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IPM for cowpea
 
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Insect resistant cowpea – conventional breeding,Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents,IPM approach for flower thrips

Insect resistant cowpea – conventional breeding,Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents,IPM approach for flower thrips

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    IPM for cowpea IPM for cowpea Presentation Transcript

    • IPM for cowpea Manuele Tamò insect ecologist R4D week, Nov 25, 2009International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Strategic vision for cowpea IPM (5-10 years)Preventive side:• Host plant resistance (incl. transgenics)• Conservation biological controlCurative side:• Inoculative and augmentative biological control• Bio-pesticides• Synthetic insecticides International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • The legume pod borer, Maruca vitrata International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Insect resistant cowpea – conventional breeding • no reliable sources of resistance in crossable species • wide crosses unsuccessful • use of susceptible varieties possible with chemical control 2 spray No spray Variety Grain Fodder Grain Fodder (kg/ha) (kg/ha) (kg/ha) (kg/ha) IT90K-277-2 2697 2219 549 3236 IT95K-231-1 2235 2619 312 3043 IT95K-193-12 2020 1513 496 1462 Dan lla (Local) 1407 3050 14 3677 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Table 2 Performance of cowpea Breeding Lines in Ibadan During the Second Season (September to November) of 1998______________________________________________________ Spray No Spray _______________________Cowpea Line Total seed Good seed Total seed Good seed IP yield (kg/ha) yield (kg/ha) yield (kg/ha) yield(kg/ha)___________________________________________________________IT95M-268-1-4 1530.7 1377.4 1479.5 1350.8 2IT95M-305-1 1479.5 1313.6 1328.6 1190.2 2IT95M-190-4 1539.1 1348.2 1303.2 1123.6 2IT95M-7 1567.0 1520.7 1256.1 1192.7 3IT95M-190-1 1349.0 1233.6 1192.7 980.2 2IT95M-309-1 1490.3 1450.3 1177.3 1091.5 2IT95M-249-1 1502.8 1425.7 1127.7 935.6 2TVU14476 (CK) 1207.3 1120.2 994.8 915.6 3IT86D-715 (CK) 1034.4 876.8 673.1 574.3 2IT86D-719 (CK) 1012.3 821.4 614.3 457.6 2LSD 5% 310.4 303.3 380.8 355.2CV % 16.1 17.1 24.1 25.1 1__________________________________________________________*IPE = Pod evaluation index International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • The Bt-protein is found in most green organs of transgenic cowpea 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 75 Kd 50 Kd * Cry 1Ab 37 Kd Pet YL OL SEP PET Poll Pod Imm Mat Seed SeedCourtesy: T.J. Higgins, CSIRO *LSU International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Bt-mediated effect on M. vitrata parasitoids - using different doses of Cry1Ab toxin on Phanerotoma leucobasis- Parasitoid egg inserted in M.vitrata egg, but development ofparasitoid larva only in late 1-stinstar- substantial mortality of developingparasitoids only when exposed toLD95 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Prospective NTO studies on M. vitrata natural enemiesOther parasitoids to be studied:-Trichogrammatoidea eldanae (egg, local)- Braunsia kriegeri (larva, local)- Pristomerus sp. (larva, local)- Bracon sp. (larva, local)- Dolichogenidea sp. (larva, local)- Testudobracon sp. (larva, local)- Apanteles taragamae (larva, exotic)- Bassus aper (larva, exotic)- Nemorilla maculosa (larva, exotic) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents:Exotic parasitoids:• overall reduction of the population pressure,particularly on wild host plants during the off-seasonMaviMNPV:• to be used like a biopesticide for inundativebiological control e.g. once pheromone derivedthreshold is reached International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Ecology studies Major alternative host plants in moist savannas of West AfricaPterocarpus santalinoides Lonchocarpus cyanescens Lonchocarpus sericeus Tephrosia candida International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Population ‘migration’ of M. vitrata based on availabledata from light traps and host plant surveys: implicationfor control strategies International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Which biocontrol agents? Local natural enemies of Maruca vitrata in West AfricaBraunsia kriegeri Phanerotoma leucobasisMaruca vitrata larval parasitism rates on different host plants in Benin 50 40 Phanerotoma leucobasis 30 Braunsia kriegeri 20 10 0 Lc Ls Ps Pp Tp Vu International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)On-going biological and ecological studies 12 0.7 10 0.6 0.5 8 0.4mx lx 6 0.3 4 0.2 2 0.1 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 days Over 60% parasitism on Sesbania in Taiwan International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Experimental releases …but no direct evidence of establishment yet on wild vegetation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • A serial killer: Maruca vitrata NuclearPolyhedrosis Virus (MaviMNPV) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • MaviNPV: lab and cage studies at IITA-Benin treatement % mortality (OB/ha) 0.1000 9,12 c 2.1009 24,43 bc 2.1010 35,55 bc 2.1011 56,25 ab 2.1012 75,00 a 2.1013 87,92 a International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Strategy for deploying biocontrol agents:Exotic parasitoids:• overall reduction of the population pressure,particularly on wild host plants during the off-seasonBiopesticide MaviMNPV:• to be used like a biopesticide for inundativebiological control International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • A. taragamae and MaviMNPV flying together ! + = !!!!! International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Presence of MaviMNPV OB in larvae of Maruca vitrata as a function of different contamination methods using 2h and 24h virus exposure time. Exposure time Treatmentstr 2h 24 h Control 0b 0b Ovipositor 0,91 a 0,96 a Whole body 0,94 a 0,97 a Diet 0,90 a 0,98 a P>F <0,0001*** <0,0001***Mechanical transmission using detached ovipositor and glasscapillaries demonstrated.Another important discovery: at temperatures <25 C co-infectedlarvae will be killed by the virus before parasitoids can form a cocoon International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • ‘IPM model’ for Maruca vitrataNovel BC agents MR-cowpea Biopesticides as tools in IRMAlternative hostplans (BC and IRM) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • New BMZ project: large biodiversity of M. vitratanatural enemies in Asia and maybe in South America International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Pulses-CRSP project: M. vitrata rearing for nationalprograms and farmer groups International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • M. vitrata happily feeding on germinatingcowpea grains International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Rearing methodology with germinating cowpea grains is 25-30x lessexpensive than standard artificial diet for the same larval output level !!! International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • The bean flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thys., Thripidae) Photo: G. Goergen International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Host plant resistanceCultivars Damage index First season Second seasonMoussa local 2.06 c 3.42 cdSewe 2.06 c 3.42 bcSanzisabinli 2.13 c 1.93 dTVu 1509 (RC) 2.38 c 3.25 cdIT90K-277-2 4.88 b 3.67 cdKVx404-8-1 4.88 b 4.67 bIT91K-180 5.06 b 5.75 aTVx 3236 5.13 b 5.17 bVita7 (SC) 7.56 a 7.59a International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Biodiversity studies: natural enemies of M. sjostedti Larval parasitoid: Ceranisus menes Walker Predator: Orius albidipennis Reuter 0.5 mmEgg parasitoid: Megaphragma sp. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Parasitism rates of M. sjostedti larvae by C. menes on selected host plants V. unguiculata 31754P. santalinoides 7590 L. sericeus 8357 L. cyanescens 5671 T. candida 8222 0 1 2 3 4 5 % International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Discovery of the thrips parasitoid Ceranisus femoratus in CameroonImportant parasitism rates on wild host plants V. unguiculata 5841 C. pubescens 130 2315 T. candida D. guineensis 1110 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Laboratory rearing very labour intensive and expensive 2 mm International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • In-field mass rearing on Tephrosia candida International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Megalurothrips sjostedtiEstablishment of the exotic thrips parasitoid Ceranisusfemoratus 4 years after the initial releases in threecountries International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Large dataset from Benin, comparing multi-year data before releases and 4 years data after the releases 250 200 150 100 50 0 Lonchocarpus Lonchocarpus Pterocarpus Tephrosia Tephrosia sericeus cyanescens santalinoides bracteolata candidaAverage number of M. sjostedti larvae per inflorescence ofdifferent host plant (blue: period 1992-95, red: period2005-2007) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Ecological impact: up to 43% reduction of thrips populationon wild host plantsEconomic impact: on-going collaboration with agro-economists for developing ex-ante impact assessmentmodels International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • IPM approach for flower thrips- Host plant resistance in available germplasm- Improved biological control: On wild hosts: Ceranisus femoratus On cowpea: Amblyseius swirskii- Biopesticides: entomopathogens botanical extracts International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • Aphid colonies destroyed by Neozygites fresenii in the Oueme valley (Benin) during ‘harmattan’ conditionsInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • New ‘serendipitously’ introduced biocontrol agent: Lysiphlebus testaceipesSo far observed in Benin and Ghana, not in Niger and Burkina yetInteractions studies on-going International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
    • New technology for FFF?Solar-powered MP3 players- FFF can now be augmentedwith messages regarding theagricultural issues beingaddressed.- Such devices can be takenback to the communitieswhere the messages can beplayed repeatedly (biggestadvantage over rural radiomessages which are oftenplayed only once) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org