Biology, monitoring and management of banana      aphid – vector of banana bunchy top virus             International Inst...
Global distribution of banana aphid             Pentalonia nigronervosa                                                   ...
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
Host plantsMusaceae, Araceae, Commelinaceae, Zingiberacea Major hosts Musa (banana and plantain), Musa textilis (manila he...
Life cycle of the banana aphid                                  SecondLive birth     First                                ...
Control options Very few attempts at biological control – no  serious efforts at classical biological control Discouragi...
Aphid and BBTD survey in Central Africa Distribution of BBTD,  severity, virus strains,  spread, etc. – L. Kumar  present...
Aphid abundance                           Wet season                   Dry season      International Institute of Tropical...
Aphid abundance on banana and plantain      International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agr...
Aphid abundance on banana and       plantain varieties                                                     PlantainBanana ...
Within-plant distribution of                                   banana aphid                              on banana and pla...
Monitoring aphid abundance on plants      International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agric...
Ants found on banana/plantainPheidole sp.                         (Central Africa)                                        ...
Aphids and ants co-occurrence on banana             and plantain      Χ2 = 125.3 P < 0.0001 df (1, 860)        Internation...
Natural enemies associated with the      banana aphid Few predators associated with aphid; several species of  coccinelid...
Summary and research needs Banana aphid is widespread Important in local spread of BBTV Knowledge gaps to fill:    Aph...
Thank youInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
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Biology, monitoring and management of banana aphid – vector of banana bunchy top virus

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Global distribution of banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa,Host plants,Life cycle of the banana aphid,Natural enemies associated with the banana aphid

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Biology, monitoring and management of banana aphid – vector of banana bunchy top virus

  1. 1. Biology, monitoring and management of banana aphid – vector of banana bunchy top virus International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  2. 2. Global distribution of banana aphid Pentalonia nigronervosa (source: CPC 2007)Putative area of origin: Papua New Guinea, Eastern IndonesiaLittle is known about timing invasion outside of its area of origin International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  3. 3. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  4. 4. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  5. 5. Host plantsMusaceae, Araceae, Commelinaceae, Zingiberacea Major hosts Musa (banana and plantain), Musa textilis (manila hemp or abaca), Colocasia esculenta (taro) Minor hosts (at least 14) Xanthosoma mafaffa (cocoyam), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Aframomum daniellii, Costus afer, Alocasia spp, Alpinia spp, Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom) , Heliconia, Strelizia reginae (Queens bird-of-paradise), Hedychium coronarium, Canna spp. Cardamom Cocoyam Ginger International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  6. 6. Life cycle of the banana aphid SecondLive birth First ThirdParthenogenetic Up to 30 generations per year; Fourth Around 25C is best temp Winged (1.5 mm) for growth (migrant) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  7. 7. Control options Very few attempts at biological control – no serious efforts at classical biological control Discouraging results from releases of two non- naturally associated (Aphidius colemani, Lysiphlebus testaseipes) parasitoids in South Pacific No serious attempt to develop entomopathogens Host plant resistance – not explored Several insecticides have been recommended:  Several organophosphate and carbamate  Imidacloprid – non-systemic  No option for small growers; cause secondary pest outbreaks (e.g., mealybugs) Other methods (hot water treatment of suckers?) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  8. 8. Aphid and BBTD survey in Central Africa Distribution of BBTD, severity, virus strains, spread, etc. – L. Kumar presentation Distribution, abundance, associated natural enemies of the aphid Farmers knowledge of the disease and the aphid and their methods of control International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  9. 9. Aphid abundance Wet season Dry season International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  10. 10. Aphid abundance on banana and plantain International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  11. 11. Aphid abundance on banana and plantain varieties PlantainBanana International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  12. 12. Within-plant distribution of banana aphid on banana and plantain Plantain Upper BananaCanopy strata Middle Lower 0 15 30 45 60 Aphids per stratum International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  13. 13. Monitoring aphid abundance on plants International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  14. 14. Ants found on banana/plantainPheidole sp. (Central Africa) Technomyrmex sp. > 24 ant species in 5 familiesGenus Frequency Genus FrequencyPheidole spp 77 Myrmicaria opaciventris 5Technomyrmex spp 56 Solenopsis geminata 5Monomorium spp 47 Pyramica spp 4Paratrechina spp 44 Cerapachys sp 2Camponotus spp 27 Dorylus sp 2Crematogaster spp 22 Meranoplus sp 2Tetramorium spp 20 Oecophylla sp 1Tapinoma spp 14 Plagiolepis sp 1Lepisiota spp 11 Cataulacus sp 1Unknown 9 Polyrachis sp 1Wasmannia auropunctata 6 Anochetus sp 1 International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  15. 15. Aphids and ants co-occurrence on banana and plantain Χ2 = 125.3 P < 0.0001 df (1, 860) International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  16. 16. Natural enemies associated with the banana aphid Few predators associated with aphid; several species of coccinelids Occasional aphid mummies –infected with entomopathogenic fungi – most likely a Neozygites sp. - in Cameroon and Gabon. Surprisingly, no parasitoids were obtained from aphids, but more detailed regular monitoring need to be conducted. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  17. 17. Summary and research needs Banana aphid is widespread Important in local spread of BBTV Knowledge gaps to fill:  Aphid dispersal: active, ants  Aphid diversity; association with BBTD strains  Aphid abundance and freq of viriliferous aphis Exploit variation in banana/plantain genotype suitability to the aphid to identify sources of resistance Classical biological control – search natural enemies (predators; parasitoid, entomopathogens) in area of origin – recently initiated Ant control where feasible – commercial plantation (ant baits developed but more testing); reduce aphid populations & dispersal International Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
  18. 18. Thank youInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture – Institut international d’agriculture tropicale – www.iita.org
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