Food Diversification and Income Generation: The Role of a Crop Utilization Specialist

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A presentation on what we have achieved and what we plan to do in the near future

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Food Diversification and Income Generation: The Role of a Crop Utilization Specialist

  1. 1. Food Diversification and Income Generation: The Role of a Crop Utilization SpecialistPresented at the Contract Review Seminar, 29 June 2010. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  2. 2. Outline • Introduction • What we have achieved • What we plan to do in the near future International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  3. 3. von Grebner K., Fritschel H., Nestorova B., Olofinbiyi O., Pandya-Lorch R., Yohannes Y., 2008. Global Hunger Index. The Challenge ofHunger 2008. Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, CONCERN. Bonn, Washington D.C., Dublin. Available online under International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.orghttp://www.ifpri.org/pubs/cp/ghi08.pdf
  4. 4. Levels and Trends in Childhood Stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  5. 5. Geographical distribution of vitamin A deficiency Preschool children X 1.5 % and VAD 15 % X 1.5 % or VAD 15 % X =0.5 % to 1.49 % and VAD <15 % X <1.5 % and VAD <15 % * serum retinol concentrations < 0.70 µmol/L or abnormal conjunctival impression cytology, and xerophthalmia (X), all active stages combined Pregnant women VAD 20 % and XN 1.5 % VAD 20 % or XN 1.5 % VAD <20 % or XN <1.5 % * serum or breast milk retinol concentrations <1.05 µmol/L and maternal night blindness, based on extant data for either or both indicatorsWest. J Nutr 2002;132:2857S-66S. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  6. 6. Population Figures for West and Central Africa Population of the 22 countries considered together will increase from current level of 417 million to 527 million in 2020 and over 883 million in 2050. By 2020, an equal number of the population will live in rural and urban areas. Beyond 2020, the urban population is projected to rapidly outgrow the population in rural areas. By 2050, 67% of the region’s population will live in urban areas. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  7. 7. The food industry in West and Central Africa• Consists of the large foreign-supported companies; government owned or sponsored, medium-scale, small- scale and cottage enterprises• The large-scale food industries are located predominantly in urban areas• They are mainly involved in brewing, beverage production, flour milling, production of complementary foods, vegetable oil refining, and bakery products. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  8. 8. Small and • Root and tuber processing, especiallymedium scale cassava and yam processingindustries • Cereal and legume processing • Baking • Fruit and vegetable processing • Brewing and beverage production • Flour milling • Vegetable oil processing • Fish and meat smoking and drying • Production of condiments International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  9. 9. Quality Characteristics (Food quality/end-user attributes)• Quality is a combination of product properties or attributes which can play a crucial role in defining end user acceptability• Properties considered: a) Organoleptic and sensory attributes b) Safety c) Nutritional value including bioavailability d) Functional properties e) Stability during storage International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  10. 10. Representative chromatograph of carotenoid extract from raw cultivarsof cassava. All trans beta carotene was the predominant species Both 9- and 13-cis isomers were present International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  11. 11. Tuber contents of total carotenoids and dry matter in genotypes ofD. dumetorum Genotype Total Carotenoids Dry matter content (µg/g fresh weight) (%) TDd 3102 27.5 27.7 TDd 2788 26.6 27.6 TDd 04-16 22.2 24.7 TDd 3776 1.2 30.5 TDd 3112 0.55 26.5 TDd 3101 5.7 24.4 Mean 8.8 25.7 SE 1.34 0.40 Range 0.55-27.5 20.3-30.5 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  12. 12. Representative chromatograph of carotenoidextract from raw genotypes of D. dumetorum. β-cryptoxanthin-5,6-epoxide β -carotene-5.8-epoxide β -carotene International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  13. 13. Provitamin A activity of yam tubers of D. dumetorum • Provitamin A value was calculated by adding – All trans -carotene (assuming 100 % activity) – ½ trans- -carotene-5,8-epoxide – ½ carotne-5,6-epoxide, – ½ cryptoxanthin-5,6-epoxide – ½ cis- -carotene. • Provitamin A activity ranged from 2.07 – 15.01 g/g with a mean of 8.92 g/g International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  14. 14. Frequency distribution of protein contents (percentage on dry matter basis) in grains of 846 cowpea germplasm lines. Protein 420 350 280Frequency 210 140 70 0 15.1-18.0 18.1-21.0 21.1-24.0 24.1-27.0 27.1-30.0 30.1-33.0 Protein International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  15. 15. Location means for ascorbic acid and phytate concentration of D. rotundata yam genotypes Ascorbic Acid Phytate (mg/100g fresh wt. (mg/100g dry wt. basis) basis) Abuja Ibadan Ubiaja Abuja Ibadan UbiajaMean 1.29 1.34 0.95 3.05 3.53 1.84Min 5.66 7.62 6.41 3.50 5.85 10.17Max 11.14 13.24 10.72 14.10 17.27 16.72Std dev 1.29 1.34 0.95 3.05 3.53 1.84SE 0.30 0.30 0.21 0.70 0.79 0.41 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  16. 16. Study Nutrient losses during processingCassava (i) PeelingProcessing (ii) Chipping, crushing, milling, slicing or grating (iii) Dehydration by pressing, decanting, or drying in the sun (iv) Fermenting by soaking in water, heaping or stacking (v) Sedimentation (vi) Sieving (vii) Cooking, boiling, toasting or steaming. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  17. 17. Maize • Winnowing to removeprocessing extraneous matter • Shelling of kernels from the cob • Steeping in water • Milling with disc attrition mills • Fermentation • Cooking (stir-cooking) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  18. 18. The need for retention studies• Nutrient intakes of individuals and populations is calculated using food composition tables• Because varieties, growing conditions, and processing methods differ in various localities• The actual content of a nutrient in a food may differ significantly from that reported in food composition tables International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  19. 19. Relative amounts of cis isomers of BC in raw and processed cassava storage roots Genotype Raw Processed (% cis isomers) Boiled Gari Fufu 01/1371 31.8 0.1 38.8 1.1 33.3 0.1 40.3 0.3 01/1412 45.2 0.3 43.0 0.2 57.0 0.6 46.3 0.6 01/1663 30.6 0.7 45.8 0.1 48.0 0.2 38.0 0.4 Relative amounts of cis isomers generally increased as a result of processing, although this appeared to be influenced by genotypesThakkar, et al. 2009. J. Agric and Food Chemistry International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  20. 20. Content and isomers of BC in raw and processed cassava storage roots per unit dry weight (µg/g) for genotype 01/1371 Product Moisture All trans BC 13 cis BC 9 cis BC content (%) Raw 82.0 0.5a 27.9 0.87a 5.0 0.18a 8.0 0.26a Boiled 81.8 0.3a 25.5 0.92a 10.5 0.42b 5.7 1.99b Gari 55.4 0.2b 14.6 0.6b 3.6 0.40a 3.7 0.25c Fufu 90.7 0.1c 28.9 0.72a 8.8 0.16b 10.8 0.21dTotal BC content was not markedly changed by boiling raw cassava for 30 min orby ferementation followed by boiling for 10 min.Thakkar, et al. 2009. J. Agric and Food Chem International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  21. 21. Retinol Activity Equivalence (RAE) for raw and processed cassava storage roots per 100g (dry weight) ProcessedGenotype Raw Boiled Gari Fufu RAE per 100 g dry weight01/1371 286.7 280.0 152.1 322.501/1412 202.9 282.5 120.4 214.601/1663 200.4 252.5 120.4 227.1Average 230.0a 271.7b 131.0c 254.7b International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  22. 22. Effect of roasting the fermented cassava at reduced temperature (165 C) for 5-20 min on BC retentionGari initiallywas preparedby roastingfermentedcassava(01/1371) for20 min at195 C. Thisresulted in theloss of 90% oftotal BC. TotalBC decreased37% afterroasting at thelowertemperature for5 min Thakkar, et al. 2009. J. Agric and Food Chemistry International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  23. 23. Percent true retention of vitamin C from sun-dried cassava chipsproduced from white and yellow-fleshed genotypes Genotype Raw storage Sun-dried % True roots chips Retention (mg/100g) (mg/100g) 07/0614 17.5 10.6 11.8 07/0649 36.1 8.8 6.8 TME 117 29.4 13.0 11.6 TME 693 30.3 11.6 12.0 Mean 22.8 11.1 10.8 SE 1.5 0.9 0.8 Range 14.5-36.1 6.5-18.8 5.8-16.4 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  24. 24. Bioavailability • In Vitro Piglet Feeding TrialIn Vitro Digestion/Caco-2Digestion/Caco-2 Cell (n=3-6)Cell Model (n=20-200) Model • ((n = 20 – 200) Human Feeding Trial, Efficacy, and Impact (n=2-3) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  25. 25. Determine bioavailability of desired nutrients in processed foods • Bioaccessibility: how much carotenoid is released from the food matrix and available for absorption. – 100% ~ all ingested b-carotene is released. • Bioavailability: fraction of ingested nutrient available for utilization or storage. – 100% ~ all ingested b-carotene is absorbed. • Bioconversion: proportion of bioavailable carotene converted to retinol. – 100% ~ all bioavailable b-carotene is converted. • Bioefficacy: efficiency ingested carotenoids are absorbed and converted to retinol. – 100% ~ 1 mmol b-carotene = 2 mmol retinol.Adapted from Tanumihardjo, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.orgS.A.
  26. 26. • 40-d old male gerbils Determine bio- 10/treatment efficacy through single meal studies • 45% white cassava feed with oil (Control), • 45% white cassava with β-carotene in oil (BC), • 45% high-β-carotene cassava #1 feed with oil (Cassava), • 45% white cassava with vitamin A in oil (VA)Howe, et al. 2009. British Journal of Nutrition International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  27. 27. Bioconversion • Bioconversion rate – assuming all vitamin A is from cis/trans b-carotene: 3.7 mg beta carotene = 1 mg retinol – Biofortified cassava adequately maintained vitamin A status and was as efficacious as b-carotene supplementation in the gerbil model.Howe, et al. 2009. British Journal of Nutrition International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  28. 28. Retinol Equivalency of provitamin A rich foods: humanstudies Cassava International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  29. 29. Complementary • Complementary foods are mainlyfoods produced from cereals and tuber crops • Functional and nutritional quality inadequate-----high viscosity, low protein content, and low starch digestibility • Use of legumes to improve nutritional quality International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  30. 30. Disadvantage of starch staples as weaning foods Poor Digestibility Essential nutrients not met MalnutritionHigh viscosity- Low nutrient density Poor bioavailability International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  31. 31. Apparent viscosity of cassava/soybean porridges measured at 40C Conventionally 100 cooked fullfat ConventionallyExtrusion cooked Apparent viscosity (pa.s) 10 defattedcooking conventionally cookedreduced the cassava 1 extrusion cookedviscosity of the 1 10 100 1000 cassaaporridges. Extrusion cooked defatted 0.1 extrusion cooked fullfat 0.01 composite Shear rate (1/s) Reference (25% soilids) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  32. 32. Starch Digestibility A-C Conventionally Starch digestibility as a function of cooked cassava, incubation time defatted composite and full fat composite 100 respectively 90 D-F Extrusion cooked% Total starch 80 Hydrolysed 70 cassava, defatted and 60 full-fat composite 50 respectively 40 30 G-White Bread 20 H- commercial baby 10 cereal 0 0 50 100 150 200 I-K Raw cassava, Time (Min) defatted and full-fat composite respectively A B C D E F G H I J K International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  33. 33. Protein quality of cassava: soybean composite porridgesProduct Protein Lysine Available content lysineE. Full fat 15.08 5.48 3.64E. Defatted 13.02 4.28 4.76C. Defatted 17.48 5.36 4.86C. Full fat 13.73 5.48 4.66Cassava 1.8 nd ndCommercial 13.04 6.99 7.79food International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  34. 34. Protein content of plain gari and gari fortified with soybeanresidue at different levels 18% 1% 32% 49% International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  35. 35. Protein (%) of kokoro produced from different ratios of maize flour (M) and Distiller’s Spent Grain (DSG) blends Product (%) Protein 100:O 10.72 0.06h 95:5 11.30 0.06g 90:10 12.20 0.04f 85:15 13.50 0.12e 80:20 15.14 0.28d 75:25 15.91 0.26c 70:30 16.58 0.13b 65:35 18.06 0.14aWasiu et al. 2010. Submitted to Int. J. Food Sci. Tech International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  36. 36. Sensory evaluation of Kokoro produced from different ratios of maize flour (M) and Distiller’s Spent Grain (DSG) blends Product Taste Appearance Overall acceptability 100: 0 2.60 1.17d 2.40 0.84c 2.60 0.97d 95: 5 2.90 0.74cd 2.80 1.03bc 2.70 1.16d 90:10 3.10 0.74cd 3.60 1.51bc 3.30 1.16d 85:15 3.10 0.99cd 3.70 1.34b 3.60 1.58d 80: 20 3.90 0.88c 3.90 0.74b 3.70 0.82cd 75: 25 4.00 1.94c 5.60 1.71a 4.80 1.40bc 70: 30 5.40 2.22b 6.10 1.66a 5.30 1.42b 65: 35 7.00 1.83a 6.50 1.84a 7.00 1.63aWasiu et al. 2010. Submitted to Int. J. Food Sci. Tech International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  37. 37. Sensory evaluation of amala made from different ratios of yam flour and Distiller’s Spent Grain (DSG)Product Taste Hand feel Colour Odour Overall acceptability100:0 3.30 2.90 2.70 3.10 3.40 95:5 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.5090:10 4.10 4.30 3.50 4.20 4.5085:15 3.70 3.40 3.40 4.10 3.9080:20 3.90 4.90 4.00 4.30 4.4075:25 4.40 5.00 4.80 4.90 5.3070:30 4.90 6.00 4.90 5.80 4.9065:35 6.00 6.70 5.20 6.30 6.60Mean 4.19 4.55 3.96 4.49 4.56 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  38. 38. Beyond the laboratory and capacity building At least 13 Training of Trainers Workshops A total of 10 IT and NYSC trained 13 fabricators trained in Cameroon International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  39. 39. Beyond the laboratory and capacity building b c a bTotal Number of farmers trained in Mozambique =2,032; Female=1380; Male =652 Photos: a-c follow up training conducted nurses from Lioma health clinic, community health workers trained in Ruace, CLUSA extension staff respectively. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  40. 40. Beyond the laboratory and capacity building International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  41. 41. Beyond the laboratory and capacity building International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  42. 42. Beyond the laboratory: linking with the private sector• A total of 24 companies in Nigeria were sampled and grouped into 2 sectors namely: food and feed.• A structured questionnaire was used to gather information on raw materials and products produced, product quality control/assurance, required raw quality characteristics, among others. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  43. 43. Beyond the  53% of the surveyed companies were in thelaboratory: linking food sector and 47% in feed sectorwith the privatesector  The main raw material is soy grain and the main secondary products are soy oil and soy cake.  Most of the companies listed unavailability of soybean as a major constraint to utilizing soybean. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  44. 44. Desired grain • Seed colorquality • Moisture contentcharacteristics • Physical appearance • Dry matter content • Uniform grain size • Low impurity • Low antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibiter) • Protein especially amino acids • High oil content International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  45. 45. Partners • Universities: Iowa State University,Institution Ohio State University, University of Texas-School of Public Health, University of Wisconsin • National universities • NARS, NGOs, CBOs, private sector • HarvestPlus Consortium • BioCassava Consortium International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  46. 46. What we plan to do in the near future • Food safety • Continue with food/diet quality assessment • On farm nutrient retention studies • Bioavailability studies and efficacy trial • Private sector partnership-quality requirements and uptake of technologies • Processing equipments International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  47. 47. AcknowledgementCrop Utilization Staff A. Menkir R. Asiedu C. Fatokun T. Hailu A. Dixon P. Kulakow M. Gedil L. Sanni B. James M. Ayodele R. Okechukwu G. Tarawali International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  48. 48. THANK YOUInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org

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