Developing New Products and Processing Methods to Increase Use of Cereals and Legumes

  • 691 views
Uploaded on

Nutritional composition for complementary foods,Nutritional and Functional Properties of …

Nutritional composition for complementary foods,Nutritional and Functional Properties of
Extruded Cassava-Soybean Flour Composites,Capacity building and technology dissemination.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
691
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Developing New Products and Processing Methods to Increase Use of Cereals and Legumes B. Maziya-Dixon and P. Muoki International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 2. von Grebner K., Fritschel H., Nestorova B., Olofinbiyi O., Pandya-Lorch R., Yohannes Y., 2008. Global Hunger Index. The Challenge ofHunger 2008. Welthungerhilfe, IFPRI, CONCERN. Bonn, Washington D.C., Dublin. Available online under International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.orghttp://www.ifpri.org/pubs/cp/ghi08.pdf
  • 3. 178 million children Under 5 suffer from stuntingPrevalence of Stunting LANCET SERIES 2008 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 4. 90% of all stunted children live in just 36Countries LANCET SERIES 2008 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 5. Complementary • Complementary foods are mainlyfoods produced from cereals and tuber crops • Functional and nutritional quality inadequate-----high viscosity, low protein content, and low starch digestibility • Use of legumes to improve nutritional quality International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 6. Soybean Soybean has a high nutritional value (protein and energy) However, it cannot be consumed like other common legumes available to farmers---it needs prior processing Main reasons of processing is to reduce antinutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitorsInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 7. Nutritional  Soybean oilcomposition – 61% polyunsaturated and 24% monosaturated fat – Contains no cholesterol  Polyunsaturated fats in the diet shown to lower cholesterol levels  Rich in the essential polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleic and linolenic (precursors to hormones) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 8. Nutritional  Soy proteincomposition – Higher in protein content than other legumes and many animal products – Quality of the protein is highly notable and approaches the quality of meat and milk – Defatted soy flours are about 86% protein and are low in moisture International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 9. Nutritional  Soy fibercomposition – Contains both soluble and insoluble fiber – Soluble fiber may help lower cholesterol and control blood sugar – Insoluble fiber increases stool bulk, may prevent colon cancer, and can help relieve symptoms of several digestive disorders International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 10. Soy’s nutritional  Poor nutrition increases the risk andvalue for people progression of disease. In turn, diseasewith HIV/AIDS exacerbates malnutrition.  Protein requirements of HIV-infected persons jump to 50-100% higher than for uninfected persons.  Soy protein and adequate calories can help to prevent body from wasting, which is often associated with HIV/AIDS.  Soy plays a role in nutritional maintenance, an essential feature of optimal effectiveness of medicine while helping to minimize nutrition- related side effects. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 11. Nutritional content of a serving of soybean productsFood Product Calories Protein CHO Fat MeasureMature Soybeans 149 14.3 8.5 7.7 1/2 cup (86 g) (yellow), cookedSoybeans, green 127 11.1 10.0 5.8 1/2 cup (90 g)Soy flour, defatted 82 11.8 9.6 0.3 1/4 cup (45 g)Soymilk 100 7.0 8.0 4.0 1 cup (245 g) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 12. Product DevelopmentInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 13. Nutritional and Functional Properties of Extruded Cassava-Soybean Flour CompositesObjective • Develop a complementary food through extrusion cooking as option to minimize viscosity and increase starch digestibility of cooked porridges. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 14. Nutritional and Functional Properties of Extruded Cassava-Soybean Flour Composites Cassava flour –fresh roots harvested at 9-11 months after planting, peeling, grating, and sun-dried -Hydrogen cyanide (5 0.8 ppm) Bradbury, 2009 method used Soy flour –sourced commercially and was toasted Trypsin Inhibitor activity (1.6 0.3) (Kakade et al ., 1969 and AACC method 22-40) Soya oil – sourced commercially. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 15. Apparent viscosity of cassava/soybean porridges measured at 40C Conventionally 100 cooked fullfat ConventionallyExtrusion cooked Apparent viscosity (pa.s) 10 defattedcooking conventionally cookedreduced the cassava 1 extrusion cookedviscosity of the 1 10 100 1000 cassaaporridges. Extrusion cooked defatted 0.1 extrusion cooked fullfat 0.01 composite Shear rate (1/s) Reference (25% soilids) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 16. Starch Digestibility A-C Conventionally Starch digestibility as a function of cooked cassava, incubation time defatted composite and full fat composite 100 respectively 90 D-F Extrusion cooked% Total starch 80 Hydrolysed 70 cassava, defatted and 60 full-fat composite 50 respectively 40 30 G-White Bread 20 H- commercial baby 10 cereal 0 0 50 100 150 200 I-K Raw cassava, Time (Min) defatted and full-fat composite respectively A B C D E F G H I J K International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 17. Consumer acceptability of a food product from maize produced using extrusion cooking Four different products were formulated using the following ratios: 1. Maize:soy:plantain (60:30:10) 2. Maize:soy:plantain (65:25:10) 3. Maize:soy:plantain (70:25:5) 4. Maize:soy:plantain (75:20:5) 5. Maize:soy:plantain (70:30:0) 6. Maize International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 18. Mean scores of sensory attributes of maize-based fortified extruded food products Product Color Consistency Odor Taste Overall acceptability 1 4.1a 3.8a 3.4a 3.1ab 3.4ab 2 3.7a 2.8bc 3.0ab 3.7a 3.3ab 3 4.2a 4.0a 3.1ab 3.6ab 3.5a 4 3.8a 2.3c 3.2ab 3.7a 3.5a 5 3.7a 3.6ab 3.5a 3.7a 3.9a 6 2.6b 3.3ab 2.6b 2.8b 2.7bMean scores with same superscripts in a column are not significantly different (P <0.05); 6= Tuwo (control) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 19. Capacity building and technology disseminationTraining ofTrainers International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 20. Scaling up of change team-Technical persons c a b Total Number of farmers trained in Mozambique =2,032; Female=1380; Male =652Photos: a-c follow up training conducted nurses from Lioma health clinic, communityhealth workers trained in Ruace, CLUSA extension staff respectively. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 21. Impact of soybean  Sample size and data collectionutilization on thenutritional status of – 14 villages randomly selected from interventionchildren 0-5 yr of age zone and 4 from counterfactuals – 486 children (326 intervention zone and 160 counterfactuals) – Intervention zone had 181 boys and 145 girls; counterfactuals had 84 boys and 76 girls – Data collection: pre-tested questionnaire; focus group discussions; and anthropometry (weight, age, and height) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 22. Impact of soybean utilization on the nutritional status of children 0-5 yr of age Most of the children [in the PROSAB NGS and SGS] were normal; did not suffer from stunting, underweight, and wasting. There was no incidence of severe malnutrition In the counterfactuals girls [0-12 months] suffered from low WFA, a manifestation of stunting and wasting, an indication of both acute and chronic malnutrition. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 23. Impact of soybean utilization on the nutritional status of children 0-5 yr of age Also girls [0-12 months] in the counterfactuals NGS were short for their age (stunted) indicating chronic malnutrition. Overall, boys had better nutritional status than girls In general, children from the PROSAB intervention zones had better nutritional status compared to those from counterfactuals. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 24. Industrial soybean  A total of 24 companies in Nigeria werequality sampled and grouped into 2 sectorsrequirements namely: food and feed.  A structured questionnaire was used: demographic, raw materials and products produced, raw material procurement, product quality control/assurance, required raw quality characteristics, production capacity, and problems encountered in using soybean and possible solutions. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 25. Industrial soybean quality requirements 53% of the surveyed companies were in the food sector and 47% in feed sector The main raw material is soy grain and the main secondary products are soy oil and soy cake. Most of the companies listed unavailability of soybean as a major constraint to utilizing soybean. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 26. Desired grain  Seed colorquality  Moisture contentcharacteristics  Physical appearance  Dry matter content  Uniform grain size  Low impurity  Low antinutritional factors (trypsin inhibiter)  Protein especially amino acids  High oil content International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  • 27. THANK YOUInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org