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rice in SSA,The challenge to introduce Asian modern rice to Africa,Strategies to introduce the new …

rice in SSA,The challenge to introduce Asian modern rice to Africa,Strategies to introduce the new
waves of NERICAS,Yield performance of submergence tolerant rice varieties in Nigeria,Germplasm Evaluation

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  • 1. Designing lowland rice in SS Africa: What have been done and lessons learned. Glenn B. Gregorio Sr. Scientist, Plant Breeder PBGB Division, IRRI Africa Rice Center (WARDA), Nigeria station IITA, Ibadan Nigeria
  • 2. WARDA station @IITA-Ibadan, Nigeria
  • 3. Rice in SSA• 9.2 m t import/yr (1/3 of world market!)• WCA: imports 40- 50% of rice needs• By 2015: 10 mln t paddy/yr extra needed Source: IRRI / WARDA (2004-2006 data)
  • 4. SSA: Rice Supply & Demand• Rice: grown and consumed in 40 countries• Demand for rice: growing at 6% per year• Per capita consumption: 30 kg/y (2000)• Local production covers < 50% of the demand• Rice imports: 6 m tons ($1.5 billion) (2003)• Severe burden on many governments
  • 5. SSA: Rice Production Status• Potential rice area: 200 m ha; < 10% only is cultivated• Cultivated rice area & yield: – Rainfed lowland: 70-80%; yield < 1 t ha-1 – Rainfed upland: < 20%; around 500 kg ha-1 – Irrigated, fully or partially: < 10%; 2-4 t ha-1 – Average for all systems: 1.88 t ha-1 Women provide much of labor for rice• Total production: 3% or less of farming world’s output of >600 m tons
  • 6. SSA: Challenges to Rice Production• Producing quality rice at competitive price – Low yield & high cost of production – Lack of HYV: with consumer-preferred grain quality & resistance to local pests – High post-harvest losses (15% to 50% in value) – Weak rice R&D capacity: 4-5 rice professionals for every 100,000 farmers
  • 7. IRRI’s Presence and Contribution to SSA• 1984-2001: Madagascar (USAID)• 1985-1996: IRTP (1985-89) – INGER (1989-96): Nigeria (Core + UNDP + GTZ)• 1988-2002: Egypt (USAID)• 1985: IRRI-IITA first regional WS on rice in ESA• 2001-2003: Biotech project – Mozambique• 1990-2005: Trained 190 African scientists• 2006: Posted a rice breeder at WARDA-IITA, Agronomist in Mozambique – Sep 2006, Rice Breeders in Mozambique and Tanzania• 2009: IRRI Nigeria move to Tanzania and form ESARP with WARDA IRRI Breeder back to IRRI-HQ
  • 8. IRRI’s Initial Focus Countries
  • 9. Uniqueness of Africa• Irrigated and rainfed areas are proportionally smaller than in Asia-applicability of rice technologies will be limited• Short of skilled people and qualified people tends to go to administrative post• Commitment of the government to research is very limited
  • 10. Uniqueness of Africa• Upland-larger area – Strong rice blast pressure, blights, weeds etc. – Drought and soil stresses – Glume discoloration – due to soil problems and fungus• Rainfed lowlands- better potential but problems are also complicated – Disease pressures- yellow mottled virus, gall midge, panicle blast, white stem borer etc. – Soil problems, drought – Glume discoloration – Underdeveloped irrigation and paddies
  • 11. The challenge to introduce Asian modern rice to Africa• The uniqueness of Africa will limit the applicability of rice germplasm from Asia• INGER method- spread the germplasm to station but only less than 10% may survive.• Rainfed technologies are not yet very successful in Asia – more complicated to transfer to Africa
  • 12. Target designs for new waves of NERICA• Resilience to drought• Fe toxicity and Zn deficiency tolerance• Salt tolerance• Resistance to African gall midge• RYMV resistance• Blast• High yield potential• Grain qualitySmart Seeds are carrier of technology
  • 13. Strategies to introduce the new waves of NERICAS• Establishment of robust/practical screening methodologies for the target traits (to screen in large scale) including molecular marker technology.• Products of rice genomics feeding in to the SSA breeding programs.• Categorize the Elite materials in terms to its potential adaptability to other areas in consideration of the environmental stresses.
  • 14. Dendrogram of 102 sub-Saharan Africa and 12 Asian rice accessions using 65 SSR markers and its phenotypic rating for Salinity, Fe toxicity, Zn deficiency and rice blast. Phenotypic rating Salinity Salinity Fe Tox Fe Tox Zinc Code Designation Source Country Blast EC12 EC18 9d 16d Def AFR-12 NERICA33 NERICA Ivory Coast SSA S S I S S R AFR-11 NERICA55 NERICA Ivory Coast SSA S S I S S R AFR-40 CHOKOTO CHOKOTO Taiwan Asia T T T S S R AFR-47 ITA257 ITA257 Nigeria SSA S S S S M R AFR-48 POKKALI POKKALI India Asia T T S S I R AFR-55 ITA 128 ITA 128 Nigeria SSA T I I S S MG-I AFR-58 ITA 150 ITA 150 Nigeria SSA S S I S S R AFR-49 NERICA22 NERICA Ivory Coast SSA S S S S S R AFR-57 ITA 230 bb ITA 230 Nigeria SSA I I I I I I AFR-56 ITA 117 ITA 117 Nigeria SSA T I I S S R AFR-52 ROK 5 ROK 5 WARDA SSA I S I I I I AFR-54 BOUKENE BOUKENE Senegal SSA T T I I S I  AFR-53 IR13240-10-1 IR13240-10-1 Philippines Asia I I I I I R AFR-50 NERICA44 NERICA Ivory Coast SSA S S S S M R AFR-51 AFR-39 AFR-6 AFR-4 AFR-13 AFR-3 NERICA66 NERICA YN2484-507-21 YN2484-507-21 BW348-1 BW348-1 IR64 IR64 AS996 AS996 BW293-2 BW293-2 Ivory Coast Myanmar Sri Lanka Philippines Vietnam Sri Lanka SSA Asia Asia Asia Asia Asia S S S T S I S S S S S S I I T T I T S S S S T T M S I I I I R R R S R S Genetic diversity of SSA rice AFR-1 IR20 IR20 Philippines Asia S S T I T S germplasm useful for AFR-7 IR31851-96-2-3-2-1 IR31851-96-2-3-2-1 Philippines Asia I S I S S R AFR-5 CISADANE CISADANE Indonesia Asia I S T S I RG-II AFR-43 IET3137 IET3137 Gambia SSA T T I I M R AFR-44 ITA212 ITA212 Nigeria SSA I S I I I R AFR-45 ITA222 ITA222 Nigeria SSA I S I I T S AFR-46 ITA306 ITA306 Nigeria SSA S S I S I R AFR-42 FARO37 FARO 37 Nigeria SSA T I I I I R AFR-41 ITA230a ITA230 a Nigeria SSA T I I S I R AFR-9 AFR-2 AFR-8 AFR-10 AFR-139 AFR-135 AFR-129 TOX3100-44-1-2-3-3 TOX3100-44-1-2-3-3 BG90-2 BG90-2 ITA344 ITA344 TOX4004-4-3-1-2-1 TOX4004-4-3-1-2-1 SUAKOKO 8 SUAKOKO 8 WAS 201-B-B-3 WAS 201-B-B-3 WAS 44-B-B-68-3 WAS 44-B-B-68-3 Ivory Coast Sri Lanka Nigeria Nigeria Liberia Senegal Senegal SSA Asia SSA SSA SSA SSA SSA T S I S S T I S S S S S S S S S I I I T T S S I I I T T T T M S M I I I S R R I R R identification and selection of appropriate parents for AFR-114 WAS 173-B-B-10-6-2 WAS 173-B-B-10-6-2 Senegal SSA S S I I S I AFR-111 WAS 203-B-B-1 WAS 203-B-B-1 Senegal SSA I S T T I S AFR-127 WAS173-B-B-6-4-3 WAS 173-B-B-6-4-3 Senegal SSA S S T T S I AFR-107 WAS122-7-5 WAS 122-7-5 Senegal SSA S S T T S S AFR-108 WAS126-1-1 WAS 126-1-1 Senegal SSA S S I I S R AFR-133 WAS122-7-2 WAS 122-7-2 Senegal SSA I S T T S S AFR-100 WAS49-B-B-9-1-4-3 b b WAS 49-B-B-9-1-4-3 Senegal SSA S S T T I S AFR-61 WAS 161- B-4-B-2 WAS 161- B-4-B-2 Senegal SSA S S I I S S breeding program AFR-60 WAS 173-B-B-9-5-3 WAS 173-B-B-9-5-3 Senegal SSA I I I I S S AFR-98 WAS19-B-B-52-4-4-1B WAS 19-B-B-52-4-4-1B Senegal SSA S S T T M S AFR-99 WAS63-22-5-9-10 WAS 63-22-5-9-10 Senegal SSA S S T T I S AFR-109 WAS 127-12-1 WAS 127-12-1 Senegal SSA S S I I T R AFR-95 WAS 50-B-B-24-4-2-4 WAS 50-B-B-24-4-2-4 Senegal SSA I S T T S S AFR-91 WAS 62-B-B-17-1-1-1 WAS 62-B-B-17-1-1-1 Senegal SSA T T T T I S AFR-82 WAS 63-22-1-1-3-3 WAS 63-22-1-1-3-3 Senegal SSA T I I I S S AFR-92 WAS 62-B-B-17-1-1-3 WAS 62-B-B-17-1-1-3 Senegal SSA T T T T I S (a) AFR-88 WAS 55-B-B-2-1-2-5 WAS 55-B-B-2-1-2-5 Senegal SSA T I T T T S AFR-97 WAS 62-B-B-14-1-4-2 WAS 62-B-B-14-1-4-2 Senegal SSA I S T T I S AFR-85 WAS 21-B-B-20-4 WAS 21-B-B-20-4 Senegal SSA T T T T S R AFR-84 WAS 62-B-B-14-1 WAS 62-B-B-14-1 Senegal SSA T T T T I S AFR-83 WAS 63-22-5-9-10-1 WAS 63-22-5-9-10-1 Senegal SSA T I I I I S AFR-89 WAS 50-B-B-24-4-2-1 b b WAS 50-B-B-24-4-2-1 Senegal SSA T T T T I S  AFR-77 WAS 57-B-B-17-7-2-3 WAS 57-B-B-17-7-2-3 Senegal SSA T I T I T R Valuable source of diversity for AFR-65 WAS 50-B-B-24-4-2-1 a a WAS 50-B-B-24-4-2-1 Senegal SSA T I I I S S AFR-90 WAS 49-B-B-9-1-4-3 a a WAS 49-B-B-9-1-4-3 Senegal SSA I I T T S S AFR-78 WAS 49-B-B-9-1-4-4 WAS 49-B-B-9-1-4-4 Senegal SSA I S I I T S AFR-105 WAS 127-B-5-1 WAS 127-B-5-1 Senegal SSA S S I I T R AFR-71 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-3-4-FKR-1 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-3-4-FKR-1 Senegal SSA I S I I I R AFR-62 WAS 49-B-B-9-1-4-1B WAS 49-B-B-9-1-4-1B Senegal SSA I S T T S S (b) AFR-63 WAS 30-11-1-4-6-2-2-2 WAS 30-11-1-4-6-2-2-2 Senegal SSA T I I I S S association mapping efforts. AFR-128 WAS 30-11-4-6-2-2-1 WAS 30-11-4-6-2-2-1 Senegal SSA S S T T M S AFR-96 WAS 30-11-1-4-6-2-2-1B WAS 30-11-1-4-6-2-2-1B Senegal SSA S S T I S S AFR-59 WAS 62-B-B-14-1-4-3 WAS 62-B-B-14-1-4-3 Senegal SSA I I I I S S AFR-117 WAS122-IDSA-1-WAS-3-WAB-1-WAS-1 WAS 122-IDSA-1-WAS-3-WAB-1-WAS-1 Senegal SSA S S T T S R AFR-93 WAS 21-B-B-20-4-3-3 WAS 21-B-B-20-4-3-3 Senegal SSA I S I I S I AFR-86 WAS 19-B-B-65-5-2 WAS 19-B-B-65-5-2 Senegal SSA T T T T S I AFR-87 WAS 57-B-B-3-1-4-6 WAS 57-B-B-3-1-4-6 Senegal SSA I S I I I IG-III AFR-116 WAS 194-B-2-1 WAS 194-B-2-1 Senegal SSA S S T I S I AFR-81 WAS122-IDSA-11-WAS-6-3 WAS 122-IDSA-11-WAS-6-3 Senegal SSA T I I I S R AFR-134 WAS122-7-8 WAS 122-7-8 Senegal SSA I S T T S S AFR-136 WAS202-B-B-1 WAS 202-B-B-1 Senegal SSA I S T T S S AFR-101 WAS173-B-B-2-1-4 WAS 173-B-B-2-1-4 Senegal SSA S S T T S S AFR-103 WAS191-8-1-FKR-1 WAS 191-8-1-FKR-1 Senegal SSA I S T T M I AFR-106 WAS122-4-2 WAS 122-4-2 Senegal SSA I S T I M S AFR-104 WAS122-IDSA-14-WAS-B-FKR-1 WAS 122-IDSA-14-WAS-B-FKR-1 Senegal SSA S S I I S I AFR-126 WAS122-IDSA-13-WAS-B-FKR-1 WAS 122-IDSA-13-WAS-B-FKR-1 Senegal SSA S S T T M S AFR-130 WAS122-IDSA-10-WAS-7-2 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-7-2 Senegal SSA S S T T S R AFR-132 WAS161-B-6-4-FKR-1 WAS 161-B-6-4-FKR-1 Senegal SSA I S I I I R AFR-73 WAS122-B-9-1-FKR-1 WAS 122-B-9-1-FKR-1 Senegal SSA I S I S S R AFR-72 WAS122-IDSA-10-WAS-6-1-FKR-1 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-6-1-FKR-1 Senegal SSA I S S S S S AFR-118 WAS122-IDSA-10-WAS-10-WAB-2-WAS-1 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-10-WAB-2-WAS-1 Senegal SSA S S T T M I AFR-120 WAS191-5-WAB-1-WAS-3 WAS 191-5-WAB-1-WAS-3 Senegal SSA S S T T S S AFR-102 WAS191-1-7-FKR-1 WAS 191-1-7-FKR-1 Senegal SSA S S T T S I AFR-119 WAS191-4-WAB-1-WAS-1 WAS 191-4-WAB-1-WAS-1 Senegal SSA S S T T S S AFR-79 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-4-3 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-4-3 Senegal SSA T I T T I S AFR-80 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-5-4 WAS 122-IDSA-10-WAS-5-4 Senegal SSA T I T T M S AFR-74 WAS 161-B-4-1-FKR-1 WAS 161-B-4-1-FKR-1 Senegal SSA S S I I S R AFR-94 WAS161-B-9-2 WAS 161-B-9-2 Senegal SSA T I I I S S AFR-75 WAS161-B-6-3-FKR-1 WAS 161-B-6-3-FKR-1 Senegal SSA I S T I S S AFR-76 WAS161-B-9-1-FKR-1 WAS 161-B-9-1-FKR-1 Senegal SSA T T I I S R AFR-64 WAS 161-B-6-B-3-1 WAS 161-B-6-B-3-1 Senegal SSA T T I I S R AFR-67 WAS 161-B-6-B-1 WAS 161-B-6-B-1 Senegal SSA I I I S I R AFR-70 WAS 161-B-6-FKR-1 WAS 161-B-6-FKR-1 Senegal SSA S S I I S R AFR-68 WAS 186-B-8-B-2 WAS 186-B-8-B-2 Senegal SSA T I I I S I AFR-69 WAS 191-9-B-1 WAS 191-9-B-1 Senegal SSA I I I I S S AFR-123 WAS 174-B-3-15 WAS 174-B-3-15 Senegal SSA T I T T S R AFR-66 WAS 174-B-5-6 WAS 174-B-5-6 Senegal SSA T I I I S R AFR-110 WAS 198-B-B-2 WAS 198-B-B-2 Senegal SSA S S T T I I AFR-137 WAS 173-B-B-4-2-4 WAS 173-B-B-4-2-4 Senegal SSA I S T T I R (c) AFR-112 WAS 173-B-B-5-3 a a WAS 173-B-B-5-3 Senegal SSA S S T T I I AFR-113 WAS 196-B-4-3 WAS 196-B-4-3 Senegal SSA S S T T I R AFR-125 WAS 105-B-IDSA-B-WAS-2-1-FKR-1 WAS 105-B-IDSA-B-WAS-2-1-FKR-1 Senegal SSA S S T T M I AFR-138 WAS 173-B-B-5-3 b b WAS 173-B-B-5-3 Senegal SSA I S T T S I AFR-131 WAS 173-B-B-9-5 WAS 173-B-B-9-5 Senegal SSA S S T T I I AFR-115 WAS 173-B-B-10-6-5 WAS 173-B-B-10-6-5 Senegal SSA S S I I S I AFR-124 WAS 173-B-B-6-4-2 WAS 173-B-B-6-4-2 Senegal SSA I S T T S I AFR-121 WAS 173-B-B-2-1-3 WAS 173-B-B-2-1-3 Senegal SSA I S T T S I AFR-122 WAS 173-B-B-9-5-2 WAS 173-B-B-9-5-2 Senegal SSA I S T T I I 0.1
  • 15. •Comparative Genetic diversitybetween Oryza sativa, Oryzaglabberima, and interspecifichybrid (NERICA) based on SSRmarkers•Validation of the salinity tolerance(Saltol) molecular markers usingtwo breeding populations
  • 16. GenesMaize (C4) Rice (C3  C4) IRRI
  • 17. New Sub1 lines after 17 dayssubmergence in the field at IRRI IR64-Sub1 Samba-Sub1 IR49830 (Sub1)Samba IR64 Samba IR42 IR42 IR49830 (Sub1) IR64 IR49830 (Sub1) IR64 IR64-Sub1 Samba IR64-Sub1 Samba-Sub1 IR42 IR42 IR49830 (Sub1) IR64-Sub1 IR49830 (Sub1) Samba Samba-Sub1 IR64
  • 18. Swarna-Sub1 in eastern UP (India) Yield comparisons 2008 2007 6 5 4Yield Swarna 3 Swarna-Sub1 2 1 0 0-5 days 6-10 days 11-15 days > 15 days Days of submergence
  • 19. Yield performance ofsubmergence tolerant ricevarieties in Nigeria One day after end of submergenceRice trial submerged for 21 days Varieties with sub1 showed fast recovery at 3 days after end of submergence.
  • 20. Swarna-Sub1 demonstrated its superiority at Submergence trial plots at 15 days after end13 days after end of submergence of submergence at IITA, Ibadan. NigeriaSwarna-Sub1 at reproductive stage WITA 4 flanked with Sub1 varieties
  • 21. Waterproof genes Sub1 submerged for 21 days at IITAFarm, 2009. %Survival Submerge Normal 21 days of d Field % YieldVarieties submergence Yld (t/ha) Yld(t/ha) ReductionTDK1-Sub1(BC3F3) 95.6 3.62 a 4.46 18.99Swarna-Sub1(BC3F3) 91.0 3.56 a 4.45 19.92BR11-Sub1 95.3 2.60 b 4.11 36.49Samba Mahsuri - Sub1(BC3F3) 94.4 2.59 b 3.94 34.16Samba Mahsuri-Sub1(BC2F3) 96.4 2.37 b 3.62 34.47CR1009-Sub1 97.0 2.21 b 3.61 29.78IR64-Sub1(BC3F3) 96.9 2.21 b 3.02 26.89IR64 21.4 1.32 c 3.19 58.46Samba Mahsuri 17.4 0.81 cd 3.83 78.73Swarna 19.5 0.64 de 4.29 85.16FARO 35 (ITA 212) 20.4 0.41 de 3.61 88.61WITA 4 4.1 0.08 e 3.77 97.99
  • 22. Replicated Yield trials in Nigeria 24 entries per trialwith 3-replicates including NERICAs and localchecksYear/Seasons Yield Range (t/ha) Mean (t/ha) RYT 1 5.8 – 2.3 4.2 2007 DS RYT 2 4.6 – 1.7 3.7 RYT 1 5.6 – 2.3 4.0 2007 WS RYT 2 4.9 – 2.4 4.1 RYT 1 4.7 – 2.2 3.3 2008DS RYT 2 4.2 – 2.0 3.1 2008WS Hybrid 5.8 – 3.2 4.2Promising genotypes distributed to SSA NARES
  • 23. 2006 WS Nigeria 2006 DS Nigeria
  • 24. Replicated Yield trials in Nigeria including NERICAsand local checks 2009 dry season Trial Yield Range (t/ha) RYT 1 5.2 – 2.9 RYT 2 5.6 – 3.0 IRRIGATED RYT 3 5.9 – 3.1 Hybrid 6.6 – 4.3 Subm 3.6 – 0.1 Submergence Normal 4.4 – 3.0 Promising genotypes distributed to SSA NARES Highest yielding genotypes are still the Hybrid rice
  • 25. IRRI-WARDA Lowland PVS• 2008DS PVS-24 April (80 participants)• 2008WS PVS Abakaliki with AGRA (150)• 2008WS PVS 24 Oct (65)• 2009DS PVS 10 March (60) Drought &SubmergenceNote: Varieties selected by farmers in DS is different from WS
  • 26. IR IR 77 38 farmers 69 4- 51 12 3- 21 IR -17 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 -S 65 -3- RN 60 1 8 0 - 80 IR 2- -81 2- B 70 UB - 5- 17 N 3 5- 1-B -2 22 -7 -1 -2 IR -1 -2 IR 6 77 - PS IR 2 77 4 5- B 6 IR 64 3B R 8 IR 77 3 5- -2 c 5 1 75 64 B-2 -2 - 0 IR 39 5-3 1- 3-9 75 5-2 B-2 2 -3 -4 39 B- 1- -1 5 B 2 0- IR -2B -1 8 -3-1 4 IR 7 -B -1 7 75 76 -1 -1- -5 IR 39 6 6 8-1 1 - - 1 75 5-2 3B -1- - 2 IR 39 B- -1 2 1 - B 2 77 5-2 -1 -3 - - 1 IR 67 B-B 8-1 3 3- 75 4-B -1 -1- -1 39 -2 8- 1 - 5- 0 - 1 -1 2- 5 2B 1- - -B 2-1 1 -5 -1 - 3 - 3varieties IR 9-2 -1 2 74 -1- -B IR 37 2 - 77 1- 1- B IR 6 54 77 7 4- BG -1- 1 6 3 IR 7 4 B-8 9 0 77 -3B -1 -2 67 -8 - 3- 4- -2- 7- 3 3B 2 -8 -20 -3 -4 -1 -1 M - PVS in Abakaliki, Nigeria Sept 2008 AT AP 4 AT O AG S TO IP WI 9 X I(FA TA 40 R 4 04 O - 4 44 3- ) 1- 2- 1
  • 27. no of farmers IR 77 67 IR 4 IR -3 77 B 77 67 -6 67 4 3 -3 -3 4- B - 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 IR B- -8 3-7 20 -2 -3 77 - 38 -1- 2-1 IR 4 2 4 77 -12 -1-3 -4 64 -1 -1 5- 7-3 2-B 3B -1 - 8 FA 21 -2 R -2- -B O 3 37 -17 (I -5 TA N E RI 306 N C ) IR ER A - L- 79 I C 2 97 A - 1- L- IR B 3 80 -93 4 4 - IR 63 B-3 76 -B IR 92 -39 78 6-5 -1 91 -1 - IR 0-2 1-4 7 3- FA 43 1-3 R 71- -3 O 5 36 4-1 (I - TA 1 comparison Ivarieties IR R 6 PS 22 IR 77 56 B R 2) 75 66 00 c 3 6 -8 5 IR 95 -3B 1-5 0 75 -2 B -12 -3- - 2 IR 395 B-1 -3-3 IR 75 -2B 8- -3 69 3 - 1- -1 51 95 B-1 1-1 3- -2 8 -5 21 B-B -1- -3 -S -1 1-1 R 9- - N 2 2 2- -1- -5 U B 2 -1 N - 1 B IR -B- IR 7 77 82 -2 4 87 IR 96 0- 79 -80 48 64 -3 3- -2- 39 2 -2 -2 -3 PVS at WARDA station, IITA (2008DS and WS) dry season wet season
  • 28. Rice genotypes preferred by Farmers and distributedDesignation Farmers remarks Dense grains and drought tolerant atIR 68 reproductive stageIR 69513-21-SRN 2-UBN Dense grains, good grain typeIR 74371-54-1-1 High yielder, very early maturityIR 77645-3B-21-2-3-10-4 High yielder and good grainIR 77674-3B-8-2-2-20-4 Long grain and Fe toxic/drought tol.IR 75395-2B-B-18-1-1-1-5-3 High yielder and good grainIR 77384-12-17-3-18-2-B Excellent vigor, weed competitiveIR 77674-3B-63-3-3-7-3 Long grain and Fe toxic/drought tol.PSB Rc 50 High yielder and salt tolerant New entries are becoming favorites by farmers
  • 29. Yield trials and seed production Potential varieties
  • 30. Edition 2, March 2009 Growing cassava in Denmark Biotech in Nigeria Banana menace Is hybrid rice the answer? CBSD: enemy number 1 Ensuring biosafety Is genetically modified cowpea safe? Training farmers using video New genomic tools Unraveling cassava’s problems Designer (cowpea) plants Biotechnology and nematodes
  • 31. % Yield Maturity Plant Yield Entry Advantage (d) Ht. (Kg/ha) vs WITA-4 (cm) IR 83212 H 5,811 27.9 126 118 Yield IR 82391 H 5,435 19.7 123 102 performance IR 82376 H 5,099 12.3 124 112 of tropical IR 83202 H 5,072 11.7 126 120 hybrid rice IR 84711 H 4,932 8.6 124 105 in Nigeria IR 82372 H 4,716 3.8 123 114 2008WS IR 81265 H 4,666 2.7 125 103 IR 78386 H 4,545 0.1 123 105 WITA-4 (CK) 4,542 0 127 126 Max 5,811 27.9 127 126 Min 3,195 -29.7 123 96Low fertilizer Rate Average 4232 -6.8 124 11065N-18P-18K CV 9.72 0.77 2.30 LSD 5% 677 1.6 4.2
  • 32. Yield performance of tropical hybrid rice in Nigeria First hybrid rice tested in SS Africa. Highest yielding hybrid (IR83212H) with 27.9% advantage Second highest yielding hybrid (IR832391H) with 19.7% advantage
  • 33. % Yield DESIGNATION Yield Advantage (t/ha) vs WITA-4 IR83202H 6.57 a 14.90 Yield IR80637H 6.52 ab 14.01 performance IR86167H 6.11 a-c 6.81 of tropical IR85466H 6.04 a-d 5.56 hybrid rice IR85471H 6.03 a-d 5.50 IR82391H 5.87 a-e 2.60 in Nigeria IR80228H 5.81 a-e 1.54 2009WS IR84711H 5.80 a-e 1.41 IR81959H 5.77 a-e 0.90 Higher fertilizer rate WITA 4 5.72 a-e 0.00 80N-25P-25K IR82386H 5.65 b-e -1.18 PSB Rc 82 5.6 c-e -2.02•Hybrid rice has higher NERICA -L-34 5.42 c-f -5.01yield advantage at low FARO 35(ITA 212) 4.38 g -23.46fertility Mean 5.54 -3.15
  • 34. Germplasm Evaluation• Evaluated 3,268 Asian rice germplasm and only 11% showed good performance
  • 35. Double the yield target in Rain-fed lowlands,and expected contributions from breeding andcrop management research in SS Africa. Germplasm 40% Manage- ment 60%
  • 36. Double the yield target in Rain-fed lowlands,and expected contributions from breeding andcrop management research in SS Africa. Germplasm Germplasm 40% 40% Manage- CNM ment Pest Mgt 60% Mech/Post harvest
  • 37. Double the yield target in Rain-fed lowlands,and expected contributions from breeding andcrop management research in SS Africa. Germplasm Germplasm Germplasm 40% 40% 30% GAP Manage- CNM 30% (when done ment separately) Pest Mgt Manage- 60% ment Mech/Post harvest 40%
  • 38. Urgent Germplasm Needed• Early maturing Tolerance to• Grain Quality abiotic/biotic• More genetic diversity stressesProblems in Germplasm exchange  Plant Quarantine- cost in seed testing  SHU Promising germplasm
  • 39. Lessons learned• More complicated than I thought• Opportunities increased dramatically in last 3-years• How to fast tract varietal release system• Policy more important than science• “Opportunity knocks when you are ready”• Be patient, patient, and patient
  • 40. More lessons• Be flexible and De- innovative signing lo- wland rice for S- ub Saharan Afri ca:What have been achieve- d and lesso- ns learned
  • 41. More lessons• Don’t get sick
  • 42. More lessons• Don’t give up 2006 April 2009 May 2009