Genetic Resources Center: Obligations, Challenges and Strategy Elements

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The three main challenges of genetic resources centre includes: sustainable conservation,substantial use and crop diversity captured using cowpea,yam and cassava as case study

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Genetic Resources Center: Obligations, Challenges and Strategy Elements

  1. 1. Genetic Resources Center:Obligations, Challenges and Strategy Elements Dominique Dumet Panel review, June 2009
  2. 2. COLLECTIONS +28 000 accessionsCowpea (53%)Bambara ground nutVigna wild speciesSoybeanMaizeYamCassavaBanana/Plantain+ The miscellaneous legumes…
  3. 3. COLLECTIONS +28 000 accessionsCowpea (53%)Bambara ground nutVigna wild speciesSoybeanMaizeYamCassavaBanana/Plantain
  4. 4. The OBLIGATIONSGERMPLASM IS• CONSERVED• REGENERATED• CHARACTERISED• DISTRIBUTED• ACCESSIBLE• SAFE DUPLICATED• DOCUMENTED » in International standards
  5. 5. Ex situ CONSERVATION SENSUS STRICTO MEDIUM TERM +7500 +3500 +50 0005oC Field In vitro LONG TERM 50 +30 000 -20oC -196oC
  6. 6. Some figures 2007-2008SEED Regeneration: 4300 Processing for storage: 2261 Processed for safe duplication: +12 000 Duplicated in Svalbard: +8000 Viability monitoring: 3179 Virus Indexing: 3569 Characterization: 491CLONAL Meristeming: 600 Safe duplicated in Cotonou: +2000 Characterisation: + 3500 DNA banking: 1500
  7. 7. DOCUMENTATION/INFORMATION DATARegenerationProcessing for storageViability monitoring Harvest date, location, year,Indexing water content, germination,Characterisation viability. number of seed,Field maintenance subculture batch, ….etcIn vitro maintenanceIn vitro introduction Data management system
  8. 8. Live inventory/MonitoringSeed crop bar coding completedIn vitro genebank in progress(Matija Obreza)
  9. 9. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDSQuality Management System… Towards ISO certification Capacity development for GRC staff and national partners
  10. 10. Research ProjectsCONSERVATION Meristeming, cryopreservation (Hide Kikuno, Badara Gueye)STABILITY and INTEGRITY Cowpea geneflow study Yam and cassava somaclonal variation (Vroh Bi)CHARACTERISATION/IDENTITY Finger printing yam and cassava collections Cassava agromorphological description African yam bean (morpho molecular) (Ranjana Bhattacharjee, Paul Ilona, Vroh Bi, Daniel Adewale)SANITATION Antibiotic treatment (yam) Virus elimination (cassava) – Meristeming/Cryotherapy (Lava Kumar, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay)
  11. 11. 3 main CHALLENGES•Sustainable Conservation•Substantial Use•Crop Diversity Captured
  12. 12. 3 main CHALLENGES•Sustainable Conservation•Substantial Use•Crop Diversity Captured
  13. 13. CLONAL SUSTAINABLE CONSERVATION: CASE of CASSAVAField bank In vitro banking Cryopreservation(5% loss) •Reduced risk loss •‘Low cost’ •Facilitated exchange
  14. 14. CASSAVA In vitro banking STERILISATION MERISTEMINGDistribution INDEXING MULTIPLICATION Cryobanking BANKING
  15. 15. CASSAVA In vitro banking STERILISATION MERISTEMING MERISTEMINGDistribution INDEXING CRYOBANKING MULTIPLICATION Cryobanking BANKING
  16. 16. MERISTEMING Reference set (GCP project) - IITA selection (175 accessions) 104 landraces + drought tolerant and other potentials 160 80% 140 120Nb of accessions 100 Meristeming 80 Recalcitrant = indicator 141 to the standard of diversity 60 40 10% 20 16 18 11 0 Virus free Non virus free Recalcitrant Not available
  17. 17. Cassava meristem cryopreservation 48 accessions Vitrification/Droplet freezingMeristem Loading Vitrificationexcision PVS2 Freezing Cryotube 1 Cryotube 2 Cryotube 3 Cryostorage Thawing/Unloading 3 months Dark (7 days) 5 weeks 12h light SURVIVAL and SHOOT ELONGATION
  18. 18. CRYOPRESERVATION trials 100accessions dead after cryo a 90 shoot production and a 80 b 70 b Survival, 60 b (%) c 50 c 40 c 30 No recovery 20 (25%) 10 0 1 2 ol 3 es es es ntr b b ub co tu tu Survival t yo yo yo Shoot formation Cr Cr cr Non recovering accessions (stat by Sam Korie) Cryopreservation is in ‘domestication’ (adjustment on accession basis, somaclonal variation, LN supply)
  19. 19. Consequences on today’s cassava conservation strategy ExperimentalFIELD BANK IN VITRO Cryo
  20. 20. FIELD BANK IN VITRO Cryo 10 % 25 % recalcitrance recalcitrance
  21. 21. FIELD BANK IN VITRO Cryo 10 % 25 % recalcitrance recalcitrance Somaclonal variation?
  22. 22. MAIN BANK SAFE DUPLICATION/ DISTRIBUTIONFIELD BANK IN VITRO Cryo
  23. 23. MAIN BANK SAFE DUPLICATION/ DISTRIBUTION FIELD BANK IN VITRO Cryo On farm in situSeed banking
  24. 24. Future? FIELD BANK MULTIPLICATION/ DISTRIBUTION IN VITRO Cryobanking FIELD BANK MOSAIC OF CONSERVATIONSeed On farm APPROACHESbanking In situ Will require global partnership
  25. 25. SEEDS SUSTAINABLE CONSERVATION: CASE of COWPEA
  26. 26. STANDARD SEED CROP STORAGE STRATEGY Active Base 5 oC -20oCDistribution 15 000 Accessions
  27. 27. COWPEA DISTRIBUTION 1985-2008 Number of samples distributed: 34862 4000 3500Nb of accessions 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 BEST SELLER 500 TVu3629 0 0 50 100 150 200 Nb of time distributed
  28. 28. COWPEA distribution pattern 1985-2008 10815 distinct accessions distributed …4300 non visible Accessions distributionNon visible 35% 4300 Distributed Never distributed 10815 65%
  29. 29. Cowpea viability during storage Medium Long term 95 97 100 90Germination (%) in 2009 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1980 1980 1982 1982 Year processed for storage
  30. 30. Management improvement Active Base 5 oC -20oCDistribution 15 000 Accessions
  31. 31. Management improvement Active Base 5 oC -20oCDistribution ‘Never Used’ 15 000 Accessions
  32. 32. Management improvement Active Base -20oC + Safe duplication •SvalbardDistribution 5 oC •Saskatoon ‘Never Used’ •CIMMYT
  33. 33. Management improvement Active Base -20oCDistribution 5 oC ‘Never Used’ REQUEST for A ‘Never used’
  34. 34. Management improvement Active Base -20oCDistribution 5 oC ‘Never Used’ REQUEST for A ‘Never used’ Regeneration Dynamic conservation
  35. 35. Management improvement Active Base -20oCDistribution 5 oC ‘Never Used’ REQUEST for A ‘Never used’ Regeneration Dynamic conservation – evolving system based on data analysis
  36. 36. 3 main CHALLENGES•Sustainable Conservation•Substantial Use•Crop diversity captured
  37. 37. SUBSTANTIAL USE Case of cowpea Drop Page Fields Here COWPEA distribution pattern 1985-2008 Total 34862 samples Sum of Number of accessions600050004000 Drop Series Fields Here3000 Total20001000 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year
  38. 38. COWPEA distribution pattern 1985-2008 Drop Page Fields Here 34862 samples Total Sum of Number of accessions600050004000 FUNDINGS Drop Series Fields Here3000 Total20001000 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Minicore Set (374) defined
  39. 39. COWPEA distribution pattern 1985-2008 Drop Page Fields Here 34862 samples Total Sum of Number of accessions600050004000 FUNDINGS Drop Series Fields Here3000 Minicore Total requested2000 6 times in 20071000 0 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Year Minicore Set (374) Distribution FUNDING/PROJECT driven defined
  40. 40. Selection based on descriptors: •Agro-morphological •Molecular •Passport Today’s used oriented traits = •Drought tolerance •Pest and disease resistance •Nutritious value•Need for information road from Breeding/Biotech to GRC (TL1, GCP, ….)•More friendly user access to descriptor data (more integrated data)
  41. 41. IMPROVE USE Case of cassava 10% distrubution During the past 10 yearsMERGING Project COLLECTIONS BREEDING/GENEBANK Characterization (agro morphological) Passport data revision Core definitionDevelopment of a ‘cassalogue’ with photographsFriendly user search tool(Collaboration with Paul Ilona, Ranjana Bhattacharjee)
  42. 42. 3 main CHALLENGES•Sustainable Conservation•Substantial Use•Crop diversity captured
  43. 43. CROP DIVERSITY CAPTURE Case of yamSome obviousGAPS Geospatial lab IITA
  44. 44. New acquisition guided by:•GIS analysis (temperature,rainfall, elevation, soil,photoperiod, production…) (Subash Marcus, Kai Sonder)
  45. 45. •Germplasm accessibility/International Treaty•TRUST Regeneration/Duplicationproject Priority countries: Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Madagascar, Malawi
  46. 46. D. Bulbifera ….‘one of the most aggressiveand dangerousvine in Florida’
  47. 47. 2009 AcquisitionsYAMTrust Regeneration Project•300 from Benin•70 from Togo(Collaboration MariaAyodele) Collecting mission in Guinea Conakry •73 cassava (Collaboration Paul Ilona, Sanoussi Bah)
  48. 48. The BIG CHALLENGE:Partnership for sustainable conservation and use
  49. 49. IITA and the GLOBAL system •IITA Germplasm safe duplicationResearch partners •Safe duplication for National Partners
  50. 50. GENETIC RESOURCES CENTER and the CGIAR reformGENETIC RESOURCES MEGAPROGRAM?
  51. 51. GENETIC RESOURCES CENTER and the CGIAR reformGENETIC RESOURCES MEGAPROGRAM? Merging per crop? Merging activity?
  52. 52. GENETIC RESOURCES MEGAPROGRAM?
  53. 53. THE MAIN THREAT: •GENETIC EROSIONMain causes? CLIMATE CHANGE AGRICULTURE INTENSIFICATION
  54. 54. •Work closely with varieties releasersand farmers (collect endangered landraces)•Develop powerful tools for identification/characterisation•Collect in areas at risk Strategy at Continent / Global level
  55. 55. Genetic Resources Center•IITA window•Complementary conservation approaches•Data/information management system essential•Need expertise and feedback from all•Long term investment•CRUCIAL component for FOOD security
  56. 56. THANK YOU
  57. 57. TVu 3629 ( Ife Brown ) …… Developed at the University of Ife ( OAU Ile-Ife ) and released for cultivation in Nigeria. Most popular Brown rough seed variety in South West Nigeria.TVu 14195 ( IT84S-2246-4 )…… Developed by IITA and released in Nigeria and many West AfricaCountries. An improvement on TVu 3629. Resiatant to Aphids, Thrips and Bruchids (storage insect).TVu 2027…. Local Variety, originate from Northern Nigeria. Source of Bruchid Resistant. Have been used in several crosses in our Breeding program. TVu 1190 ( VITA-3 ) Originate from East and Southern Africa. Now released for cultivation in several South America countries apart from East Africa. A good source of vegetable leave and grain production.

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