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Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement- A New Paradigm
 

Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement- A New Paradigm

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Genomics tools for discovery and tagging of genes can enhance the efficiency of breeding.CMD gene tagging,Marker Screening/genotyping,Resistance Gene Analogs (RGA),Tools for Hybrid ...

Genomics tools for discovery and tagging of genes can enhance the efficiency of breeding.CMD gene tagging,Marker Screening/genotyping,Resistance Gene Analogs (RGA),Tools for Hybrid Verification,TILLING in the Lab:
A Novel High throughput Reverse Genetics Technology for Detection of Mutation,Marker for pro Vitamin A carotenoids -cassava and Maize,Soybean diversity and mapping

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    Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement- A New Paradigm Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement- A New Paradigm Presentation Transcript

    • Genomics Assisted Crop Improvement A New Paradigm Melaku Gedil Monday 28 June, 2010Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 1
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 2
    • Genomics Regulatory Gene Other (IRE) Transcriptomics siRNA mRNA rRNA Proteomics Metabolomics Interactomics Phenomics Biochemical Physiological AgronomicalMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 3
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 4
    • 1. CMD gene taggingMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 5
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 6
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 7
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 8
    • 4.0 3.5 3.0 Average score 2.5 Ib07 2.0 Ib08 1.5 On07 1.0 0.5 0.0 cmd1 cmd2 cmd3 cmd4 cmd5 cmd6 Cassava mosaic diseaseMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 9
    • Frequency distribution of CMD score in two crosses (top) and two selfed (bottom) populationsMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 10
    • Clone Location Year N min max range 1M-35 Onne 2007 2 1 3 2 1M-43 Onne 2007 5 1 3 2 1M-44 Onne 2007 5 1 3 2 1M-10 Onne 2007 3 1 4 3 1M-17 2007 2 1 4 3 1M-42 Onne 2007 3 1 4 3 1M-5 Onne 2007 3 1 4 3 23M-10 Onne 2007 5 1 3 2 23M-25 Onne 2007 4 1 3 2 23M-3 Onne 2007 4 1 3 2 23M-31 Ibadan 2007 5 1 3 2 23M-40 Onne 2007 3 1 3 2 23M-42 Ibadan 2007 5 1 3 2 23M-45 2007 4 1 3 2 23M-22 Onne 2007 5 1 4 3 23M-3 Ibadan 2008 2 1 4 3 23M-30 Ibadan 2007 3 1 4 3 23M-32 Ibadan 2007 4 1 4 3 23M-33 Ibadan 2007 5 1 4 3 23M-39 Onne 2007 4 1 4 3 23M-41 2007 3 1 4 3 23M-5 Onne 2007 4 1 4 3 23M-14 Ibadan 2007 3 1 5 4 23M-40 Ibadan 2007 5 1 5 4 23M-41 Ibadan 2008 5 1 5 4 23M-9 2007 3 1 5 4Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 11
    • Improved phenotyping – PCR & RT-PCR Different viruses African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV) East African cassava mosaic Cameroon virus (EACMCV) East African cassava mosaic Malawi virus (EACMMV) East African cassava mosaic Zanzibar virus (EACMZV) South African cassava mosaic virus (SACMV) EACMV-UG: a recombinant virus, Evaluation PCR diagnostics to determine the type of infection Real-time PCR to determine virus load Resistance profiling28 June 2010 Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 12
    • • 12 clones • Three replications • Repeated sampling and assayMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 13
    • Replication-1 Replication-2 Replication-3 AC EAC AC EAC AC EAC Rep# Score MV MV Rep# Score MV MV Rep# Score MV MV 101 3 +++ + 201 3 +++ + 301 4 +++ - 202 1 - + 302 - - - 102 1 - - 203 - + - 303 1 - - 103 3 +++ ++ 204 - 304a 3 +++ +++ 104 1 - - 304b 4 +++ - 205 1 - - 105a 3 +++ ++ 305a 1 - - 206 1 + - 105b 2 +++ +++ 305b 1 - + 207a 2 +++ - 106 2 - + 306a 1 - - 207b 1 + + 107 1 - + 306b 1 - - 208a 1 - - 108a 1 - - 306c 1 - - 208a 1 - + 306d 1 - - 108b 1 - - 209 1 - + 307 3 - - 109 3 +++ ++ 210 3 +++ + 308 1 - - 110 1 - - 211a 2 +++ + 309 - - - 111 2 - - 211b 2 +++ +++ 310a 1 - - 112a 1 - + 211c 2 +++ - 310b 1 - - 112b 1 - + 212 4 +++ - 311 1 - -Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 312 28 June 2010 1 - - 14
    • Improved phenotyping – PCR & RT-PCR28 June 2010 15
    • Sample cmd2 Cт Cт Name Severity score Mean SD 1M-01 4 7.1 0.2 1M-02 5 17.6 0.8 1M-03 4 25.4 0.1 1M-04 1 21.3 1.5 1M-05 2 23.6 0.2 1M-06 2 19.5 0.3 1M-07 1 10.8 0.3Example of real-time determination of ACMV quantity in cassava samples Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 16
    • 2. Marker Screening/genotypingMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 17
    • SSR set Type No. Tested Validated Ref SSRY-C&-T Genomic 343 171 137 Mba, 2001 NS-A and OS-A Genomic 156 39 33 CIAT NS-L Genomic 140 - CIAT EST-SSR EST 178 - CIAT Total 817 210 170 SSR set Type No. Tested Valid Ref Lokko, 2007 New-SSR 1 EST 846 192 124 Raji, 2009 Ferguson New SSR 2 EST 70 70 52 in progress Sub total 916 262 176Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 18
    • R R R R R R R R S S S S S S S SMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 19
    • Set-1 Set-2 NS158* SSRY238* SSRY28* SSRY20* SSRY235* SSRY51 SSRY44 SSRY76 NS136 SSRY169* RME1 (SCAR)*Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 20
    • Severity Severity Score Genotype Genotype No. of false No. of false Primers Score =S =R =S positives negatives =R NS158 20 18 19 18 2 1 SSRY28 20 18 17 20 1 1 SSRY235 20 18 21 17 7 4 NS169 20 18 18 20 1 1 RME-1 20 18 25 13 7 0 SSRY 20 17 19 13 23 7 10 SSRY 238 17 21 25 13 9 5Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 21
    • Severity No. of Severity Score Genotype Genotype No. of false Primers Score false =R =R =S negatives =S positives NS158 24 21 27 17 6 3 SSRY28 24 21 26 19 6 4 SSRY235 24 21 26 19 15 13 NS169 24 21 24 21 13 14 RME-1 24 21 21 24 2 5 SSRY20 24 21 18 16 6 4Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 22
    • Severity Severity No. of Genotype Genotype No. of false Primers N Score Score false =R =S negatives =R =S positives NS158 40 28 8 33 7 5 3 SSRY28 40 28 8 33 6 6 3 SSRY235 40 28 8 19 21 0 12 NS169 40 28 8 35 5 7 3 RME-1 40 28 8 29 11 4 7 SSRY20 37 28 8 20 17 0 9 SSRY76 37 28 8 23 14 2 9 SSRY238 21 28 8 16 6 4 3Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 23
    • Primer 1M 2007 (%) 23M 2007 1M 2008 (%) 23M 2008 % Average (%) (%) Association NS158 92 80 90 91 88 SSRY28 95 78 94 88 89 SSRY235 71 38 71 28 52 NS169 95 40 94 35 66 RME-1 82 84 74 93 83 SSRY20 53 68 50 46 54 SSRY238 61 - 71 - 66Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 24
    • 3. Resistance Gene Analogs (RGA)Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 25
    • TIR NBS LRR CC NBS LRR TIR NBS LRR CC NBS LRR PCR-Primer (Degenerate) Cloning/Sequencing Sequence Analysis Markers28 June 2010 26
    • Species # AccM. esculenta 7M .epruinosa 1M. glaziovii 1M. brachyandra 1M. tripartita 1Other Manihots 3Ricinus communis 1
    •  DNA  RNA  …  cDNA  PCR  PCR  Cloning  Cloning  Colony PCR  Colony PCR  Purify  Purify  Sequence  Sequence * Surveys genomic *Surveys expressed DNA genes28 June 2010
    • TA-cloning, QiagenPurification before sequencing 28 June 2010
    • Number of sequences Template Clones Genomic cDNA Total Cassava TME 117 30 17 59 76 TME 3 7 1 18 19 TME 7 8 1 - 1 TME 6 14 4 - 4 TME 279 32 21 - 21 TME 52 24 16 - 16 TME 56 43 30 - 30 Cassava subtotal 158 90 77 167 Wild species M.brachyandra 19 15 59 74 M.epruinosa 147 111 1 112 M.glaziovii 43 40 22 62 M.tripartita 103 83 44 127 Wild subtotal 312 249 126 375 Castor Castor bean 51 31 - 31 Castor-purple 84 - 53 53 Castor-green 78 - 21 21 Castor subtotal 213 31 74 105 Grand Total 683 370 277 647Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 30
    • BLAST based sequence comparison of all RGA clones to draft: cassava genome (phytozome.net/cassava) and castor bean genome (phytozome.net/ricinus) Number of matching scaffolds Number of On Manihot On Castor bean RGA source species Unique RGAs genome genome Cassava 167 79 70 M.brachyandra 74 37 37 M.epruinosa 112 38 35 M.glaziovii 62 14 14 M.tripartita 127 35 27 Castor bean 105 52 36 Total 647 298 237Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 31
    • A combination of analysis used to group the sequences • 521 grouped in to 41 classes with 3-99 members • 126 were not grouped • About half contained open reading frame (ORF) • Different NBS-LRR specific motifs found in the sequences • Domain/motif characterization and search for species specific features to be performed • Phylogenetic analysis together with published R gene sequences • Sequences will be submitted to the GenBankMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 32
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 33
    • 28 June 2010
    • A B C 4. Tools for Hybrid VerificationD E FMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 35
    • Search Genbank – core nucleotide Download and cluster – BioEdit, ClustalW Primer design - FastPCR BLAST against Cassava ESTMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 36
    • A. Primer 2F1-1R1, 22 castor genotypes, 1 cassava, and NTC B. Primer 2F1-1R1 on cassava, hybrids, and castors C. Primer 2F1-1R1 in 24 ‘hybrids’ and - ctrl (Me) and + ctrl (Rc) D. Primer NS33 (cassava specific) Amplification of different castor, cassava and progenies with castor- and cassava-specific primers.Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 37
    • A B 1 2 Cassava 1. Castor 2. Cassava C D Castor x Cassava Castor x Cassava Histogram representing the relative nuclear DNA content of G0/G1 cells isolated from the leaf tissue of cassava (A), castor bean (B), and hybrids (C, D). Gedil et al. 2009, JFAEMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 38
    • TME117 x M. glaziovii M.glaziovii x TME117 tested with SSRY20, tested with SSRY20, SSRY76, SSRY238 SSRY76, SSRY238 Sample Name Mean CV Glaz x TME117-M 106 2.12 Glaz x TME117-A 104 1.68 Glaz x TME117-B 105 2.62 TME117 X Glaz-A 100 2.26 TME117 X Glaz-B 99 1.77 TME117(Source)-A 98 2.29 TME117(Source)-B 100 2.75 Glaz(Source)-A 108 2.08 Glaz(Source)-B 108 2.09Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 39
    • 1089A x TME14, assayed with SSRY76 TME3 x Tme117, assayed amplified with SSRY20Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 40
    • 5. TILLING in the Lab: A Novel High throughput Reverse Genetics Technology for Detection of MutationMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 41
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 42
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 43
    • Populations with chemically Populations with naturalinduced mutations nucleotide variation“TILLING” “Ecotilling” Pool DNA Pooled or unpooled DNA * * PCR Form heteroduplexes * * Nuclease * * * * * * gel - - -28 June 2010 + 44
    • missense nonsense ACC --> AAC CCA --> TGA T --> N P --> STOP Altered TruncatedMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 45
    • Seed Number Seedlings Total numbers of seedlings recovered per Batchtreated, of seeds (no.) Concentrations30572 HS 0% 0.1% 0.2% 0.5% 1% 1 917 106 36 0 26 30 14 2 920 31 8 0 10 9 4 3 960 245 65 03 68 59 50 4 960 130 38 0 53 22 17 5 960 136 0 15 52 25 44 Total 4,717 648 147 18 219 145 129Cuttings Clones: 96/1089A; TME3; TME7; TME117treated Concentration: 0.1%; 0.2%; 0.5%; 1% Time of treatment: 3h; 6h; 24h Type of treatment: spot application or dippingMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 46
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 47
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 48
    • Gene Targeted Nucleotide Amplicon Length No of SNPs Description Accession symbol region type size (bp) (bp) detected SUSY Sucrose synthase DQ443534 Gene mRNA 857 2775 18 Sstarch branching SBE X77012 Gene mRNA 884 2843 4 enzyme Superoxide SOD DI139016 Promoter Genomic 875 1568 16 dismutase 3 BglA beta glucosidase X94986 Promoter Genomic 833 1486 18 1-amino- ACCO3 cyclopropane-1- EF055260 Promoter Genomic 885 1536 15 carboxylic oxidase Granule-bound GBSS X74160 Gene mRNA 851 2168 0 starch synthase N-hydroxylating CYP79 cytochrome p450- AY834391 Gene mRNA 500 1629 In progress D1 D1 N-hydroxylating CYP79 cytochrome p450- AY834390 Gene mRNA 500 1626 In progress D2 D1 Linamarase (PLIN- Linam U95298 Gene Genomic 700 2782 In progress Gene)Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 49
    • 6. Marker for pro Vitamin A carotenoids - cassava Deep yellow Yellow Cream WhiteMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 50
    • GGPP Lycopene PSY y1 Phytoene β- LCY β- LCY PDS Phytofluene ε- LCY vp5 ζ- carotene α- carotene β- carotene ZDS HYD vp9 Neurosporene HYD β-crytptoxanthin HYD Lutein Zeaxanthin28 June 2010
    • Lycopene Library from several epsilon LYCE DB947186 development 32 49 cyclase stages and tissues Normalized library Lycopene LYCB DV445903 from different 32 62 beta cyclase tissues Phytoene Genomic survey PSY1 BH794911.1 32 59 synthase sequence. Beta- Library from several carotene HYD1 DB955222 development 32 58 Hydroxylase stages and tissuesMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 52
    • Query Identi Gene NCBI Accession Description E-value coverage ty Ricinus communis beta-carotene HYDB1 XM_002513608.1 38% 1e-43 92% hydroxylase, putative, mRNA. Ricinus communis Lycopene beta cyclase, XM_002531452.1 95% 6e-120 82% LYCB chloroplast precursor, putative. Ricinus communis Phytoene synthase, XM_002527021.1 58% 3e-51 87% PSY1 chloroplast precursor, putative Citrus unshiu CitLCYe mRNA for lycopene AB238230.1 36% 7e-39 86% LYCE epsilon-cyclase, complete.Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 53
    • Gene Homologous cassava E-value Identity symbol database genes cassava7257.valid.m1 1e-066 100% HYDB1 cassava18978.valid.m1 2e-049 100% cassava992.valid.m1 e-176 100% LYCB cassava991.valid.m1 e-176 100% cassava993.valid.m1 e-176 100% cassava32745.m1 PSY1 1e-088 100% cassava30274.valid.ml LYCE e-158 100% cassava43823.valid.m1Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 54
    • MSA of cassava Hydroxylase28 June 2010 55
    • Gene Total Putative # of Max # of positions positions Heterozygou bases s positions LycB 2 0 1 2 LycE 15 7 0 3 (T,C,G) Hyd 1 10 7 7 2 PSY1 5 1 0 2Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 56
    • High Total Carotenoid lines Low Total Carotenoid lines White Lines Total Total Total S/N Clone Carotenoid S/N Clone Carotenoid S/N Clone Carotenoid (ug/g) (ug/g) (ug/g) 1 08/0054-1 9.9 11 08/0284-4 2.7 21 4(2) 1425 0.3 2 08/0394-23 9.7 12 08/0351-1 2.0 22 91/02324 0.5 3 08/0073-1 9.9 13 08/0380-2 1.0 23 TME117 0.71 4 08/0079-2 10.4 14 08/0394-5 0.2 24 TME1 0.5 5 08/0081-2 10.0 15 08/0283-1 2.7 25 30572 1.3 6 08/0085-2 9.7 16 08/0284-1 2.8 7 08/0389-15 10.4 17 08/0284-4 2.7 8 08/0085-2 9.7 18 08/0436-4 2.2 9 08/0380-3 9.6 19 08/0436-5 2.7 10 08/0386-3 9.4 20 08/0448-1 2.7Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 57
    • 7. Marker for pro Vitamin A carotenoids - MaizeMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 58
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 59
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 60
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 61
    • Types of Polymorphism site Expected Size of DNA fragment (bp) Amplified Size of DNA fragment (bp) polymorphism CrtRB15 INDEL/TE 800 (with 397 INS)-worst 600b 600 (with 206 INS)- best 800ab 400 (with no INS)-2nd best Nullab 600+800b CrtRB13 INDEL/TE 543(without INS)-best 543b 296 + 875 (with 325 INS)-worst 296+1221+1800ab 296 + 1221+1800 (with 1250 INS)- 296+1221b 2nd best 296+1800b 543+296b 296+875+1221b 543+296+1221b 543+1221b 296+1221b 296b CrtRB1D4 DEL (bp) 129 (with 12 INS)-best 129b 117 (with 12 DEL)-worst 117ab HYD3 Duplicated Seq 163-(worst) 163ab transcript start 473/476-(best); 608-(common) 163+608b siteMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 62
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 63
    • Polymorphism Types of Expected Size of DNA fragment Amplified Size of DNA fragment site polymorphism (bp) (bp) 150 + 280 +1700 (best + 2nd LCYE5 INDEL/TE 993 (best) best)ab 150 + 280 (2nd best) Null ab 250 (3rd best) 250+380 (Worst )b 250+380 (worst) 280 + 250 + 1700+ 150b 280b INDEL (DNA LCYE3 144+502 (best) 144+502 (best)ab Seq) 399+502 (worst) 399+502 (best)a null 502a 399+502+144ab LCYE-Exn-216 SNP G (best) G (best)ab A (worst) A (worst)a null NullbMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 64
    • panel of 122 Combined Frequency Frequency Total Gene/ panel of 38 #of #of fav allele in fav allele in Allele polymorphism #of genotypes genotypes genotypes panel of 38 panel of 122 frequency LCYE5INDEL/TE A1: 150 + 280 +1700 9 4 13 24 3.3 8.1 LCYE3INDEL B1: 144+502 11 82 93 29 67 58 LCYE-Exn-216 C1: G 37 120 157 97 98 98 CrtRB15INDEL/T E D2: 600 0 17 17 0 14 11 CrtRB13INDEL/T E E1:543 0 14 14 0 11 9 CrtRB1DEL4 F1: 129 0 1 1 0 0.8 0.6 HYD3TF G4:473/476+608 0 0 0 0 0 0Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 65
    • 8. Soybean diversity and mappingMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 66
    • Plant material  74 for SSR assay  68 for SNP assay (65 from above +3 new)  Released varieties  Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, Togo, DRC, Uganda  Breeding lines  Different maturity groups  Promiscuously nodulating  Specific nodulation  Rust resistant from USA (SOY104)  Rust resistant from Africa (UG5) Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar,28 June 2010 Ibadan, Nigeria 67
    • Primer Screening Summary Primers assayed 80 #Alleles #of loci Genotypes 74 detected Polymorphic (18 on 34 2 4 PAGE; 16 on SFR) 3 11 Linkage groups 20 4 13 9 x 1 locus 5 5 8 x 2 loci 6 0 3 x 3 loci 7 1 Number of alleles 2-7 Total alleles 12528 June 2010 68
    • Soy104, UG5TGM 80(sp)TGX- 1987 RR+Released varietiesOther TGX lines 28 June 2010 69
    • Planned ActivitiesMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 70
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 71
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 72
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 73
    • Genomics in-house Capacity Building in view of Emerging TechnologyMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 74
    • M OPAA1 OPAB5 OPT05 OPAB18 OPAA10 2k 16k 1k28 June 2010 Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 75
    • Affymetrix Illumina28 June 2010 Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 76
    • ABIs SOLiD Roche 454 400-600 million high- quality, filter-passed bases per run 1 billion bases per day28 June 2010 Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 77
    • Learning center • Nucleic acid isolation • Gel electrophoresis • PCR amplification Bioinformatics • Sequence analysis/similarity search/databases • Linkage, QTL analysis • Association mapping Genotyping service • Fragment analysis - ABI • Standard PCR- and elecrophoresis-based assays • Ploidy analysisMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 78
    • Graduate Students (MS, PhD) •Competitive skills Visiting Scientists/Training •Individual •Group training - workshops Internship/educational visits •IT/NYSC •Group visitors from educational institutionsMelaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 79
    • Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 28 June 2010 80
    • Roots Cassava "Whoever could make two ears of corn or two blades of grass to grow upon a spot of ground where only one grew before, would deserve better of mankind, and do more essential service to his country, than the whole race of politicians put together". Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)28 June 2010 Melaku Gedil: Contract Review seminar, Ibadan, Nigeria 81