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A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21
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A Global Alliance For the Improvement of Cassava - GCP21

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Dr Fauquet (Director GCP21), introduces the GCP21 and its efforts to develop a comprehensive and coordinated plan to intensify fight against cassava viruses in Africa and in the world for increased …

Dr Fauquet (Director GCP21), introduces the GCP21 and its efforts to develop a comprehensive and coordinated plan to intensify fight against cassava viruses in Africa and in the world for increased productivity and profitability of the cassava sector.

The Global Cassava Partnership for the 21st Century (GCP21), a recognized global organization within the cassava community, is Declaring War to Cassava Viruses in Africa.

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  • 1. GCP21 A Global Alliance For theImprovement of Cassava
  • 2. Cassava Producing Countries 105 Countries 20% 50% 30% Latin America Africa Asia
  • 3. Cassava Producing Countries Productivity 12t/Ha 10t/Ha 19t/Ha Latin America Africa Asia
  • 4. Cassava Producing Countries Surfaces 3MHa 12MHa 3.5MHa Latin America Africa Asia
  • 5. Cassava Productivity Highly Variable Productivity Increase of Cassava in the World 220 3.0% World Yield (T/Ha) Africa Yield (T/Ha) AsiaCumulative Percentage Increase 200 2.5% Asia Yield (T/Ha) Latin Amer. Yield (T/Ha) 180 2.0% % Increase / Year Africa 160 1.5% 140 1.0% World 120 0.5% Latin A 100 0.0% 80 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2008 2011
  • 6. Cassava Production Highly Variable Production Increase of Cassava in the World 360 World Production (M Tons) Africa Production (M Tons) Asia 320 6.0%Cumulative Percentage Increase Asia Production (M Tons) Latin Amer. Production (M Tons) 280 5.0% % Increase / Year Africa 4.0% 240 3.0% 200 World 2.0% 160 1.0% 120 Latin A 0.0% 80 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2008 2011
  • 7. Cassava Production in the World Proportion of Cassava Production in the World 60.0%Proportion of Cassava Production in the World 50.0% Africa 40.0% Asia 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% Africa % Latin A Americas % Asia % 0.0%
  • 8. Cassava Productivity Highly Variable Productivity Increase of Cassava in the World 40 Cambodia Yield (T/Ha) 35 Vietnam Yield (T/Ha) India India Yield (T/Ha) 30 Angola Yield (T/Ha)Yield Increase t/Ha Malawi Yield (T/Ha) 25 Malawi Cambodia 20 15 VietNam 10 Angola 5 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2008 2011
  • 9. Cassava Productivity Highly Variable Productivity Increase of Cassava in the World 450 Cambodia Yield (T/Ha) 400 Vietnam Yield (T/Ha) Malawi 7.0% 350 India Yield (T/Ha) Angola Yield (T/Ha) Angola 6.0%Yield Index Increase % 5.0% % Increase / Year Malawi Yield (T/Ha) 300 4.0% 250 3.0% 200 2.0% VietNam 150 1.0% Cambodia 100 0.0% India 50 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2008 2011
  • 10. Cassava Production in Africa Production Increase of Cassava in Africa 360 Africa Yield (T/Ha) Production : 350%Cumulative Percentage Increase 320 Africa Production (M Tons) 6.0% Africa Area (M Ha) 280 5.0% % Increase / Year 4.0% 240 200 Surface = 200% 3.0% 2.0% 160 1.0% 120 Productivity = 170% 0.0% 80 1970 1980 1990 2000 2004 2008 2011
  • 11. African Food Productivity Increase African Food Productivity Increase (%) 350 5%African Food Productivity Increase (%) 300 4% Wheat Maize Potatoes 250 3% Yams Rice Plantain 200 2% Cowpeas Sorghum Groundnuts 150 1% Millet Sweet Potato Cassava 100 0% 50
  • 12. African Food Productivity Increase African Food Productivity Increase (%) 700 WheatAfrican Food Productivity Increase (%) Cassava 600 R² = 0.9802 500 400 300 R² = 0.97761 200 100 10.8 t/Ha 15.4 t/Ha 0.9 b people 2.2 b people 0 1961 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2011 2020 2030 2040 2050
  • 13. African Food Productivity Increase Increase Cassava Indexes in Africa 1100 12.0% Africa Yield (T/Ha) 1000 426 MtCumulative Percentage Increase Africa Production (M Tons) 10.0% 900 Africa Area (M Ha) 800 % Increase / Year 8.0% 700 600 6.0% 500 400 1.9 b people 30 t/Ha 4.0% 300 2.0% 200 100 14.2 MHa 0.0% 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050
  • 14. Why Cassava? Staple food for more than 700 million people in 105 countries World’s fourth-most important source of calories Resilient to climate change and poor soils World’s second-most important source of starch for industry Most widely traded starch in the world Vital cash crop for millions of smallholders in Asia and Latin America Used in hundreds of products from flour, syrup, paper, glue, food additives, animal feed, ethanol and even beer!
  • 15. What’s in for Cassava- Yield potential- Resilience to Global Warming- Resilience to poor soils- Semi-perennial crop- Starch quantity and quality
  • 16. What’s out for Cassava- Vegetative propagation- Pests and diseases- Lack of science and technology- Lack of markets- Lack of organization
  • 17. African Food Crops Potentials 100% 90%Potential Productivity % 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Cassava Sorghum Millet Sweet Plantain Potato
  • 18. Change In suitability for Maize 2050Contrasting responses betweenmaize and cassava: 2-3oC temprises, changes in prec CHANGE IN SUITABILITY FOR MAIZE - 2050NegativePositive
  • 19. Change In suitability for Cassava 2050 CHANGE IN SUITABILITY FOR CASSAVA - 2050NegativePositive
  • 20. Change In Whitefly Populations 2050 Bemisia tabaciCurrent 2050 1-No suitability, 2-Restricted, 3-Low, 4-Moderate, 5-Optimum
  • 21. What is the Role of GCP21Global Vision for Cassava• Feed 2 billion people by 2050• World yield average of 20 t/ha• 25% of the production for the industry
  • 22. What is the Role of GCP21 To identify R&D gaps in cassava productivity To invest Science and Technology in cassava To increase funding in cassava To develop communications through a unique portal for all cassava information and expertise
  • 23. What is Essential for GCP21? To be The reference for cassava To be fully independent To be trusted by the cassava community and by the donors
  • 24. GCP21 Cassava Chain
  • 25. GCP21 Cassava Chain
  • 26. GCP21 Push-Pull Concept
  • 27. What Should GCP21 Do?
  • 28. What Are The Cassava Bottlenecks? Cassava Potential Cassava Resilience Vegetative Propagation Genetics, Diseases, Cassava Productivity Cassava Value Chain
  • 29. What Will GCP21 NOT Do?  Implement R&D Projects  Possess labs and fields  Conduct experiments
  • 30. What Will GCP21 Be?An independent non-for-profit private networking organization(Could be hosted by any organization)
  • 31. What Is the Scope of GCP21? Should be a Unique Global Independent Organization Most of the constraints for cassava are global (genetic, physiology, propagation, starch, root storage…) Solutions of problems and application are local (diseases, nutrition, varieties, processing…)
  • 32. Major Challenge for GCP21 Cassava Portfolio Scientific Working Groups Constraints Priorities Teams of Cassava Experts Experts Executive SteeringCommunication Management Committee Thematic Meetings Databases Conferences
  • 33. Where Will GCP21 Be Located? Donor Belt Cassava Belt
  • 34. GCP21 Strategy Work with CG system and USAID (and other aids) Work with NARs and local organizations Work with World Bank and AfDB, ADB, IADB Work with Advance International Labs Work with Embrapa Work with CIRAD-IRD-Agropolis Work with FAO and other UN agencies Work with China, India, Thailand, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam
  • 35. GCP21 Strategy Work with starch industry; North & South America, Asia, Europe Work with Food Processing companies Work with Feed Producing companies Work with Energy companies Work with Global Harvest Initiative
  • 36. GCP21 Strategy Work with humanitarian organizations Work with UN organizations Work with NGOs in Africa Work with all aids organizations in the world Work with church networks in Africa Work with AU organizations Work with policy makers
  • 37. GCP21 Consortium Founders CG Centers Foundations Aid Agencies Private Companies 45 Research Institutions 105 National Members2000 Cassava Scientists and Developers
  • 38. GCP21 Donors Classical donors and New donors: - GHI multinational co - eCompanies: Amazon, Google, Apple - Starch companies - Private companies - Private donors - Individual cdonors
  • 39. Cassava Productivity Surpluses >20t/Ha Food Security >15t/HaPoverty <10t/Ha Africa Latin America Asia
  • 40. A War on Cassava Viruses Virus Eradication 10t/Ha Cassava 15t/Ha Poverty Circle 20t/Ha
  • 41. A War on Cassava Viruses After one century of research and cassava improvement, CMD is considered as the first biological constraint for cassava and CBSD is now considered as one of the top ten viral diseases in the world! There is an estimated minimum number of 700 cassava landraces in Africa, and farmers are very much attached to their landraces. For the last 45 years of active cassava breeding in international and national institutes, there has been a fairly poor rate of adoption of new cassava germplasm released to the African farmers.
  • 42. A War on Cassava Viruses A key element for success of a cassava improvement crop is the rate of adoption of cassava cultivars by farmersIn parallel, GCP21 is elaborating a roadmap to collect, evaluate, clean, identify and preserve all cassava landraces, beginning with East Africa
  • 43. Cassava Mosaic Disease  Caused by geminiviruses  There are 9 species of cassava geminiviruses in Africa  ACMV and EACMV are the most important ones in East Africa At least 45Mtons not produced each year because of CMD
  • 44. Biodiversity of African Cassava Geminiviruses EACMUV EACMTV
  • 45. Outbreak Stages: CMD Outbreak – late 1980s Stage 3 –2000s Stage 2 –1990s > 4 million sq. km. 1920sCourtesy: J.P. Legg
  • 46. CMD for more than a century CMD resistant CVs: CMD1: 1930-1970s CMD2: 1990-present CMD3: 2012Transgenic plants: proof of concept CMD, first products 2016-2020 Opening the possibility to FIX cassava landraces readily adopted by farmers
  • 47. TME 30572
  • 48. TME 204
  • 49. TME7
  • 50. Transgenic 60444 Resistant to EACMVCMD1 DR2 CFT at Namulonge – 11MAP
  • 51. Cassava Brown Streak Disease  First discovered in 1935 in East Africa  Re-emerged in 2003Veinal chlorosis of leaves  Caused by 2 species of ssRNA ipomoviruses  CBSV and UCBSV Harvest can be completely lost Necrotic rot of roots for CBSD
  • 52. New Outbreaks of CBSD>50Mtons 2004 2009 2005 2005 1930sCourtesy: J.P. Legg
  • 53. CBSD re-emergence since 2003 after disappearance for 70 years Control methods CBSD resistant CVs: 1935 (Namikonga)New release of 6 CBSD resistant CVs 2012Transgenic plants: proof of concept CBSD, first products 2016-2020 Possibility to FIX adopted cassava landraces
  • 54. Namikonga Kiroba Namikonga Namikonga Kiroba
  • 55. Confined Field Trial to Evaluate Transgenic Cassava forResistance to Cassava Brown Streak Disease - 11/2011
  • 56. Production and Characterization of Product Quality TME204R TME204 Cassava Farmer’s Preferred Cultivar Selected to make the First Commercial Product
  • 57. A War on Cassava Viruses Pressure through whiteflies Climatic ClimaticConditions EACMV Conditions Synergism ACMV Pressure through cuttings
  • 58. A War Against Cassava Viruses Pressure through whiteflies Climatic Conditions Pressure through cuttings
  • 59. A War Against Cassava VirusesInvestigating new sources of resistance Resistance to Resistance to whiteflies CMD viruses Resistance To CMD Reversion through cuttings
  • 60. “Reversion”100% infected plants 0% infected plants
  • 61. A War Against Cassava Viruses
  • 62. A War Against Cassava Viruses
  • 63. A War on Cassava Viruses- Need to integrate different technologies for better control Natural resistance for inbred lines Transgenesis for cassava landraces Virus-free cuttings for other landraces- The goal is to deplete the virus load from THE reservoir: The Cassava Crop itself- Need a better monitoring system to watch for new viruses- Need to investigate new sources of resistance to the virus- Need to investigate possibilities to control whiteflies through genetic resistance/ transgenesis and IPM- Need to use cheap propagation methods for virus-free certified material- Need a strong integrated strategy to control viruses
  • 64. A War on Cassava VirusesInvestigate Virus Resistance Control Mechanisms Whiteflies Investigate Whitefly Resistance Investigate ? Reversion ResistanceProduce Virus- Produce Virus-Free IPM Control of the Resistant Improved Material Insect Vector Landraces
  • 65. A War on Cassava VirusesVirus-Resistant Material Geographical Space Virus-Free Material Virus-Free Certification System Cassava Seed Production System Cassava Productivity Improvement
  • 66. A War on Cassava VirusesInternational Improved IPM Control ofExchange of Monitoring and Whiteflies Material Virus Diagnostic SystemInternational Breeding Field Tests Virus-Free Cassava Certification ProductivityInternational Seed System Improvementand NationalVirus Control Long Term National Participation of Funding andDeployment Policy Makers Strategies and Politicians Planning
  • 67. A Collection of Cassava Landraces in East Africa 93% of the cassava landraces in East Africa are NOT in international collections They are under threat to disappear with virus diseases such as CBSD, after CMD Modern molecular breeding can make use of important traits present in these landraces that are appreciated by most farmers. Opportunity to know more about the farmer and consumer needs to improve cassava Tanzania, June 2013
  • 68. Making more user-friendly cassavaproducts to boost local economy and stabilize cassava market price  Use the Cassava Revolution in Nigeria to exemplify what can be done with and for cassava.  Use cassava in the local food products like bread, or make ethanol for local consumption  Use cassava in modern consumption: beer, coca-cola  Use cassava for feed to raise animal on farm: no investment required! Abuja October 2013
  • 69. Cassava: food and biofuel Nanning, China 2015GCP21Chinese Cassava Agricultural Research SystemChinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture SciencesChinese Academy of Sciences

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