Increasing Crop Productivity in the West  African Savannas: Experiences from            northern Nigeria              A.Y....
Outline1. Biophysical constraints in the West African Savannas2. Research to provide technological solutions to the   cons...
West Africa agroecological zones                                   www.iita.org
Agroecological zones in Nigeria                                  www.iita.org
Savanna Production Constraints Parasitic weed infestation of cereal and legume  fields Poor soil fertility Drought Poo...
Production Constraints continued   Poor access to information   Low access to animal feeds   Dysfunctional market   Po...
Highlights of biophysical constraints Striga effect on sorghum   Striga effect on rice                            Striga e...
Highlights of biophysical constraints Drought effect on soybean   Alectra effect on cowpea Striga effect on cowpea     Dro...
Highlights of biophysical constraints    Poor soil fertility                                        www.iita.org
www.iita.org
Research to identify and disseminatetechnological solutions to the identifiedconstraints-some examples Exploiting compati...
Influence of phosphorus application on growthand yield of soybean genotypes                                Miringa (NGS)  ...
Soybean response to N and P There was no significant  interaction effect between N  and P fertilizer on grain yield  and ...
Performance of drought-tolerant Maize under threeN levels in soils of the West African SavannasKamara et al (2005). Experi...
Stay green trait under 30kg N/ha Drought-tolerant maize  cultivars performed better  than or similar to varieties  select...
Effect of N fertilization on Strigadamage of maize genotypes                                        N levels (kg/ha)      ...
Nitrogen and cultivar effect on grain yield ofmaize under natural infestation with Striga                                 ...
Effect of maize varieties and N fertilization on grainyield, Striga emergence and damage score Grain yield of all varieti...
Performance of improved cowpea varieties underconditions of natural infestation of Striga gesnerioides                    ...
Reaction of different cowpea cultivars toStriga gesnerioides Some improved varieties,  reported previously to be  resista...
Planting Date and Cultivareffects on Grain Yield in DryLand Maize ProductionPlanting                  Grain YieldDate     ...
Key findings Delaying planting generally reduce yield and yield  components In Sudan savanna, planting of maize on July ...
Integrating planting date with insecticide sprayingregimes to manage insect pest of cowpea                                ...
Key findings No significant difference in insect pest population and grain yield  when insecticides was applied once each...
Putting research into use Development of strong partnerships (e.g critical role  of partners in participatory agronomic r...
A linear approach      Research     Extension      Farmer                          26                    www.iita.org
Knowledge                      generation                               SupplyStakeholdersPartnersInnovation              ...
Participatory Research and Extension Approach                                                                  Technical  ...
PROSAB’s development approach                            Partnerships       PREA     Strong CBOs      Gender      Knowledg...
 Participatory evaluation of  improved cowpea cultivars in the  Guinea and Sudan savanna  zones of north east Nigeria    ...
On-farm performance of some cowpea varieties AEZ   Variety          Grain yield (kg/ha)   Fodder (kg/ha) NGS   IT89KD-288 ...
Marginal return for spraying ($ per ha)                                                      -100                         ...
www.iita.org
Cowpea evaluation criteriaProduction                                   Utilisation Early maturity                        ...
www.iita.org
Participatory evaluation - cowpeas3=best or highest, 2=average, 1=worst or lowestEvaluation criteria               288    ...
Cereal-legume rotation                         www.iita.org
On-farm performance of maize in rotationsystems (NGS and SGS)                        Crop history Ecological   200        ...
Mean ISC-Soybean maize yields (kg per ha)                                ISC                   FP                         ...
Seed systems Up to 1988 certified seed produced, processed and  distributed by ADPs   – Largely discontinued due to fundi...
Strategy to promote community seedproduction Farmer groups select  credible individuals to  produce seed Training provid...
Yield and value of seed crop produced in 2007 (Naira)                           Mean      Mean value of    Total-all    % ...
www.iita.org
Seed disposals during 2008                              Credit retrieval        1%       Total quantity remaining in store...
Some impactLead farmer crop yields 2005-8   (tonnes/ha)Crop         Baseline    2005 2006       2007   2008Maize          ...
Some impactAdopting farmers crop yields           2008 tonnes/ ha             Main or Sole crop             Relay cropCrop...
Adoption (PASS – 2008)200976 %forsoybean                                   www.iita.org
Emerging issues Shortages of labour and draught  animals    – Zero tillage, conservation       agriculture Scaling out  ...
Emerging issues (modelling)                       5000                              TZE COMP4C2 (Azir 2007)               ...
Emerging issues (modelling)                       5000                              TZB-SR (Azir 2007)                    ...
Emerging issues The CERES-Maize model of DSSAT was used to evaluate the  performance of maize planted at different dates ...
Influence of tillage systems on the performance of somecowpea varieties in a Sudano-Sahelian ecology after threeyears of c...
Effect of tillage systems on cowpeaperformance Zero tillage  produced higher  biomass than flat        ZERO TILLAGE  till...
Grain yield response of semi-determinate andindeterminate cowpea genotypes relay-cropped undermaize with different plant p...
Effect of cropping systems on cowpea genotypeIT97K-499-35 Cropping system x  cowpea genotype  interaction was  significan...
Response of contrasting soybeanvarieties to different plant populations Higher grain yields  were obtained at           6...
Grain yield (kg/ha) of four soybean varieties grownat different plant populations in Nigerian northernGuinea savanna      ...
Some practical lessons learnt                                www.iita.org
Thank you            www.iita.org
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Increasing Crop Productivity in the West African Savannas: Experiences from northern Nigeria

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Biophysical constraints in the West African Savannas,Research to provide technological solutions to the
constraints,Highlights of some impacts on beneficiaries of research activities,Emerging issues to address in the future

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Increasing Crop Productivity in the West African Savannas: Experiences from northern Nigeria

  1. 1. Increasing Crop Productivity in the West African Savannas: Experiences from northern Nigeria A.Y. Kamara Savanna Systems Agronomist www.iita.org
  2. 2. Outline1. Biophysical constraints in the West African Savannas2. Research to provide technological solutions to the constraints3. Highlights of some impacts on beneficiaries of research activities4. Emerging issues to address in the future www.iita.org
  3. 3. West Africa agroecological zones www.iita.org
  4. 4. Agroecological zones in Nigeria www.iita.org
  5. 5. Savanna Production Constraints Parasitic weed infestation of cereal and legume fields Poor soil fertility Drought Poor access to inputs (seeds, agro-chemicals) Crop pests and diseases Poor crop management Ineffective extension systems www.iita.org
  6. 6. Production Constraints continued Poor access to information Low access to animal feeds Dysfunctional market Post-harvest losses www.iita.org
  7. 7. Highlights of biophysical constraints Striga effect on sorghum Striga effect on rice Striga effect on cowpea Striga effect on maize www.iita.org
  8. 8. Highlights of biophysical constraints Drought effect on soybean Alectra effect on cowpea Striga effect on cowpea Drought effect on maize www.iita.org
  9. 9. Highlights of biophysical constraints Poor soil fertility www.iita.org
  10. 10. www.iita.org
  11. 11. Research to identify and disseminatetechnological solutions to the identifiedconstraints-some examples Exploiting compatible genotype X fertilizer interactions for different crops Matching crops to soils and environments (e.g. maize variety X planting date interactions in the savannas) Integrating crop management practices to control pests in cowpea Assessing farm-level impact of cropping systems on parasitic weeds and grain yields of component crops Adapting improved crop varieties to farmer circumstances (e.g cowpea) www.iita.org
  12. 12. Influence of phosphorus application on growthand yield of soybean genotypes Miringa (NGS) Azir (SS) P-levels P-levels Variety 0 20 40 0 20 40 TGX-1485-1D 1028 2114 2098 1368 2579 2401 TGX-1904 6F 1002 2306 2737 1380 2786 2727 TGX- 1830-20E 1037 1993 1974 1299 2728 2652 TGX-1448-2E 1099 2519 2641 1824 2835 3656 Mean 1041 2233 2362 1468 2732 2859 SED 56.6 56.6 56.6 394 394 394Kamara, et al. (2007). Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 53(5):539-552. www.iita.org
  13. 13. Soybean response to N and P There was no significant interaction effect between N and P fertilizer on grain yield and yield components Nitrogen fertilizer had no 40 kg P/ha, 20 N 20 P, 20 kg N/ha significant effect on grain 20kg P/ha,0N yield and yield attributes. Application of P fertilizer increased yield and yield components 0 N, 0 P No significant yield difference between 20 and 40 kg of P fertilizer ha-1 www.iita.org
  14. 14. Performance of drought-tolerant Maize under threeN levels in soils of the West African SavannasKamara et al (2005). Experimental Agriculture, (Cambridge) 41(2): 199-212 www.iita.org
  15. 15. Stay green trait under 30kg N/ha Drought-tolerant maize cultivars performed better than or similar to varieties selected for low-N tolerance Selection for tolerance to drought may confer tolerance to low-nitrogen stress High grain yield under severe N stress was associated with stay green ratings, increased number of ears per plant, reduced days to silking and reduced ASI www.iita.org
  16. 16. Effect of N fertilization on Strigadamage of maize genotypes N levels (kg/ha) 0 30 60 120Variety Striga rating (1-9)*8331-1-1 8.3 6.8 7.0 6.29022-13STR 6.7 5.0 4.0 3.2ACR 97 TZL COMP1-W 4.7 3.8 4.3 3.3IWDC2 SYN F2 6.0 4.7 4.2 3.0TZB-SR 6.3 5.3 4.8 4.5TZL COMP1 SYN-W 4.5 4.3 3.5 3.3TZL COMP1 SYN-Y 5.3 4.8 4.7 3.5TZL COMP1-W C6 F2 4.2 4.5 4.3 3.5Zea-dplo 5.3 3.7 4.2 3.5Mean 5.7 4.8 4.6 3.7SED N levels 0.25SED N levels x variety 0.74 *1 = no damage, 9 = 100% firing of maize leaves www.iita.org
  17. 17. Nitrogen and cultivar effect on grain yield ofmaize under natural infestation with Striga Nitrogen levels (kg ha-1) 0 30 60 120 MeanVariety Grain yield kg ha-18331-1-1 538.9 1297.4 1596.2 3171.1 1650.99022-13STR 1396.0 2594.2 2653.2 4667.3 2827.7ACR 97 TZL COMP1-W 1465.2 2005.4 3650.4 4253.6 2843.6IWDC2 SYN F2 1139.0 2050.7 2458.9 4567.7 2554.1TZB-SR 828.8 2114.0 1853.1 3105.6 1975.4TZL COMP1 SYN-W 1452.7 2313.1 2514.8 3981.7 2565.6TZL COMP1 SYN-Y 1984.5 1597.0 3349.3 3702.0 2658.2TZL COMP1-W C6 F2 2417.1 2816.7 38.26.1 4336.4 3349.1Zea-dplo 1754.1 2004.9 2847.0 4826.3 2858.1Mean 1441.8 2088.2 2749.9 4068.0SED L x N 187.32**SED L x V 280.98**SED L x N x V 561.96 www.iita.org
  18. 18. Effect of maize varieties and N fertilization on grainyield, Striga emergence and damage score Grain yield of all varieties increased with increasing rates of N Striga count and damage scores were more reduced on resistant 30 kg N/ha 30 kg N/ha verieties compared with susceptible varieties even at the same N level Grain yield was 85% higher at 60 kg N ha-1 and 144% higher at 120 kg N ha-1 than without added N Application of 60-120 kg N ha-1 to Striga resistant or tolerant maize 60 kg N/ha 60 kg N/ha varieties may reduce damage and increase grain yieldKamara et al (2009) Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science; 55(2):125-145 www.iita.org
  19. 19. Performance of improved cowpea varieties underconditions of natural infestation of Striga gesnerioides Grain yield (kg/ha) Grain yield (kg/ha) Fodder yield (kg/ha)Variety Damboa Tilla Mean Damboa Tilla MeanBorno brown 513.2 995.3 754.2 1458.3 1833.3 1645.83IT89KD-288 1121.3 988.0 1054.7 1277.8 1333.3 1305.56IT90K-277-2 739.3 1091.7 915.5 1236.1 1611.1 1423.61IT90K-82-2 1013.8 971.1 992.4 1069.4 1166.7 1118.06IT97K-499-35 1164.9 1296.0 1230.5 1986.1 2666.7 2326.39IT97K-568-18 574.1 983.9 779.0 875.0 1000.0 937.5TVX-3236 424.2 969.8 697.0 1222.2 1305.6 1263.89Mean 793.0 1042.2 1303.6 1559.5SED (location) 56.14 101.79SED (year) 56.14 101.79SED (variety) 105.04 190.43SED (location x variety) 79.40 269.32Kamara et al. (2008). International Journal of Pest Management, 54 (3): 189-195. www.iita.org
  20. 20. Reaction of different cowpea cultivars toStriga gesnerioides Some improved varieties, reported previously to be resistant were found to support moderate levels of Resistant varieties emerged Striga Suggesting that there may be a different race of Striga in the zone Two varieties, IT97K-499-35 and IT90K-82-2 were confirmed to be resistant to Striga Yield gain from IT97K-499-35 Susceptible varieties over the local variety was over 78% www.iita.org
  21. 21. Planting Date and Cultivareffects on Grain Yield in DryLand Maize ProductionPlanting Grain YieldDate Variety (kg/ha)29 June TZB-SR 3800.7 TZE COMP4 C3 3853.7 TZEE-W 4230.213 July TZB-SR 3169.8 TZE-COMP4-C3 3309.7 TZEE-W 3758.921 July TZBSR 2269.4 TZE COMP4 C3 2600.6 TZEE-W 3510.628 July TZB-SR 1889.4 TZE COMP4 C3 2158.4 TZEE-W 2778.0 www.iita.org
  22. 22. Key findings Delaying planting generally reduce yield and yield components In Sudan savanna, planting of maize on July 21 and July 28 reduced grain yield by 19 and 28.5%. No significant interaction between cultivars and planting date The extra-early maturing cultivar, 95 TZEE-W, produced highest grain yield at all planting dates To reduce risk of drought stress, we recommend that extra-early maturing maize cultivars should be planted in the Sudan savanna between last week of June and the first week of July. Kamara et al. (2009). Agronomy Journal, 101(1):91-98.] www.iita.org
  23. 23. Integrating planting date with insecticide sprayingregimes to manage insect pest of cowpea Spray levelsTreatment 0 1 2 3 MeanPlanting dateAugust 9 119.8 180.1 690.4 1237.1 556.9August 15 107.7 67.6 1049.5 1331.0 638.9August 21 80.6 87.7 1189.6 1520.1 719.5VarietyIT89KD - 288 82.3 58.4 862.4 1315.6 579.7IT89KD - 391 123.1 165.2 1090.7 1409.9 697.2Mean 102.7 111.8 976.5 1362.8SED (Plant date) 111.2SED (Spray) 76.7SED (Variety) 54.3SED (P x S) 133.0SED (S x V) 108.6Kamara et al. (2009) (Submitted to International Journal of Pest Management) www.iita.org
  24. 24. Key findings No significant difference in insect pest population and grain yield when insecticides was applied once each at bud initiation, flowering, and podding and when applied once each at flowering and podding stages Yield of the medium maturing variety IT89KD-391 was significantly higher when planted on August 15 and sprayed two times than when planted on the other dates Yield of the indeterminate late-maturing variety ITKD89-288 was higher when planted on August 9 and sprayed three times Early and medium maturing cowpea varieties should therefore be planted in mid August and sprayed two times www.iita.org
  25. 25. Putting research into use Development of strong partnerships (e.g critical role of partners in participatory agronomic research) The use of participatory approaches Strengthening of community based organisations Production for the market Gender mainstreaming Use of research knowledge and proven technologies for innovation 25 www.iita.org
  26. 26. A linear approach Research Extension Farmer 26 www.iita.org
  27. 27. Knowledge generation SupplyStakeholdersPartnersInnovation Information platforms markets Build farmers’ capacity to source, evaluate and apply information in decision-making Demand Putting knowledge into use (innovation) 27 www.iita.org
  28. 28. Participatory Research and Extension Approach Technical backstopping Training PREA End season evaluation Training-PREA Training Training PROSAB IITA BOSADP UNIMAID Exchange visits Extension material www.iita.org
  29. 29. PROSAB’s development approach Partnerships PREA Strong CBOs Gender KnowledgeNo of households involved Scaling out Farmer-to-farmer extension Further farmer testing, adoption, adaptation Farmer Groups Lead farmer trials, local seed production, Farmer testing and learning, adoption/adaptation Input and output marketing Mother trials (PROSAB) On-farm research – variety trials, management practices On-station trials – breeding, plant screening, etc Pre 2004-5 2006-7 2007-8 Time 29 2004 www.iita.org
  30. 30.  Participatory evaluation of improved cowpea cultivars in the Guinea and Sudan savanna zones of north east Nigeria www.iita.org
  31. 31. On-farm performance of some cowpea varieties AEZ Variety Grain yield (kg/ha) Fodder (kg/ha) NGS IT89KD-288 1143 3454 IT89KD-391 1258 3201 IT97K-499-35 1346 3509 Farmer variety 877 3228 SED 128 209 SGS IT89KD-288 1519 4847 IT89KD-391 1841 4486 Farmer variety 1034 4208 SED 192 269 SS IT89KD-288 1435 4055 IT89KD-391 1897 4216 IT97K-499-35 1742 4239 Farmer variety 1162 3583 SED 333 194 www.iita.org
  32. 32. Marginal return for spraying ($ per ha) -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 IT98K-131-2 IT90K-277-2 IT89KD-391 IT93K-452-1 IT97K-499-35 NGS IT97K-568-18 IT89KD-288 Borno Brown No spray NGS and SS ($ ha-1) One spray Two sprays Kannanado Brown IT98K-131-2 Varieties in each AEZ IT90K-277-2 IT89KD-391 IT93K-452-1 IT97K-499-35 SS IT97K-568-18 IT89KD-288 Borno Brown Kannanado Brown Marginal returns averaged over two years in thewww.iita.org
  33. 33. www.iita.org
  34. 34. Cowpea evaluation criteriaProduction Utilisation Early maturity  Large grain size Good for relay cropping  Colour (brown for market) High yield  Good fodder value Pest resistance  High market value Striga tolerant  Cooking time  Taste  Post harvest pest resistanceKamara et al, (2009) Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, In Press www.iita.org
  35. 35. www.iita.org
  36. 36. Participatory evaluation - cowpeas3=best or highest, 2=average, 1=worst or lowestEvaluation criteria 288 391 568- 131-1 B Brown K Brown 18Production criteriaEarly maturity 2.4 3.0 2.9 2.8 1.1 1.7Good for relay cropping 3.0 3.0 1.2 1.1 3.0 3.0High yield 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.9 2.0 2.3Pest resistance 1.8 1.6 1.9 1.4 1.8 1.7Striga tolerant 2.0 1.0 1.8 1.9 1.1 1.1Utilisation criteriaLarge seed size 2.6 3.0 1.8 1.6 2.9 3.0Brown colour 1.4 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.0Good fodder value 2.4 1.3 1.3 1.6 2.6 2.6High market value 2.6 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.9 3.0Cooking time/taste 2.8 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.3 2.3Total score 23.6 22.4 21.2 21.0 22.6 23.7Rank 2 4 5 6 3 1 Number of groups evaluating 5 7 9 8 8 9 % intending to plant 64% 30% 44% 49% 45% 100% www.iita.org
  37. 37. Cereal-legume rotation www.iita.org
  38. 38. On-farm performance of maize in rotationsystems (NGS and SGS) Crop history Ecological 200 2006 2007 Yield Striga/ha zone (kg/ ha) NGS FC FC 2490 208493 FC TZECOMP5 2794 239684 TGx1448 TZECOMP5 3309 149954 S.E. 239 45554 SGS FC TZECOMP3DT 1911 164012 TGx1448 TZECOMP3DT 2986 102221 FC TZL COMP1W 2789 211902 TGx1448 TZL COMP1W 3213 72824 FC FC 2292 155720 S.E 122. 42319 www.iita.org
  39. 39. Mean ISC-Soybean maize yields (kg per ha) ISC FP Year 1 Soybean Year 1 Maize Increase Y2-maize Year 2 maize in yield % increaseSS (n=6)Year 1 975 1125Year 2 1913 1425 1Maize equivalentsYear 1 1176 1125 51 5%Year 2 1913 1425 488 34%Overall 3088 2550 538 21%NGS (n=49)Year 1 1935 2077Year 2 3295 1298 1Maize equivalentsYear 1 2895 2077 818 39%Year 2 3295 1298 1997 154%Overall 6190 3375 2815 83%SGS (n=57)Year 1 2088 2395Year 2 3104 1948 1Maize equivalentsYear 1 3057 2395 662 28%Year 2 3104 1948 1157 59%Overall 6161 4343 1818 42%Kamara et. al (2008) Experimental Agriculture 44(3):349-364 www.iita.org
  40. 40. Seed systems Up to 1988 certified seed produced, processed and distributed by ADPs – Largely discontinued due to funding problems – Some ADPs contracting with farmer outgrowers to produce certified seed, – NASC producing some foundation seed Few functional seed companies, concentrating largely on hybrid varieties, Few new varieties of other crops available and mainly local varieties were grown. www.iita.org
  41. 41. Strategy to promote community seedproduction Farmer groups select credible individuals to produce seed Training provided in seed production and marketing Community seed producers linked to seed companies and encouraged to form seed associations/cooperatives www.iita.org
  42. 42. Yield and value of seed crop produced in 2007 (Naira) Mean Mean value of Total-all % of No of quantity seed per producers total producers kg producerMaize 40 2549 85017 3,740,748 49%Rice 17 376 28640 486,880 6%Sorghum 4 1188 43700 262,200 3%Cowpeas 23 336 17984 485,568 6%Groundnuts 24 403 15898 413,348 5%Soybean 40 742 55015 2,310,630 30%Fodder crop 3 0 100 300 0%Total 151 246,354 7,699,674 100% www.iita.org
  43. 43. www.iita.org
  44. 44. Seed disposals during 2008 Credit retrieval 1% Total quantity remaining in store 4% Amount given away for seed 4% Amount given away as food 4% Amount retained for own use as seed 4% Amount sold for food 10% Amount consumed as food 19% Amount sold for seed 50% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% www.iita.org
  45. 45. Some impactLead farmer crop yields 2005-8 (tonnes/ha)Crop Baseline 2005 2006 2007 2008Maize 1.0 1.4 3.0 3.2 3.2Rice 2.6 - 3.3 3.0 3.2Sorghum 1.0 2.0 2.2 1.5 2.6Cowpeas 0.4 0.6 1.3 0.8 1.4Groundnuts 1.0 1.0 1.9 1.7 1.9Soybean 0 2.5 2.7 2.3 2.4 www.iita.org
  46. 46. Some impactAdopting farmers crop yields 2008 tonnes/ ha Main or Sole crop Relay cropCrop Imp- Local % Imp- Local % roved Increase roved Inc- reaseMaize 2.4 1.4 77%Rice 2.7 1.6 70%Sorghum 2.1 1.5 38%Cowpea 2.0 1.4 40% 0.5 0.5 0%G nuts 2.6 1.4 93%Soybean 2.1 46 www.iita.org
  47. 47. Adoption (PASS – 2008)200976 %forsoybean www.iita.org
  48. 48. Emerging issues Shortages of labour and draught animals – Zero tillage, conservation agriculture Scaling out – GIS, modelling Long term effect of cereal-legume 5000 TZB-SR (Azir 2007) rotations 4000 Simulated grain yield (kg ha ) -1 – Beneficial effects beyond N Integrating improved crop varieties 3000 RMSE = 1269 into cropping systems 2000 d = 0.8298 R 2 = 0.9944 Utilizing crop management x genotype interactions to manage 1000 the effect of climate change 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 -1 Measured grain yield (kg ha ) www.iita.org
  49. 49. Emerging issues (modelling) 5000 TZE COMP4C2 (Azir 2007) 4000 Measured SimulatedGrain yield (kg ha )-1 3000 2000 RMSE =1269 1000 d = 0.8298 R2 = 0.9949 0 Jun-29 Jul-13 Jul-21 Jul28 Planting date www.iita.org
  50. 50. Emerging issues (modelling) 5000 TZB-SR (Azir 2007) 4000Grain yield (kg ha ) Measured-1 Simulated 3000 2000 RMSE =1269 d = 0.8298 1000 R2 = 0.9949 0 Jun-29 Jul-13 Jul-21 Jul28 Planting date www.iita.org
  51. 51. Emerging issues The CERES-Maize model of DSSAT was used to evaluate the performance of maize planted at different dates in Sudan savanna Statistics used in the model were : -Root mean square error, RMSE -An index of agreement, d -R2 value of linear relationships between measured and predicted yields Results showed that yield values were found near the 1:1 line and the d and R2 values were very significant Obtained RMSE, d and R2 values showed that DSSAT could be widely used to accurately predict maize performance at different planting dates in the savannas www.iita.org
  52. 52. Influence of tillage systems on the performance of somecowpea varieties in a Sudano-Sahelian ecology after threeyears of cultivation No significant interaction between tillage practices Variety Zero Flat Ridge Mean and cowpea varieties after 3 years IT89KD-391 1035.0 1105.4 875.4 1005.3 There were significant IT90K-277-2 1448.8 1915.0 1307.9 1557.2 differences among tillage practices after 3 years but IT97K-461-4 1302.1 1564.2 998.3 1288.1 not in the first 2 years There were significant IT97K-499-35 1072.5 1633.8 860.4 1188.9 differences among cowpea IT98K-131-2 1605.4 1375.8 1121.3 1367.5 varieties after 3 years but not in the first 2 years IT98K-506-1 1200.4 1307.9 1037.5 1181.9 The beneficial effects of Mean 1277.4 1483.7 1033.5 zero or reduced tillage may be more visible after many SED Tillage 103.16** years of continuous practices SED Variety 145.89* A long-term tillage research SED T x V 252.68 (NS) is envisioned www.iita.org
  53. 53. Effect of tillage systems on cowpeaperformance Zero tillage produced higher biomass than flat ZERO TILLAGE tillage Flat tillage produced higher biomass than ridge tillage FLAT TILLAGE Ridge tillage produced less biomass and earlier RIDGE TILLAGE maturity www.iita.org
  54. 54. Grain yield response of semi-determinate andindeterminate cowpea genotypes relay-cropped undermaize with different plant populations Grain yield Cowpea genotype (kg/ha)Cropping system TZE Comp. 5 W IT97K-499-35 IT89KD-28853333 maize plants/ha 5562.9 698.9 871.126666 maize plants/ha 3405.1 1326.7 1017.817777 maize plants/ha 2167.5 1528.9 1130.0Cowpea sole crop 1375.34 1282.0SED Cropping system (df=12) 97.42SED Cowpea genotype (df=12) 63.69SED Cropping system x cowpea genotype (df=12) 120.09 www.iita.org
  55. 55. Effect of cropping systems on cowpea genotypeIT97K-499-35 Cropping system x cowpea genotype interaction was significant indicating differential response of the cowpea Sole varieties to different IT97K-499-35 53333 maize cropping systems plants/ha At 53333 maize plants/ha, grain yield of IT97K-499- 35 was reduced by up to 50% 26666 53333 Sole maize Grain yield of IT89KD-288 plants/ha maize plants/ha 17777 IT89KD-288 was maize reduced by up to plants/ha 32% www.iita.org
  56. 56. Response of contrasting soybeanvarieties to different plant populations Higher grain yields were obtained at 666666 plants/ha higher population 266666 plant/ha than lower populations www.iita.org
  57. 57. Grain yield (kg/ha) of four soybean varieties grownat different plant populations in Nigerian northernGuinea savanna Plant population ha-1 Late maturing varieties Variety 266666 333333 533333 666666 Mean produced higher grain yield than the early maturing ones TGX 1448-2E 2501.8 2739.4 3355.9 3924.1 3130.3 TGX 1904-6F 3289.9 2615.1 3780.1 4436.1 3530.3 Significantly higher grain TGX 1830-20E 2166.2 2119.7 2533.5 2680.1 2374.9 yields were obtained at 533,333 and 666,666 plants TGX 1835-10E 1046.2 1010.3 1616.7 1723.8 1349.2 per ha Mean 2251 2121.1 2821.5 3191 Despite the additional seed SED Population 80.0720 cost planting soybean at high populations of 533,333 and SED Variety 80.0720 666,666 per ha was more profitable than planting at SED P x V 160.14 lower populations www.iita.org
  58. 58. Some practical lessons learnt www.iita.org
  59. 59. Thank you www.iita.org
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