, were positively 60 50 correlated with adoption. 40 30 20 Technology 10 characteristics like cost 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 0 affected adoption Année dadoption negatively and perceived durability of the store affected adoption Hell et al. 2008 Submitted to Int. Journal of Postharvest Technology & Innovation positively International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Adoption of cassava chipping equipment Variables β Coefficient Standard Error ProbabilityGender 0.291 0.769 0.705*Sale -0.144 0.673 0.831Education -1.246 0.827 0.132Processing experience -0.049 0.028 0.079*Non-tuber incomes -1.945 1.108 0.079*Contact 1.814 0.748 0.015**Group Membership 4.274 0.886 0.000***Agro-Ecological zone -1.355 0.648 0.037**Average Income -1.221 0.798 0.126Constant 0.439 1.742 0.801Pourcentage de prédictions correctes : 89.6 % ; Constante = 0.46217 ; N=212Ratio de maximum de vraisemblance = 69.218; Chi carré = 72.100***.(***) : significatif à 1 % ; (**) : significatif à 5 %. Allogni et al. 2008 Submitted to Bulletin de la Recherche Agronomique. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Mycotoxin R-4-D at IITA Aspergillus and Fusarium species diversity and mycotoxin profile in food baskets (USAID, BMZ, IFAR) Breeding for resistance (US-FAS) Biocontrol of aflatoxin (BMZ) Low-cost detection of mycotoxin Development and dissemination of mycotoxin management strategies (BMZ, ADA) Intervention study for the reduction of aflatoxin and impact on nutritional situation (BMZ) Awareness campaign (Rotary International) Training & information exchange (USAID, BMZ, EU) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Major classes of mycotoxins• Aflatoxins: Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus• Trichothecenes: Fusarium spp, Stachybotrys• Fumonisins: F. verticillioides etc.• Zearalenone: F. graminearum• Ochratoxins: Penicillium verrucosum, A. ochraceous International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Prevalence of Aflatoxins in Food• Aflatoxins are toxic substances produced by highly prevalent Aspergillus fungi• High levels from Kenya, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Zambia…….• Frequency of occurrence high – >30% maize in stores with >20 ppb aflatoxin – ~90% stores are contaminated with Afla fungi – Up to 50% grain in households with aflatoxin• Several African staple commodities affected – maize, groundnut, cassava, sorghum, yam, rice, cashews• Environmental conditions, traditional farming methods and improper grain drying and storage practices International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Aflatoxin and Fumonisin in W. AfricaPrimary products Food products Maize beverage:Maize: aflatoxin – 2-560 ppb • aflatoxin <2ppb fumonisin – 0-12 ppm • fumonisin <2ppmCassava chips: 0,3-13 ppb Cassava flour: 0,3-4.4ppbCowpea: 0.9-18.6ppbCashew: 3.0-56 ppbEgussi: 4.6-32 ppbDried vegetables – 3.2-6 ppb International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Aspergillus flavus prevalence in maize in BeninAspergillus flavusprevalence 160000differs between 140000 120000zone and season 100000 cfu 80000 AFTHigh risk zone 60000has been 40000identified 20000 0 SS NGS SGS CS Ecozones Tedihoue et al. 2008 Submitted to Plant Disease International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Aflatoxin in maize in different agroecological zones in BeninHigh and low risk 1600.0zones have been 1400.0identified 1200.0 1000.0Results vary ppb 800.0 Aflatoxinesbetween season 600.0and years 400.0 200.0 0.0 SS NGS SGS CS Ecozones Tedihoue et al. 2008 Submitted to Plant Disease International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Mycotoxin risk in different agroecological zones in Africa High aflatoxin risk zones: moist savannas (with bimodal rainfall patterns) and hot dry savannas Fusarium toxin risk zones: humid forest and mid-altitudes Drier savanna Aflatoxin Moist savanna Humid forest contamination Moist midaltitude Drier midaltitude High altitude increase with storage time especially in drier savanna International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Factors that influence mycotoxins• Climatic (rain, relative humidity, temperature)• Biotic (insects, damage, incomplete huskcover)• Abiotic (stress, irrigation, rotation, variety, planting date, harvest, storage conditions) Trt Aspergillus spp. Fusarium spp. Non-protected 3.95 0.82 a 36.05 3.38 a Protected 2.33 0.62 b 16.62 1.47 b P 0.0067 <.0001 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Climate Change and Aflatoxin in Kenya The 2004 Aflatoxin outbreak. INCREASING RISK OF Increasing aflatoxinAFLATOXIN OUTBREAKS IN in market maize inMAKUENI AND MACHAKOS brown. Blue circles – aflatoxin deaths Drought, high temperature stress and unseasonal rains increase aflatoxin in maize and groundnuts >125 people died of aflatoxin poisoning in 2004, a drought year Increase in duration and area under drought would further accentuate aflatoxin problem International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Associated insect species• Insects play a big role in the propagation and distribution of Correlation between mean number of insects and toxigenic fungal species on maize the fungal spores• High correlation between certain A. flavus A. parasiticus F.verticillioides insect species and fungi Prostephanus 0.36* 0.12 0.23• Pest pressure was low Sitophilus -0.21 0.39* -0.17 Cathartus 0.32* 0.18 -0.31*• To protect cobs from fungal Carpophilus 0.21 0.13 0.08 infestation a reduction of 40% Tribolium 0.33* 0.48** 0.08 Palorus 0.23 0.42** -0.03 aflatoxin Cryptolestes -0.08 0.40** 0.09• Cobs with more than 10% of Gnathocerus 0.23 0.24 0.04 damage by insects had aflatoxin * Significant at P = 0.05 and ** P = 0.01 contamination of 388 - 515 ppb Hell et al. 2000 al., 2004 Hell et African Entomology International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Effect of maize variety, and cowpea intercropping on aflatoxin production during storageLocal variety 1.0E+03Gbogbe had 8.0E+02much lower toxin AFB1 Aflatoxin (ppb) 6.0E+02 AFB2levels thanTZSR-W 4.0E+02 2.0E+02No effect ofintercropping 0.0E+00with cowpea 0 1 0 1 P0 P1 P0 P1 LV LV IV IV C C C C LV LV IV IV Tedihoue et al. 2008 Manuscript in preparation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Beninese maize and F. verticilliodes infection 80 80 a a a a a a A Stem infection (%) Inoculation B 60 b 60 Control b a a a a a ab ab ab ab ab ab 40 40 b * * * * * * 20 * 20 * ** * * * * * * * * * * 0 0 Keb-EMY DMRY DMRW QPM TZESRW TZESRW HPG97 DTSR TZPB-SR TZPB-SR Ngakoutou DMRW DMRY ACR20 ACR94 Keb-EMY QPM Gbogboue Kamboinse Kamboinse 80Kernels infection (%) 80 C D 60 60 a 40 * ab * * * ab ab 40 ab a ab ab ab ab ab ab bc ab * * abc abc abc 20 abc c b abc * bc bc * c * * 20 * * * 0 TZPB-SR TZESRW DMRY Keb-EMY QPM DMRW Kamboinse Ngakoutou 0 TZESRW HPG97 DTSR TZPB-SR DMRW DMRY ACR20 ACR94 Keb-EMY QPM Gbogboue Kamboinse A & C 2003 B & D 2004 Dewaminou et al. 2008 submitted to Journal of Phytopathology International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Aflatoxin Resistance in Maize Inbreds 1800 Field-03 Field-04 KSA 1600 1400 1200Aflatoxin (ppb) 1000 800 600 400 200 0 TZMI102 TZMI502 TZM104 1368 1823 Inbred Lines International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Mycotoxin Monitoring Tools• Simple and low-cost diagnostic tool (ELISA)• Polyclonal antibodies for aflatoxin – Low-cost (US$ 1-2 per sample analysis) – Simple procedure, qualitative and quantitative – Results comparable to HPLC – High throughput analysis possible (100-400 samples/day) – Less dependency on commercial equipment – Ideal test for aflatoxin estimation in developing countries International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Aflatoxin Tested Pet Food in NairobiInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Mycotoxin Management Strategies• Awareness• Host plant resistance• Biological control• Time of harvest• Grain drying method• Storage structure• Storage form• Sorting and processing• Insect control International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Insect control• Cobs were protected with mosquito netting, natural or artificial infestation In protected cobs Pt levels were low rising to means of 1.8 under natural and 14.2 under artificial infestation Aspergillus and Penicillium incidence was highest on Mussidia nigrivenella, Carpophilus sp., Prostephanus truncatus and Sitophilus sp. While Fusarium spp. was mainly associated with the field pests Eldana saccharina and Sesamia calamistis Low aflatoxin 0.21 0.16 ppb in T0, whereas insect infestation resulted in 22.74 p 6.99 ppb aflatoxin in T1, and 27.37 7.83 ppb in T2. Treatment A. flavus A. Insect. Grain Fungal Fungal Total parasiticus damage losses damage losses aflatoxin Cobs 8.17±0.86a 0.22±0.14a 10.48±1.4a 4.68±1.03a 6.43±0.44a 0.92±0.24a 0.22±0.16a protected(T0) Natural 37.11±1.44b 0.11±0.00a 41.01±2.6b 19.65±1.9b 10.56±0.7a 1.57±0.69a 22.74±6.99b infestation(T1) Artificial 47.60±1.50c 0.33±0.14a 50.34±2.9c 27.47±2.4c 9.72±0.67a 1.12±0.49a 27.37±7.83b infestation(T2) p 0.0001 0.42 0.0001 0.0001 0.99 0.98 0.002 Mihinto & Hell 2008 Manuscript in preparation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Aflatoxin managementOccurrence (%) of various toxigenic fungal species in maize grains after a 7-daydrying period using different drying methodsDrying method Aspergillus Fusarium Penicillium OthersCobs on stalk in the field 4.7ab1 98.3a 1.7a 5.3aSun drying cobs dried on the ground 21.0a 95.3a 43.7a 10.0aSun drying cobs dried on a platform 2.0b 86.3b 4.7b 2.7aSun drying cobs dried on a plastic sheets 18.3a 33.3c 9.7b 0.7a1Means within a column followed by the same letter do not differ significantly from each other (P < 0.05) Hell et al. 2008 Mycotoxin Book International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Mycotoxin management• Four storage systems of maize commonly used by farmers in Benin, West Africa, were tested to determine their impact on infection of maize by Fusarium and fumonisins.• Fusarium incidence was significantly higher when maize was stored on a cemented floor in a house, a non ventilated facility (40.3 17.4%), than in the other tested systems (p < 0.05).• The lowest Fusarium incidence was recorded when maize was stored in a bamboo granary (25.5 13.5%) (p < 0.05).• All maize samples from the tested storage systems were found to be fumonisin- positive, with levels ranging from 0.6 to 2.4 mg/kg. Fandohan et al. 2006 African Journal of Biotechnology International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Mycotoxin managementOils from Cymbopogon citratus,Ocimum basilicum, and Ocimumgratissimum were the most 1.6effective in vitro, completelyinhibiting the growth of F.Mean total fumonisin level (ug/g) 1.4verticillioides at lowerconcentrations over 21 days of 1.2incubation 1.0These oils reduced the incidenceof F. verticillioides in corn and .8totally inhibited fungal growth at Storage conditionsconcentrations of 8, 6.4, and 4.8 .6ųL/g, respectively, over 21 days. Clos ed .4 Open C. citratus O. gratis simumFurther studies are in progress to O. bas ilicum Control (no oil)evaluate the toxicological effectsof these plant substances. Treatments Fandohan et al. 2004 Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Simple management practices during processing• Sorting followed by winnowing of naturally Infected Healthy contaminated maize grains resulted in a mean reduction of 59% and 69% in aflatoxin and fumonisin levels, respectively (Fandohan et al., 2005).• Similar losses of aflatoxins (37%) and fumonisins (51%) to wash water have been reported when maize was processed into derived products in Benin (Fandohan et al., 2008)• Small reductions in mycotoxin levels (18% for aflatoxins and 13% for fumonisins) also have been observed following lactic fermentation when preparing ogi (fermented maize dough) (Fandohan et al., 2005).• A reduction of mycotoxin levels was observed during the preparation of adoyo (86 % of aflatoxins and 65 % of fumonisins). (Fandohan in preparation) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Poverty reduction through a better post harvest management of maize aflatoxin levels in 100000Maize sorting before ppb 50000storage resulted inan important 0 Maize sorted Maize no-sortedreduction of aflatoxinlevel from 45461.22 experim ented technologiesppb to 1811.775 ppb. Aflatoxin levels after six monthsCalculated financiallosses were 40.75FCFA for maizesorted beforestorage and 52.52FCFA for non-sortedmaize. Losses after six months International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Atoxigenic Strain Identification Toxin assay - UnknownStrain characterization cnx nia-D VCGField Field release UnknownCompetition assays cnx nia-D Lab + International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • How does Biocontrol Work? Soil Sporulation on wet soil colonization 3-20 days Insects Wind SporesBroadcast Inoculum on@ 10kg/ha 20-30 sorghum grain carrierdays after sowing International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Steps in Aflatoxin Biocontrol R-4-D• Collection and identification of isolates• Characterisation of isolates• Identification of atoxigenic strains• Determination of genetic and molecular diversity in the atoxigenic strains• Ensuring biosafety of the atoxigenics• Developing methods for mass multiplication of inoculum for field application• Testing efficacy of atoxigenics in field trials• Sensitisation of growers, consumers and regulatory agencies about potential of biocontrol• Registration of the atoxigenic strains as biopesticides• Upscaling and outscaling to wider areas International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Awareness campaign & capacity buildingMore than 10 millionpeople in Benin, Togoand Ghana are nowaware of the dangers ofaflatoxin-contaminatedfeed/foods.Per year:About 10 students1 training course onpost-harvest pests anddiseasesIndividual training International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Africa Conference13-16 Sept 2005 Accra Ghana 109 participants, 28 countries in Africa (15), Europe, Asia, North America and South America Participants: Scientists, parliamentarians, heads of institutions, policymakers, trade and health specialists International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Impact of awareness campaignAflatoxin awareness amongst target groups before (Pre-C) and after (Post-C) awareness campaign in Benin, Ghana and Togo Respondents aware of aflatoxin (%)Awareness Farmers Traders Consumers Poultry farmers †indicator % % % % Pre-C Post-C Pre-C Post-C Pre-C Post-C Pre-C Post-C change change change changeInformed 20.8 53.2 32.4*** 26.7 56.9 30.2*** 25.2 63.5 38.3*** 60.0 60.9 0.9 nsBelieved 54.6 76.9 22.3*** 58.5 78.1 19.6*** 60.0 84.3 24.3*** 83.0 91.2 8.2 **Adopts 51.1 75.7 24.6*** 55.4 91.8 36.3*** 81.3 84.5 3.2 ns 48.9 68.8 19.9*** James et al. 2007 Food Additives & Contaminants International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Trade Losses due to Aflatoxins• Export compliance with food safety Maize and quality standards.• Some countries active to meet Cocoa standards by putting in place relevant institutions• Best quality exported; poorer quality Coffee consumed domestically.• Need to evaluate the economic impact of aflatoxin on health and trade, and the economic benefit the deployment of aflatoxin management can have. Peanut International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Nutritional status of children aged 18-36 month in four agro-ecological Zones in Benin Zone 1 (N=45) Zone 2 (N=113) 38.56% of undernourished children 37.01 45 Zone 3 (N=76) 32.18 31.58 30.13 40 Zone 4 (N=88) 28.12 27.44 27.6 35 30 25 20 15 4.41 3.93 10 7 5 0 0 Stunting Underweight Wasting Figure 1: Prevalence (%) of malnutrition by agro-ecological zone Honfo et al. to be submitted to International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Nutritional status of children aged 18-36 month in four agro-ecological Zones in Benin Zone 1(N=45) 100 78.2 Zone 2 (N=113) 71.9 64.3 62.3 61.9 60.5 80 Zone 3 (N=76) 55 .6 48 .9 52.5 51.3Proportion 60 Zone 4 (N=88) 37 .8 36.8 40 20 0 Energy Proteins Iron Figure 2: Proportion of children covering at least 100% of the nutritional needs Honfo et al. to be submitted to International Journal of Food Safety, Nutrition and Public Health International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Summary• Food supplies in Africa are precarious• High losses of foods both in Quality (mycotoxins, chemical residues, hygiene) and in Quantity (mostly due to pest)• Need for improved storage structures and methods to reduce these losses (up to 30%)• Need improved access to markets• Need improved processing and packaging methods to maintain quality It’s not possible that people go hungry and we have more than 30% of the children showing signs of malnutrition International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • New research opportunities• Quality in horticultural food chains (risk assessment, technology options)• Scaling up and out of mycotoxin management using different partnership models• Economic impact of mycotoxin management on improved health and income• Study other mycotoxins eg. Fumonisin, OchratoxinA (diagnostic capacity has to be established)• Mycotoxins and climate change• Monitoring and testing of product quality at different steps in commodity chain using appropriate analytical tools (mycotoxins, pesticide residues, other microbes)• Development of options for quality approaches & Market Access (Technologies, Methodologies, Training)• Food/nutrition/health especially focusing on child health International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org