Improved technologies on yam for enhancing       livelihood of farmers in Africa -Progressed activities & further challeng...
Seed tubers                      Seed yams required to plant one hectareStagnation of yam production could be mostly attri...
Seed Tubers of Yam•    Expensive (as much as 63% of total variable cost)•    Bulky to transport•    Low multiplication rat...
Capacity building                       Development of meristem culture                         protocol for yam germplasm...
Development of meristem culture                         protocol for yam germplasm                                manageme...
Obstacle of meristem culture on yamIITA has been maintaining germplasm collectionof yams (more than 3,000 accessions ofDio...
Materials and methods of meristem cultureCombination of plant growth regulators (NAA, BAP and GA3)Basal media: MS, LS and ...
Procedure of meristem culture on yam                                                                                      ...
Effect of plant growth regulator and media on shoot                      regeneration (%) of (TDr 95/18544) 8 weeks after ...
Effect of plant growth regulator and media on shoot                         regeneration (%) of (TDa 98/01183) 8 weeks aft...
Effect of media component on callus formation(%)of yam 8 weeks after plantingAccession                                    ...
Comparison of media component with PGRs between                IITA current media and best media with PGRs                ...
Conclusion1) Best media component with PGRs combination showed   higher rate of regeneration compared with current media  ...
Development of meristem culture                         protocol for yam germplasm                                manageme...
Healthy seed tuberproduction system on yamthrough vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Insti...
Advantages of vine propagation of yams1) High multiplication (more than 50 times)  (Depend on plants, variety, growth, and...
Cond.5) To be able to produce tubers (seed or ware) through   year round, leading off-season yam cropping6) To be able to ...
Important technical points for               vine propagation studied1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of  vine c...
Important technical points for                   vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of  vine cutti...
Production system for healthy plant materials as mother                                plants of vine cuttingsIn vitro pla...
Cond.International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
Effect of flowering & virus infection on the survival rate                         Of vine cutting of white yam           ...
Important technical points for                   vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of  vine cutti...
Type of planting materials International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropical...
Important technical points for                   vine propagation1)Use healthy plant materials as mother plants  of vine c...
Correlation between rooting of vine cutting and dry weight                                                    of tuber for...
60                                                                                                                        ...
Effect of collecting time of scions and, treatment of gibberellin and   Table 2 Effect of collecting time of scions and, t...
Important technical points for                   vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of  vine cutti...
Seedlings of vine cutting with new shoots            International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut internatio...
New shoots formation from vine                                cuttingTable. Comparison of survival rate (%) of seedlings f...
Important technical points for                   vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of  vine cutti...
Effects of seasons of vine cutting on the development of roots and tubers of yamD.rotundata (TDr 89/2665) at 21days after ...
Yield of tubers through vine         propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international ...
200            180            160            140            120Frequence            100              80              60   ...
How size of tuber can we harvest from seed tubers                          propagated by vine cuttings?Yield of tubers har...
Harvested tubers from the plantswhich seed tubers were propagated         by vine cuttings                                ...
Further direction for innovation to stabilize                        vine propagation on yams1) Stabilize shooting and roo...
Development of meristem culture                         protocol for yam germplasm                                manageme...
-Control of tuber dormancy-             Breakthrough of off-season (all year round)                          yam croppingS...
Model of natural growth cycle of yam (cultivation) and                                      controlled growth cycle of yam...
• Strong price fluctuation of yam through year                                              • Yam price higher than other ...
Off-season yam cropping1) Enhance income of small householders to access in land valleys, wetland,   and irrigation land2)...
Cultivated crops during dry season in inland valley                                 in Bida, Niger state Nigeria          ...
Rice-Yam cropping system tested at inland valleys (3 villages)                 in Bida, Niger state, Nigeria (support of W...
Rice-Yam cropping system tested at inland valleys (3 villages)in Bida, Niger state, Nigeria (support of WIN2000)          ...
Yield of yam & cassava in dry season cropping in inland valleys at Bida,Niger state                              Cassava  ...
Effects of nitrogen application on growth and yield of                              yam under “Rice – Yam cropping system”...
【Further                                  plan】As those trials have been carrying out, all somedata will be collected by m...
Development of meristem culture                         protocol for yam germplasm                                manageme...
Optimum time for collection of root samples for                       chromosome observation on yams                      ...
Optimum time for collection of root samples for          chromosome observation   Roots from seedlings                    ...
1                                        2                                      3                                         ...
【Results】                                                                                       Roots from minisett       ...
【Results】                                                                       Roots from seedlings of vine cuttings     ...
【Conclusion】Identified optimum time for collection of rootsamples for chromosome observation throughyear round due to usag...
Development of meristem culture                         protocol for yam germplasm                                manageme...
Capacity building (Major research fellows)Degree related students from African countries (more than 12 months)1) 2007: Mr....
On-the Job training (3-5 months)                            Japan capacity building program for African                   ...
Communication, Collaboration &                            NetworkCommunication (Media)2009: NHK-BS special and General, J...
Further challenges for enhancing               livelihood of farmers in Africa            through improved technologies on...
Packaging & distribution of clean seed                        production system                   through improved propaga...
Development diagnostic tools for agricultural traits of yam using mini tubers or seedlings through vine propagationActivi...
Thanks*MOFA, Japan and embassy of Japan*JIRCAS, Japan*ICCAE, Nagoya University, Japan*Tokyo University of Agriculture, Jap...
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Improved technologies on yam for enhancing livelihood of farmers in Africa

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Obstacle of meristem culture on yam,Development of meristem culture protocol for yam germplasm management,Healthy seed tuber production system on yam through vine propagation,Further direction for innovation to stabilize vine propagation on yams

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Improved technologies on yam for enhancing livelihood of farmers in Africa

  1. 1. Improved technologies on yam for enhancing livelihood of farmers in Africa -Progressed activities & further challenge- Hidehiko KIKUNO (Yam physiologist) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) Ibadan, Nigeria 14 October 2010 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  2. 2. Seed tubers Seed yams required to plant one hectareStagnation of yam production could be mostly attributed to high production costs. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  3. 3. Seed Tubers of Yam• Expensive (as much as 63% of total variable cost)• Bulky to transport• Low multiplication rate in the field (1:5 – 1:10)• Take time to release new varieties and breeding period• Potential carriers of pests, pathogens and nematodes Need for rapid methods for mass propagation of high quality and healthy seed tubers International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  4. 4. Capacity building Development of meristem culture protocol for yam germplasm management Communication Improve propagationOff-season yam techniques Other researchcropping system activities used seedlings from(Seed tuber from vine propagationvine propagation) as new tool Network Collaboration Healthy seed tuber production system on yam through vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  5. 5. Development of meristem culture protocol for yam germplasm management Communication Capacity building Improve propagationOff-season yam techniques Other researchcropping system activities used seedlings from(Seed tuber from vine propagationvine propagation) as new tool Network Collaboration Healthy seed tuber production system on yam through vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  6. 6. Obstacle of meristem culture on yamIITA has been maintaining germplasm collectionof yams (more than 3,000 accessions ofDioscorea spp.) for distribution to NARIsMeristem culture is an essential techniquesfor virus free material and cryopreservationfor long term conservation In vitro yam germplasm conservation at IITA genebank Low regeneration rate of shoots from meristemObstacle for clean germplasm collection and distribution International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  7. 7. Materials and methods of meristem cultureCombination of plant growth regulators (NAA, BAP and GA3)Basal media: MS, LS and B5 media NAA (μM) BAP (μM) GA3 (μM) 0.05 0.20 0.00 0.05 0.20 0.30 0.05 0.60 0.00 0.05 0.60 0.30 0.10 0.20 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.10 0.60 0.00 0.10 0.60 0.30 0.50 0.20 0.00 0.50 0.20 0.30 0.50 0.60 0.00 0.50 0.60 0.3010 meristems x 12 treatments = 120 x 3 media = 360 x 3 reps= 1,080/accession (5meristem/petri-dish), 36 combinations International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  8. 8. Procedure of meristem culture on yam meristem Plant materials Sterilization method 70% ethanol for 1 minute(IITA Screen house) 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 minutes TDr 95/18544 (White yam) TDa 98/01183 (water yam) Meristem on medium International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  9. 9. Effect of plant growth regulator and media on shoot regeneration (%) of (TDr 95/18544) 8 weeks after meristem culture Concentration of plant Medium growth regulator (μM) MS LS B5*NAA BAP GA3 N (%) N (%) N (%)0.05 0.2 0.0 30 70.0 ab 29 55.9 abcd 21 85.7 a 0.3 27 55.2 abcd 29 58.9 abcd 21 76.0 a 0.6 0.0 30 73.3 a 30 26.7 e 21 76.0 a 0.3 30 73.3 a 30 63.3 abc 19 77.7 a0.1 0.2 0.0 29 63.3 abc 30 66.7 ab 21 66.7 a 0.3 30 40.0 cde 30 51.8 abcd 21 90.7 a 0.6 0.0 30 73.3 a 25 33.3 de 21 71.7 a 0.3 25 66.7 ab 30 50.0 abcde 21 85.7 a0.5 0.2 0.0 30 63.3 abc 25 66.7 ab 20 90.3 a 0.3 30 46.7 bcde 25 63.3 abcd 21 85.7 a 0.6 0.0 29 69.8 ab 30 53.3 abcd 21 62.0 a 0.3 29 58.1 abcd 30 40.0 cde 21 61.7 a 349 62.8 A 343 52.5 B 249 77.5 Different letters imply significant difference at 5% *B5 medium was separately level tested International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  10. 10. Effect of plant growth regulator and media on shoot regeneration (%) of (TDa 98/01183) 8 weeks after meristem culture Concentration of plant Medium growth regulator (μM) MS LS B5NAA BAP GA3 N (%) N (%) N (%)0.05 0.2 0.0 30 33.3 bc 30 40.0 b 30 80.0 a 0.3 29 18.0 bcdefg 29 23.7 bcde 30 30.0 bcd 0.6 0.0 30 20.0 bcdefg 30 23.3 bcdef 30 3.3 g 0.3 29 6.7 efg 30 13.3 cdefg 30 3.3 g0.1 0.2 0.0 30 23.3 bcdef 29 32.0 bc 30 66.7 a 0.3 28 0.0 30 3.3 g 25 36.7 bc 0.6 0.0 25 3.3 efg 29 6.7 efg 30 0.0 0.3 28 3.3 fg 30 0.0 30 0.00.5 0.2 0.0 30 16.7 cdefg 30 10.0 defg 29 20.0 bcdefg 0.3 29 3.3 fg 30 0.0 29 34.0 bc 0.6 0.0 30 10.0 defg 30 6.7 efg 30 0.0 0.3 29 0.0 30 0.0 30 0.0 347 11.5 B 357 13.3 B 353 22.8 ADifferent letters imply significant difference at 5% level International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  11. 11. Effect of media component on callus formation(%)of yam 8 weeks after plantingAccession Media MS LS B5TDr 95/18544 1.6A 4.7B 0.0TDa 98/01183 10.8A 8.7A 0.8B Different letters imply significant difference at 5% level D. alata 8 weeks after planting (MS+NAA 0.5μM,BAP 0.6μM) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  12. 12. Comparison of media component with PGRs between IITA current media and best media with PGRs combination for meristem culture(The best component under this trials)MS media + NAA 0.05μM + BAP 0.6μM(Current media component used at Gene bank)MS media + NAA 1.07μM+ BAP 0.67μM+ GA3 0.23μM Effect of plant growth regulator and media on shoot regeneration (%) of D. rotundata (TDr 95/18544 ) 8 weeks after planting Concentration of plant growth regulator (μM) NAA BAP GA3 N (%) 0.05 0.6 0 37 92.0 a 1.07 0.67 0.23 39 54.0 b Different letters imply significant difference at 5% level International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  13. 13. Conclusion1) Best media component with PGRs combination showed higher rate of regeneration compared with current media component to have been used at IITA Gene bank2) Application of GA did not enhance regeneration of shoot and3) B5 media showed less callus formation compared with MS and LSFor stable conservation of germplasm of yam, it is best to use amedia which has less callus and high regenereation of shoot.Although B5 media has a potential, further trials to test on morespecies and accessions for making the protocol are needed. Y. Hasegawa, H. Kikuno, B. Gueye, D. Dumet, O. Oyelami, H. Shiwachi and H. Takagi. (2010) Preliminary screening of growth regulator and mineral combination to establish in vitro meristem regeneration protocol for yam genebanking. Japanese Society for Tropical Tropical Agriculture, Research for Tropical Agriculture Vol. 3, Extra issue 2, pp115-116. October 09-10. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  14. 14. Development of meristem culture protocol for yam germplasm management Communication Capacity building Improve propagationOff-season yam techniques Other researchcropping system activities used seedlings from(Seed tuber from vine propagationvine propagation) as new tool Network Collaboration Healthy seed tuber production system on yam through vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  15. 15. Healthy seed tuberproduction system on yamthrough vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  16. 16. Advantages of vine propagation of yams1) High multiplication (more than 50 times) (Depend on plants, variety, growth, and season)2) Elimination of nematodes from tubers(Clean land without nematodes is needed for culture)3) To reduce usage of tubers which can use for foods or seed tubers for next cropping season4) To be able to produce mini-tubers with high sprouting rate and uniformity of sprouting compared with those of mini setts International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  17. 17. Cond.5) To be able to produce tubers (seed or ware) through year round, leading off-season yam cropping6) To be able to produce healthy seed tuber production system (Availability of seedlings from tissue culture materials propagated from meristem)7) Rapid propagation of high yield improved varieties at the beginning stage of dissemination to NARS or farmers8) Usage of research tools (i.e. screening materials, rapid multiplication of breeding line or F1 plants) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  18. 18. Important technical points for vine propagation studied1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of vine cuttings2) Type of planting materials3) Physiological age of mother plants4) New shoots formation from vine cutting5) Timing of vine propagation (excising & culture) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  19. 19. Important technical points for vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of vine cuttings2) Type of planting materials3) Physiological age of mother plants4) New shoots formation from vine cutting5) Timing of vine propagation (excising & culture) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  20. 20. Production system for healthy plant materials as mother plants of vine cuttingsIn vitro plantlets Established plants in screen house Seedlings acclimatizedMeristem culture Preparation of vine cuttings International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  21. 21. Cond.International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  22. 22. Effect of flowering & virus infection on the survival rate Of vine cutting of white yam Flowering Score of virus infection Flowering Mean of Clone Survival % (No=0, (Nil=0,Low=3, Middle=6, survival Yes=1) High=9) rate (%)Amula 80.0ab 1 3 0 54.6ATDr 95/19177 62.2bcde 0 3TDr 95/18544 55.6cdef 0 3 1 44.4BTDr 93-31 75.6abc 0 3TDr 99/02789 37.8 1 6TDr 96/00604 82.2a 0 0 Virus Inf. Mean ofTDr 97/00925 17.8 0 6 survivalTDr 96/01818 15.6 1 6 rate (%)Meccakusa 48.9 0 3 0 82.2ATDr 95/01932 64.4abcde 1 3 3 59.2BTDr 89/02665 71.1abcd 0 3TDr 98/01946 71.1abcd 0 6 9 33.7CTDr 96/01750 15.6 1 3TDr 01/00382 6.7 0 9TDr 00/00365 53.3 1 9Mean 50.5 0.4 4.4 Different letters indicate significant differences at the 1% level. ● Flower and virus infection effects on survival rate of vine propagation. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  23. 23. Important technical points for vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of vine cuttings2) Type of planting materials3) Physiological age of mother plants4) New shoots formation from vine cutting5) Timing of vine propagation (excising & culture) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  24. 24. Type of planting materials International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  25. 25. Important technical points for vine propagation1)Use healthy plant materials as mother plants of vine cuttings2) Type of planting materials3) Physiological age of mother plants4) New shoots formation from vine cutting5) Timing of vine propagation (excising & culture) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  26. 26. Correlation between rooting of vine cutting and dry weight of tuber formed on mother plants 100 (screen house) 50 Dry weight of tubers 80 40 Rooting (%) Per plant (g) 60 30 40 20 20 10 0 0 60 90 120 150 Days after transplanting 100 300 (Field) Dry weight of tubers 80 250 Per plant (g) Rooting (%) 200 60 150 40 100 20 50 0 0 60 90 120 150 Days after transplanting H. Kikuno, R. Matsumoto, H. Shiwachi, H. Toyohara andTime course of rooting of vine cuttings and growth of R. Asiedu. (2007) Comparative effects of explants sourcestubers of mother plants on yams (D. alata cv. TDa and age of plant on rooting, shooting and tuber formation of95/00361). Bars in each fig indicate % of vine cuttings vine cuttings from yams (Dioscorea spp.). Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture Vol. 51, Extra issue 2, October 13-14.with rooting. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  27. 27. 60 a a Shoot forma 50 b 40 a a 30 b 20 b 10 b 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 100 Type A 100 Type B Shoot formation rate (%) Shoot formation rate (%) 90 a a 90 K-1 K-42 a * 80 80 K-44 Obuko. 70 a K-45 Arata 70 a a 60 60 a a 50 b 50 b 40 a 40 a 30 b 30 b b 20 20 b 10 10 b b 0 0 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Shoot formation rate (%) 100 Type B 100 Type C Shoot formation rate (%) 90 90 * 80 K-31 K-32 80 a K-44 Obuko. Changes in shoot formation rate of vine 70 70 a cuttings at different collection times. 60 60 50 Note) Different letters indicate significant 50 b 40 40 difference at the 5% level by LSD test. 30 30 *Obuko. stands for Obukosumbori 20 b b 10 20 0 10 b 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 0Matsumoto R., H. Shiwachi, H. Kikuno, K. Irie, H. Toyohara, A. Komamine and H. Fujimaki. Characterization mother plantand shoot-forming 1st 2nd 3rd 4th Growth stage of of sproutingprocesses of rooted cuttings of water yam (Dioscorea alata L.). Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Vol. 54 (3 or 4) (In press) (%) 100 Type C International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  28. 28. Effect of collecting time of scions and, treatment of gibberellin and Table 2 Effect of collecting time of scions and, treatment of gibberellin and uniconazol - P on the growth of vine cuttings in water yam cuttings in water yam uniconazol-P on the growth of vine Rate of root fomation Rate of shoot formation Rate of mini tuber formation Treatment 56 DAP * 87 DAP 130 DAP 56 DAP 87 DAP 130 DAP 56 DAP 87 DAP 130 DAP ( Jul.) ( Aug.) ( Oct.) 28 28 10 ( Jul.) ( Aug.) ( Oct.) 28 28 10 ( Jul.) 28 ( Aug.) ( Oct.) 28 10 control 90 a** 100 a 50 ab 100 a 65 b 0 0 35 b 100 a 10 mgl-1 30 c 50 b 50 ab 0 8c 0 100 a 92 a 100 a GA 100 mgl-1 50 bc 60 ab 20 b 0 0 0 100 a 100 a 100 a 5 mgl-1 65 b 60 ab 65 a 44 b 83 ab 13 a 56 b 38 b 88 a UZP 25 mgl-1 65 b 90 ab 30 ab 60 b 90 a 8a 40 b 10 b 92 a * Day after planting (date of cutting) ** Different alphabets indicate significant difference at the 5% level by LSD test.Matsumoto R., H. Shiwachi, H. Kikuno, K. Irie and H. Toyohara. Effect of collecting time of scions and treatment of gibberellin and uniconazole-Pon the growth of vine cuttings in water yam (Dioscorea alata L.). Japanese Journal of Tropical Agriculture Vol. 3 (2) or Vol. 4 (1) (2010) (In press).R. Matsumoto, H. Shiwachi, H. Kikuno, K. Irie and H. Toyohara. (2010) Effect of collecting time of scions and, treatment of gibberellins anduniconazol-P on the growth of vine cuttings in water yam (Dioscorea alata L.). Japanese Society for Tropical Agriculture, Research for TropicalAgriculture Vol. 3, Extra issue 2, pp51-52. October 09-10, Okinawa, Japan. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  29. 29. Important technical points for vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of vine cuttings2) Type of planting materials3) Physiological age of mother plants4) New shoots formation from vine cutting5) Timing of vine propagation (excising & culture) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  30. 30. Seedlings of vine cutting with new shoots International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  31. 31. New shoots formation from vine cuttingTable. Comparison of survival rate (%) of seedlings from vine cuttings ofyam (TDr 95/18544) at 60 days after transplanting at open-field under dryseason with irrigation. Vine cuttings (VC) with Vine cuttings (VC) without new shoots new shootsNo of planted n = 120 n = 640vine cuttingsNo of survived n = 102 n = 145vine cuttings% of survived 85.0 ± 5.0 22.7 ± 9.0vine cuttingsVine cuttings both planting materials (with and without new shoots) wereexcised same day (10 October). Seedlings were cultured in screen housefor 1 month, then transplanted at open field by 25cm x 1m spacing. Data ofVC with new shoots and VC without new shoots were collected from 3 and4 replications respectively. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  32. 32. Important technical points for vine propagation1)Healthy plant materials as mother plants of vine cuttings2) Type of planting materials3) Physiological age of mother plants4) New shoots formation from vine cutting5) Timing of vine propagation (excising & culture) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  33. 33. Effects of seasons of vine cutting on the development of roots and tubers of yamD.rotundata (TDr 89/2665) at 21days after vine cutting (DAC) each month.Date of preparation of Number of % of vine cuttings % of vine cuttings cuttings cuttings with new roots with new roots & tubers 2009-05-26 n = 75 47 41 2009-06-25 n = 75 64 48 2009-07-30 n = 75 20 9 2009-08-30 n = 75 11 4 This results obtained from collaborative research with NARS partner (NRCRI Umudike, Nigeria, Mazza Mary-Ann and Ikeorgu J. G.) in 2009 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  34. 34. Yield of tubers through vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  35. 35. 200 180 160 140 120Frequence 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 Fresh w ei of tuber (g) ght Difference size of tubers harvested from plants which were propagated from vine cutting of white yam (cv. TDr 95/ 18544) without rooting stage before planting into open field. Black and white bars show frequency of tubers propagated from vine cuttings excised from plants cultured in screen house which originated from tissue culture materials and from plants cultured in open field propagated by mini sett of tuber. Plants were cultured from June 2008 to December 2008 under natural weather condition. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  36. 36. How size of tuber can we harvest from seed tubers propagated by vine cuttings?Yield of tubers harvested from plants which were used different size of seedtubers produced by vine propagation.Size of seed tubers Fresh weight of tubers (g) / Estimated yield per ha and mini-setts plant (Mt)Less 10g (SHM) 427.6ab 17.2Less 10g (FM) 325.6b 13.210-30g (SHM) 570.0a 22.810-30g (FM) 555.8a 22.425-30g sett(Control) 391.6b 15.6 Mean 454.1±105.9 18.2±4.2Seed tubers were planted by 25cm x 1m spacing on ridges. Seed tubers wereproduced by vine propagation. Vine cuttings were directly planted in fieldwithout rooting stage in July and seedlings established were cultured byDecember for 6 months under natural rain condition. SHM: Plants (originatedfrom tissue culture materials) cultured in screen house, FM: Plants culturedin open field (from mini-sett). International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  37. 37. Harvested tubers from the plantswhich seed tubers were propagated by vine cuttings From Mini-sett *This trial has been repeated to use different clones in 2010. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  38. 38. Further direction for innovation to stabilize vine propagation on yams1) Stabilize shooting and rooting from vine cutting for all type of plant materials (species and varieties)2) To reduce technical steps for vine propagation (direct planting of vine cutting)3) Find alternative of carbonized rice husk (CRH) for rooting media or reduce of quantity of CRH4) Introduce virus detection test into this system5) Expansion of usage of vine propagation for research tools (i.e. breeding) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  39. 39. Development of meristem culture protocol for yam germplasm management Communication Capacity building Improve propagationOff-season yam techniques Other researchcropping system activities used seedlings from(Seed tuber from vine propagationvine propagation) as new tool Network Collaboration Healthy seed tuber production system on yam through vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  40. 40. -Control of tuber dormancy- Breakthrough of off-season (all year round) yam croppingSelection early or late sprouted tuber (traditional)Broken dormancy Plant growth regulators (Gibberellic acids: GAs synthesis inhibitors)Prolong dormancy GA treatment Low temperature storage (15℃)Controlled cultivation through year round Acclimatized plants from in vitro plantlets Seedlings from vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  41. 41. Model of natural growth cycle of yam (cultivation) and controlled growth cycle of yam for off-season cropping Jan Jan Dec Dorman- Feb cy Dec Sprout- Maturing Dorman- Planting Feb -Harvest cy Sprout- Growth Planting of top Nov Mar Nov Maturing Sprout- Dorman- Growth -Harvest Planting cy of top MarOct Apr Oct i.e. VC Tuber Sprout- Dorman- Growth enl.- Planting cy of top Apr Harvest Sep Milking Tuber Tuber Growth MaturingSep enl.- May -Harvest enlarge May Harvest of top Milking ment Tuber Tuber Maturing Growth Aug -Harvest enl.- enlargem ent of top Jun Tuber Harvest Jun Aug Growth enl.- of top Harvest Jul Jul Natural growth cycle of yam Controlled growth cycle of yam ★Clones from dormancy season shifted tubers will keep same life cycle. Control dormancy of tubers would be Preferred by research institutes and it’s special seed tubers as like breeding variety disseminate to farmers. Famers will just plant field in inland valleys, wet land or irrigated land under dry season. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  42. 42. • Strong price fluctuation of yam through year • Yam price higher than other crops Retail prices of major crops in Bida market Millet Yam 200 Rice 180 Sorghum 160 Cassava 140 Gari Yam Tubers Price (Naira/kg) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 2004.01 2004.07 2005.01 2005.07 2006.01 2006.07 2007.01 2007.07 2008.01 2008.07 Year Note: rainfall data is only available from 2005 to 2008.Regina H. Y. Fu, H. Kikuno, M. Maruyama. Research on yam production, marketing and consumption of Nupe farmers of Bida region, NigerState, central Nigeria. 47th Japan Association for African Studies, May 2010, Nara, Japan. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  43. 43. Off-season yam cropping1) Enhance income of small householders to access in land valleys, wetland, and irrigation land2) Diversify crops to be adopted into wetland, irrigation land and inland valleys with or without rice based cropping system3) Supply foods in off crop season (especially beginning of rainy season)Preliminary surveys to understand basic back ground of agricultural environments,production of Bida, Niger state, Nigeria---JIRCAS collaborative researchEffects of nitrogen application on growth and yield under “Rice – Yam croppingsystem”----JIRCAS collaborative research International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  44. 44. Cultivated crops during dry season in inland valley in Bida, Niger state Nigeria Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugSeason Rain Rain Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Rain Rain Rain Rain Dry RainTraditional R R R R C C C C C C C Cculitvation or or or or or or or or V V V V V V V V R = Rice, C = Cassava, V = Vegetables International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  45. 45. Rice-Yam cropping system tested at inland valleys (3 villages) in Bida, Niger state, Nigeria (support of WIN2000) Sep Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugSeason Rain Rain Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Dry Rain Rain Rain Rain Dry RainTraditional R R R R C C C C C C C Cculitvation or or or or or or or or V V V V V V V VOff-season R R R R Ryam cropping Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y(2009-2010) C C C C C C C C F F F F F F F FOff-season R R R R Ryam cropping(2010-2011)R = Rice (WITA4), C = Cassava, V = Vegetables, Y = Yam (TDr 95/18544), and F = Fallow International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  46. 46. Rice-Yam cropping system tested at inland valleys (3 villages)in Bida, Niger state, Nigeria (support of WIN2000) Nov Jul 2009 2010 Jan Jul 2010 2010 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  47. 47. Yield of yam & cassava in dry season cropping in inland valleys at Bida,Niger state Cassava Yam Fresh weight of Water Fresh weight of tuber Water Village Site tuber (kg) /plant content (%) (kg)/plant content (%) A 1.06 69.8 1.29 70.6 B 1.12 63.5 0.98 66.6 Lagun C 1.77 62.4 1.22 69.1 Mean 1.32ac 65.2 1.16 a 68.8 A 0.24 68.4 0.76 65.8 B 0.76 61.8 1.26 67.2 Ejeti C 0.77 57.8 0.83 71.5 Mean 0.59 b 62.6 0.95ab 68.2 A 1.04 64.3 0.66 70.6 B 1.68 56.4 0.82 71.8Emitundata C 0.47 64.8 0.94 70.8 Mean 1.06 c 61.8 0.80 b 71.0 Mean 0.99 63.2 0.97 69.3 (Total) Different letters indicate significant differences at the 1% level. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  48. 48. Effects of nitrogen application on growth and yield of yam under “Rice – Yam cropping system” No of Fresh Weight of Water content in Dry Weight ofN treatment (t/ha) tuber/plant tubers/plant (kg) tuber(%) top/plant (g)Rice 0 -Yam 0 1.7 1.74 63.4 157.2Rice 0 -Yam 60 2.0 2.62** 60.9** 224.8**Rice 30 -Yam 0 1.4 1.43 63.1 136.1Rice 30 -Yam 60 1.7 2.55** 59.1** 215.0**Mean 1.7 2.08 61.7 183.3 ** indicates significant differences at the 1% level. Oct 2009 Jan 2010 July 2010 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  49. 49. 【Further plan】As those trials have been carrying out, all somedata will be collected by middle of 2011.1)Identify the growth and yield of rice2)Analysis of soil fertilities before rice, after yamand after rice3)Analysis of nutrients uptake from rice and yam International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  50. 50. Development of meristem culture protocol for yam germplasm management Communication Capacity building Improve propagationOff-season yam techniques Other researchcropping system activities used seedlings from(Seed tuber from vine propagationvine propagation) as new tool Network Collaboration Healthy seed tuber production system on yam through vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  51. 51. Optimum time for collection of root samples for chromosome observation on yams (Dioscorea spp.) Obstacle of chromosome observation on yam● Large number & very small size of chromosome (0.5μm~2.9μm)● Acicular crystal in cell● Difficult to collect picture of chromosomes in metaphase in cell which is appropriate to chromosome observation. Effective chromosome observation protocol for yam are needed. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  52. 52. Optimum time for collection of root samples for chromosome observation Roots from seedlings Roots from mini-sett of vine cutting (dark condition) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  53. 53. 1 2 3 1 Interphase 2 Prophase 3 Metaphase 4 Anaphase 5 Telophase 4 5Periodicity in the cell division, TDr. 95/18544 (white yam) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  54. 54. 【Results】 Roots from minisett White yam Water yam 8 TDr. 95/18544 8 TDa. 98/01183m ean no. of m etaphase cell etaphase cell m ean no.of m etaphase cels l 7 LSD: 3.09 7 LSD: 3.56 6 a ab 6 5 ab 5 a a 4 4 3 b 3 a a a 2 b 2 a a b b b a 1 1 0 0 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 ti e peri from sunrise (hours) m od sunri (hours) se ti e peri f m od rom sunri ( se hours) Chronometrical changes in the frequency of metaphase cells of root tips from minisett. Different letters indicate significant differences at the 5% level. (Fisher’s LSD test) ● The peak in the frequency of metaphase cells is at 7 hr after sunrise (13:00pm) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  55. 55. 【Results】 Roots from seedlings of vine cuttings White yam Water yam 8 8 TDa. 98/01183 m ean no. of m etaphase cellmean no. of metaphase cell l TDr. 95/18544 etaphase cel a LSD: 3.13 7 7 LSD: 3.19 6 a 6 5 ab 5 ab ab 4 ab ab ab 4 b b 3 b 3 b 2 b b 2 b 1 1 b 0 0 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 time period from sunrise (hours) timeperiod from sunrise (hours) ti e peri from sunrise m od sunrise Chronometrical changes in the frequency of metaphase cells of root tips from seedlings of vine cutting. Different letters indicate significant differences at the 5% level. (Fisher’s LSD test) ● The peak in the frequency of metaphase cells is at 4 hr after sunrise (10:00am) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  56. 56. 【Conclusion】Identified optimum time for collection of rootsamples for chromosome observation throughyear round due to usage of minisett (tuber-under storage period) and seedlings of vinecutting (growth stage) Babil P.K., H. Kikuno, H. Shiwachi, H. Toyohara, J. Fujigaki, H. Fujimaki, and R. Asiedu. Optimum time for collection of root samples for chromosome observation in yams (Dioscorea spp.). Tropical Agriculture and Development Vol. 54 (3) (2010): pp.71-75.H. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  57. 57. Development of meristem culture protocol for yam germplasm management Communication Capacity building Improve propagationOff-season yam techniques Other researchcropping system activities used seedlings from(Seed tuber from vine propagationvine propagation) as new tool Network Collaboration Healthy seed tuber production system on yam through vine propagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  58. 58. Capacity building (Major research fellows)Degree related students from African countries (more than 12 months)1) 2007: Mr. Acha Ivo (Ph. D), Univ. Ibadan, Cameroon2) 2009: Ms. Delphine Mapiemfu (Ph. D), (as adviser) Cameroon3) 2010: Mr. Oyelami F. Olayemi (Msc), Univ. Ibadan, Nigeria4) 2010: Ms. Okunade Adnike Oluwagade (Msc), Univ. Ibadan, Nigeria Degree related students from Asian countries (6-7 months)1) 2007: Mr. Babil Pachakkil Kalari Thotathil (Msc), Tokyo Univ. Agri. Japan, India2) 2008: Mr. Kabindra Prasad Kandel (Msc), Tokyo Univ. Agri. Japan, Nepal3) 2009: Mr. Yuichi Hasegawa (Msc), Tokyo Univ. Agri. Japan4) 2010: Mr. Jyunya Ohata (Msc), Tokyo Univ. Agri. Japan Japan-CGIAR Fellowship Program (2 months)1) 2009: Mr. Takuya Koyama (Msc), Nagoya Univ., Japan2) 2009: Ms. Saori Namba (Msc), Kobe Univ., Japan International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  59. 59. On-the Job training (3-5 months) Japan capacity building program for African Agricultural Researchers funded by MAFF and implemented by ICCAE, Nagoya Univ. Rapid & mass propagation system for yams (Dioscorea spp.) based on vine cuttings and tissue culture techniques1) 2007: Mr. Shaali Mohamed Shaali, Kizimbani Research Station, Zanzibar, (Tanzania)2) 2007: Mr. Gerald Sereje, Root and Tuber Improvement Program, Mutanda Research Station, Solwezi, Zambia3) 2008: Mr. Yahaya Asieku, CSIR, Savanna Agric Research Institute (SARI), Ghana4) 2009: Mr. Ikoro Ikoro Anyim, NRCRI Umudike, Nigeria5) 2009: Mr. Ouyabe Michel, CSRS/ESA (INP-HB), Cote d’Lvoire6) 2010: Ms. Christine Kaari Gitonga, Kenya Agricultural Resaerch Institute, National Genebank of Kenya, Kenya International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  60. 60. Communication, Collaboration & NetworkCommunication (Media)2009: NHK-BS special and General, Japan, “Root and tuber crops save the world” on air at 3 times2009: NHK-BS, Japan, “World-Agora”2010: Press tour 2010 hosted by the embassy of Japan2007-2010: News papers, MagazinesCollaboration & NetworkJIRCAS (2009-)Tokyo University of Agriculture (2006-)Kinki University (2006-)Private sectors in Japan International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  61. 61. Further challenges for enhancing livelihood of farmers in Africa through improved technologies on yamPackaging & distribution of clean seed production system through improved propagation technologiesDevelopment screening tools for agricultural traits of yam using mini tubers or seedlings through vine propagationOther physiological & agronomic research activitiesExpanding and strengthen research networks, funding and collaboration International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  62. 62. Packaging & distribution of clean seed production system through improved propagationActivity 1:Identification of robust technologies for propagation (vinepropagation, minisett techniques and in vitro micropropagation)of high quality breeder’s and foundation seed to be adopted byNARS in West AfricaActivity 2:Backstopping study on vine propagation to be used bycommercial seed production farmers or intensive farmers withpotential to adopt mechanizationActivity 3:Introduce clean & mass yam seed tuber production systemthrough vine propagation with/without in vitro micropropagationfor 5 NARS partners in West African countries. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  63. 63. Development diagnostic tools for agricultural traits of yam using mini tubers or seedlings through vine propagationActivity 1:Develop screening tools for resistance of nematodes using seedlingof vine cuttingsActivity 2:Rapid & small-footprint method to identify and screen physiologicaltraits on yam (screening of maturity of plants, response of chemicalfertilizer, day length response, dormancy as well as droughtresistance) using seedlings or mini-tubers produced by vinepropagation International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  64. 64. Thanks*MOFA, Japan and embassy of Japan*JIRCAS, Japan*ICCAE, Nagoya University, Japan*Tokyo University of Agriculture, Japan*Kinki University (Hirose Project), Japan International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org

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