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Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?
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Groundnut and Cassava,The underground mystery: What can a breeder do?

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Genomes and species relationships in genus Arachis,Challenges to producing Arachis interspecific hybrids and germplasm introgression,Greenhouse and Field evaluations of interspecific hybrid derived …

Genomes and species relationships in genus Arachis,Challenges to producing Arachis interspecific hybrids and germplasm introgression,Greenhouse and Field evaluations of interspecific hybrid derived breeding lines,Ideas for Cassava improvement

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  • 1. Groundnut and CassavaThe underground mystery: What can a breeder do? S. P. TalluryDepartment of Crop Science NC State University Raleigh, NC 27695-7629
  • 2. Overall goal of my program is To develop multiple disease resistant groundnut cultivarsSpecific goal is, To transfer multiple disease resistances available in diploid wild species into susceptible cultivars
  • 3. Outline• Genomes and species relationships in genus Arachis• Challenges to producing Arachis interspecific hybrids and germplasm introgression• Greenhouse and Field evaluations of interspecific hybrid derived breeding lines• Ideas for Cassava improvement
  • 4. Genomes and species relationships in genus Arachis
  • 5. Genus Arachis has nine sections and A. hypogaeabelongs to section ArachisSection Arachis has diploid (2n=2x=20),tetraploid (2n=4x=40) and aneuploid (2n=2x=18)speciesSpecies in section Arachis cross relativelyeasily with A. hypogaea resulting in hybrid pegs/seedsPotential disease resistant species are diploidand crossability with A. hypogaea varies from0-5%
  • 6. • A. hypogaea is an allotetraploid with two different genomes (A and B) in it‟s make up• „A‟ genome is characterized by a small chromosome pair and „B‟ genome which lacks the small pair of chromosomes A genome B genome
  • 7. Challenges to producing Arachis interspecific hybrids and germplasm introgression
  • 8. Critical issues in interspecific hybridization are1) How to improve the efficiency of hybrid production/development? (Incorporation)2) How to induce/improve the efficiency of recombination between parental chromosomes? (Introgression)
  • 9. Pathways of Germplasm Introgression • Triploid-Hexaploid Route • Tetraploid Route • Autotetraploid • Amphidiploid
  • 10. AA BB AA 10 10 10 10 10 10 xCultivated Peanut Wild Species2n = 4x = 40 (Tetraploid) A A B 2n = 2x = 20 (Diploid) 10 10 10 Sterile Triploid F1 hybrid 2n = 3x = 30 Colchicine treatment AA AA BB 10 10 10 10 10 10 Hexaploid hybrid 2n = 6x = 60 self 10 or more generations AABB AABB Tetraploid Introgression Lines
  • 11. 2n=4x=40 2n=2x=20 0.2% Colchicine for 6-8 h 2n=3x=30 2n=6x=60
  • 12. Tetraploid Route Species A Species A x Species B (2x) (2x) (2x) F1 hybrid (2x) Colchicine ColchicineAutotetraploid x A. hypogaea x Amphidiploid (4x) (4x) (4x) 4x 4x
  • 13. Greenhouse and Field evaluations ofinterspecific hybrid derived breeding lines
  • 14. Most common groundnut diseases in NC areEarly leaf spot Late leaf spot Web blotch CBR Sclerotinia TSWV
  • 15. Species ResistanceA. cardenasii Leaf spots, CBR, Sclerotinia blight(10017) TSWV, nematodes, several insectsA. diogoi Leaf spots, rust, TSWV, insects(10602)A. correntina TSWV and Sclerotinia blight(9530, 19616)A. duranensis Aflatoxin(30060, 30064, 30073)
  • 16. Early Leaf Spot Evaluations at Lewiston (2005-08)26 Tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) interspecific hybrid derived breeding lines11 Commercially grown susceptible Virginia-type cultivar checks 7 Resistant A. hypogaea checks
  • 17. Lines were evaluated independently inside-by-side spray-controlled andunsprayed field tests for early leaf spotEstimates of defoliation percentage andvisual ratings were made on a plot basiswith 1 = no disease to 9 = dead plantsPlot yield was measured by weighing allpods harvested and yield estimates weremade
  • 18. Pod Yield (lb/A) 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 SPT 04-05 5.20 3107 HTS 02-03 5.84 3034 HTS 02-01 4.57 3026 SPT 04-06 4.48 2974 HTS 02-10 4.47 2939 SPT 04-08 4.52 2830 HTS 02-06 4.65 2818 HTS 02-07 5.95 2790 SPT 04-07 5.18 2789 SPT 04-03 5.20 2736 HTS 02-04 4.78 2710 HTS 02-02 4.54 2642 SPT 04-10 5.69 2559 SPT 04-02 5.36 2547 SPT 04-04 5.14 2487 SPT 04-01 4.39 2479 HTS 02-08 4.20 2442 SPT 04-09 6.16 2298 SPT 04-12 4.48 2267 HTS 02-09 5.19 2249 HTS 00-02 4.07 2239 SPT 04-14 6.26 2207Line SPT 04-13 6.37 2139 HTS 03-01 6.66 2063 SPT 04-11 6.04 2044 HTS 02-05 5.22 1992 Brantley 6.48 2686 Phillips 6.26 2618 NC 12C 6.31 2530 Perry 6.22 2410 Unsprayed leaf spot test (2005-08) Gregory 6.99 2387 NC-V 11 7.18 2303 NC 7 6.52 2230 Wilson 6.79 2213 VA-C 92R 7.04 2181 NC 6 7.05 1897 VA 98R 7.06 1883 GP-NC 343 4.60 3335 PI 269685 2.95 2890 PI 121067 3.16 2537 Kanyoma 4.75 2454 PI 270806 4.88 2185 PI 109839 4.45 1831 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Defol. score
  • 19. Grade characteristics of cultivars and selected breeding lines derived from interspecific hybrids Avg. pod Bright- PodCultivar/ ness Meat YieldLine (Hunter L) (%) (lb/A)NC 12C 80.2 74.4 44.9 37.0 68.0 71.2 2530NC-V11 76.3 70.7 44.5 23.5 67.6 70.8 2303Gregory 87.6 83.1 44.3 41.5 67.2 70.5 2387Perry 87.5 86.9 42.9 32.9 66.4 69.6 2410VA 98R 79.2 73.0 44.4 25.4 65.4 70.0 1883HTS 02-01 81.4 84.3 42.6 31.7 66.4 68.9 3026HTS 02-02 74.7 79.9 43.2 26.2 60.9 64.7 2642SPT 04-06 77.9 91.4 43.5 36.5 67.5 70.5 2974SPT 04-05 71.1 55.3 44.3 27.1 66.3 68.7 3107
  • 20. Flavor profiles of 16 different ELS resistantinterspecific hybrid breeding lines along with theindustry flavor standard, NC 7, were analyzedNone of the breeding lines were significantlydifferent from NC 7 in flavor quality
  • 21. Disease inoculationsCBR Sclerotinia TSWV
  • 22. AUDPC for Sclerotinia and CBR root rot scores of selected cultivars and interspecific breeding lines CBR Line AUDPC Score*Gregory 92.8 20.5 3.64 ±0.34Perry 94.7 ±20.5 3.57 ±0.34N96076L 57.6 ±17.7 4.06 ±0.28SPT 06-07 6.4 ±35.8 3.62 ±0.48HTS 02-01 67.8 ±38.8 3.39 ±0.48SPT 06-03 82.9 ±35.8 3.22 ±0.48SPT 04-06 48.5 ±35.8 3.05 ±0.48 *0 = Clean root 5 = Completely rotted root
  • 23. TSWV Evaluations (2005-07)110 plots from A. hypogaea x A. cardenasiiwere evaluated for TSWV resistance infield tests at Lewiston, NCDead/diseased plants were counted inplots every 2-weeks beginning in earlyJune until 2 weeks before harvest22 whole plots were selected for fieldresistance to TSWV
  • 24. Yield and Disease Evaluations of Interspecific Hybrid Derived Breeding lines and Cultivars at PBRS, Lewiston, NC, 2005-08 ID Defol. Score Pod Yield W/out CBR SB TSWV (1=none to 9=complete) leaf spot control (lb/A)Brantley 6.4 2742 - S -Champs 5.8 3244 C - -Gregory 6.4 2493 - - -Perry 6.3 2497 - - -Phillips 6.4 2551 - - -VA 98R 7.0 2277 - S -Wilson 6.5 2786 - - -HTS 00-02 4.1 2673 - - THTS 02-01 4,3 3449 C S -HTS 02-02 4.3 3226 - S -HTS 02-03 5.6 3077 - - -HTS 02-04 4.7 2933 - - -HTS 02-05 5.0 2274 - - -HTS 02-06 4.3 3376 - - -HTS 02-07 5.9 3017 - - -HTS 02-08 4.0 2724 C S -HTS 02-09 4.8 2624 C S -HTS 02-10 4.3 3103 - - -HTS 03-01 5.3 2910 - - -SPT 04-01 4.0 2678 - - -SPT 04-02 4.8 2971 - - -SPT 04-03 4.7 3242 - - -SPT 04-04 4.5 2967 - - -SPT 04-05 4.4 3145 C S -SPT 04-06 4.3 3114 - - -SPT 04-07 4.9 3156 C S -SPT 04-08 4.3 3138 - - -SPT 04-09 5.4 2951 - - -SPT 04-10 5.5 2983 - - -SPT 04-11 5.5 3134 - - -SPT 04-12 4.2 2276 C S -SPT 04-13 5.8 2742 - - -SPT 04-14 5.7 2311 - - -SPT 06-01 4.0 3396 - - -SPT 06-02 4.2 2276 - - -SPT 06-03 4.6 3264 - S TSPT 06-04 3.5 2777 C S -SPT 06-05 4.3 1983 - - -SPT 06-06 3.1 2861 C S TSPT 06-07 3.0 2986 C S TSPT 06-08 4.2 3550 - - TSPT 06-09 4.5 2773 - - -SPT 06-10 4.5 2859 - - -
  • 25. AYT at Lewiston, NC, 2007-08 ID Pod Yield (lb/ac)GG/WS15 3033GG/WS15 2624SPT 06-06 3380DL1/C99R/WS12 3713SPT 06-01 3827HTS 02-01 4091SPT 04-02 4001NC-V11/01LSP14 4409NC12C/WS15 4908Perry/WS12 3494Perry/WS12 3464VA98R/00BLSS12/Chico/00BLSS12 4243VA98R/01LSP14 3955VA98R/01LSP14 4258SPT 06-07 4258SPT 04-05 3713UF97318//UF97318/NC343 3592SPT 04-06 4916Gregory (Check) 2397Phillips (Check) 4379
  • 26. Overall ConclusionsSuccessfully transferred multiple diseaseresistanceYield and grade characteristics were competitiveSelected set of breeding lines will be evaluated inPVQE in 2009Promising lines will be evaluated in multi-state(VA, NC and SC) trials in 2010 before consideredfor release
  • 27. Ideas for Cassava Improvement
  • 28. Steps in Cassava germplasm enhancement pipeline Acquire Evaluate Transfer Deploy Field breeding and evaluations Marker Assisted Selection Courtesy of Dr. Kuraparthy
  • 29. Traits of concern for Cassava breeding1. Susceptibility to diseases2. Highly heterozygous3. Vegetative propagation4. Variable flowering patterns5. Low seed set and seed dormancy6. Lack of genetic studies about inheritance of useful traits (HCN levels in Manihot species?)
  • 30. Hybrid Seed Production and Inbreeding ConcernsGene segregation from favored heterozygotes tounfit homozygotesToo drastic that the inbreds may not surviveDeveloping inbreds by successive selfing takes> 10 y Solution: Doubled Haploids?
  • 31. Inbred vigor can be improved by a few recurrentselection cycles (Sibbing elite clones to S2 andrecombining the surviving progenies) assuggested byTallury, S. P. and Goodman, M. M. (2001) in“Broadening the genetic base of crop plants”CAB publication
  • 32. Short term goals (1-3 years) • Continue evaluation of existing materials and explore possibilities for hybrid seed production • Evaluate Manihot species for disease resistance and other traits Greenhouse inoculations Molecular markers using BSA • Characterize species genomes by Crossability Karyotyping and DNA fingerprinting • Initiate interspecific crosses to broaden the germplasm base
  • 33. Long term goals (3-5 years)Specifically, I would • Attempt to produce a large # of triploid hybrids • Also, produce amphidiploids to use in bridge crosses • Greenhouse/lab and field evaluations for inbred line development and hybrid production
  • 34. Vision for Cassava Research BreedingGenetic Diversity Develop superior Cooperators germplasm Evaluate Distribute germplasm germplasm Cassava Improvement MolecularFingerprintingGenetic Mapping TrainingSequencing of genes

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