Banana tissue culture: from endophytes to market pathways
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Banana tissue culture: from endophytes to market pathways

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Tissue culture production chain,Genetic basis of induced resistance: gene mining,Conventional biopesticides,Endophytes

Tissue culture production chain,Genetic basis of induced resistance: gene mining,Conventional biopesticides,Endophytes

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    Banana tissue culture: from endophytes to market pathways Banana tissue culture: from endophytes to market pathways Presentation Transcript

    • Banana tissue culture:from endophytes to market pathways Thomas Dubois 12 October 2010 Ibadan, Nigeria
    • Benefits of tissue culture pest- and disease free faster and bigger yields better marketing faster and better distribution sucker tissue culture subsistence income generation
    • Tissue culture production chainfrom the field multiplication rooting weaning in the field
    • Tissue culture production chaincommercial tissue culture enterprisefrom the field multiplication rooting weaning in the field
    • East Africa versus Latin America quality size management markets
    • Endophytes
    • Endophyte in the tissue culture production chainfrom the field multiplication rooting weaning in the field
    • Endophyte in the tissue culture production chainfrom the field multiplication rooting weaning in the field from laboratory to screenhouse
    • Endophytes pre-1997 BMZ phase I BMZ phase II 2001 - 2004 2005 - 2007 characterization of pathogenic Fusarium isolation of endophytes molecular identification screenhouse screening against banana weevils and nematodes distribution, competition, in planta spread and persistence modes of action systemic induced resistance development of inoculation techniques on-station performance on-farm performance effect on other bananas and nematodes bio-pesticides as artifical endophytes
    • Induced resistance
    • Genetic basis of induced resistance: known genes catalase PR-1 2.00 a 1.80 1.60expression (ng) 1.40 a 1.20 1.00 b b b 0.80 b b 0.60 b 0.40 0.20 0.00 Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology (2007) Paparu (PhD, 2007) Nematology (2010)
    • Genetic basis of induced resistance: gene mining ABC transporter glucan synthase 18.00 a 0.80 a 16.00 0.70 14.00 0.60 aexpression (ng) 12.00 0.50 10.00 b 0.40 8.00 0.30 6.00 0.20 4.00 b b 2.00 0.10 b b 0.00 0.00 Paparu (PhD, 2007) European Journal of Plant Pathology (2011)
    • Endophytes pre-1997 BMZ phase I BMZ phase II 2001 - 2004 2005 - 2007 characterization of pathogenic Fusarium isolation of endophytes molecular identification screenhouse screening against banana weevils and nematodes distribution, competition, in planta spread and persistence modes of action systemic induced resistance development of inoculation techniques on-station performance on-farm performance effect on other bananas and nematodes biopesticides as artifical endophytes
    • Conventional biopesticides
    • The problem with conventional biopesticides conventional biopesticide formulation problems costs and quantities involved for mass production are problematic logistically and economically not maize bran soil feasible for farmers application problems abiotic factors greatly reduce field performance topical pounded rhizomes pheromone traps
    • Conventional biopesticides as artifical endophytes? conventional biopesticide artificial endophyte costs and quantities involved for very low quantities needed and mass production are the technique is easily problematic integrated in a commercial lab logistically and economically not farmers do not need to apply the feasible for farmers product abiotic factors greatly reduce the product is protected inside field performance the plant topical systemic
    • Beauveria bassiana as artifical endophyte larval mortality: 23 - 89% adult mycosis: 58 - 64% control Beauveria bassiana Journal of Invertebrate Pathology (2007) MSc thesis (Akello, 2007) Crop Protection (2008) MSc thesis (Castillo, 2007) Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata (2008) MSc thesis (Mwaura, 2007) Biological Control (2009) MSc thesis (Thys, 2007) Acta Horticulturae (2009) MSc thesis (Schnittker, 2008) Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology (2010)
    • Endophytes in other crops 100 control F. oxysporum T. asperellum 90 80 70colonization (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 MSc thesis (Mwaura, 2007) MSc thesis (Machungo, 2007) BSc thesis (Nedela, 2010) MSc thesis (Waithira, 2010)
    • Endophyte inoculation: the past
    • Endophyte inoculation: semi-commercial type of seed tray substrate spore “double-dip” concentration timing of and volume drenching duration of drenching dual endophyte inoculation MSc thesis (Hillnhütter, 2007) MSc thesis (Hakizimana, 2011) Microbial Ecology (2007) MSc thesis (Kato, 2011) Biocontrol Science and Technology (2010)
    • Endophyte mass production: the past
    • Endophyte mass production: semi-commercial type of liquid quantity of water content of growth duration medium starter culture solid medium type of solid type of solid medium container pre-treatment of solid medium MSc thesis (Hakizimana, 2011)
    • Endophytes in the field on station on farm plants trials plants trials Burundi 800 1 0 0 Kenya 500 1 12,000 3 Uganda 2,980 7 1,600 3
    • Endophytes in the field: effect on nematode populations R. similis / 100 g (Uganda) P. goodeyi / 25 g (Kenya)70 5,000 control F. oxysporum Eny7.11o60 F. oxysporum V5w2 4,0005040 3,00030 2,00020 1,00010 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 months MSc thesis (Dusabe, 2007) MSc thesis (Machungo, 2007) MSc thesis (Waithira, 2010) MSc thesis (Hakizamana, 2011) MSc thesis (Kato, 2011)
    • Endophytes in the field: effect on nematode damage root necrosis (%) (Uganda) root necrosis (%) (Kenya) 25 70 control F. oxysporum Eny7.11o 60 F. oxysporum V5w2 20 50 15 40 10 30 20 5 10 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 months MSc thesis (Dusabe, 2007) MSc thesis (Machungo, 2007) MSc thesis (Waithira, 2010) MSc thesis (Hakizamana, 2011) MSc thesis (Kato, 2011)
    • Endophytes in the field: yield (t/ha) and revenue ($US/ha) first plant cycle second plant cycle 3,000 3,000 2,000 2,000 farmer 1 1,000 1,000 suckers control endophyte suckers control endophyte 0 0 3,000 3,000 2,000 farmer 2 2,000 1,000 1,000 suckers control endophyte suckers control endophyte 0 0 MSc thesis (Dusabe, 2007)
    • Registration of Fusarium oxysporum V5w2 as biopesticide Kenya approval from Pesticide Control Product Board (PCBP) “eco-tox” dossier: applicant, active ingredient (physical, chemical), formulation, toxicology, residue analysis registration field trial: stringent requirements Burundi and Uganda no regulatory bodies duplication of registration field trials according to PCBP MSc thesis (Hakizamana, 2011) MSc thesis (Kato, 2011)
    • Transfer of endophyte-technology to private sector Kenya: commercial bio-pesticide company transfer of technology (strain, know-how, equipment) to RealIPM comment: Beauveria bassiana and Trichoderma asperellum already owned by RealIPM RealIPM sells the bio-control product to tissue culture producers problem: licensing and profit Uganda: embedded in tissue culture company transfer of technology (strain, know-how, equipment) to AGT AGT produces its own endophyte-enhanced plants
    • BMZ (2008-2010): outputs tissue culture laboratories nursery operators farmers from the field multiplication rooting weaning in the field
    • BMZ (2008-2010): outputs tissue culture laboratories nursery operators farmers from the field multiplication rooting weaning in the fieldhelp establish regional select intervention sitesnetworks and policies strengthen nursery strengthen farmers in operators in value chain value chain assess impact of tissue culture
    • Tissue culture plant flow 1,500,000 400,000 50,000 100,000 50,000 50,000 450,000 200,000 50,000
    • Tissue culture plant flow 1,500,000 400,000 50,000 100,000 50,000 50,000 450,000 200,000 Rwanda 50,000
    • Tissue culture plant flow Sudan 1,500,000 400,000 DR Congo 50,000 100,000 50,000 50,000 450,000 200,000 Rwanda 50,000 Tanzania
    • Tissue culture producers: the ideal situation quarantine and monitoring certification procedures to prevent pests from procedures certifying the absence of entering and spreading pests, esp. quarantined ones done by governments done by governments missing: procedures and basic missing: procedures information essential elements for certification rapid and robust virus indexing protocols independent, virus-free, virus-indexed and true-to-type mother gardens independent virus-indexing capacity service regional harmonization
    • Tissue culture producers: meetings and trainings Kenya: 5 days, with commercial tissue culture producers from 3 countries Uganda: 2 days, with plant protection and quarantine officials from 6 countries day 1: practial day day 2: implementation day implemented by Lava Kumar information on thomasdubois.110mb.com
    • Tissue culture nurseries: a bleak picture role distribution hub focus centers for farmers and farmer groups 40 nurseries 28 are functional 18 somehow NGO-independent 16 have farmer groups MSc thesis (Burkhart, 2010) PhD thesis (Bauer, 2011) Tropentag (2010)
    • Tissue culture nurseries: SWOT analysis link between tissue culture producers and nurseries: NGOs are currently the major customers of the tissue culture producers most tissue culture producers have quality issues, plantlet delivery issues (quantities and timeliness) nurseries: water access, credit and transport are the major operational issues of all nurseries the location of the nurseries is crucial (proximity to tissue culture producer and market) success of a nursery is correlated to: good agricultural practice (seedling handling etc.) diversification MSc thesis (Burkhart, 2010) PhD thesis (Bauer, 2011) Tropentag (2010)
    • Tissue culture nurseries: different models Uganda tissue culture laboratories nursery operators farmers Burundi tissue culture laboratories farmers Kenya tissue culture laboratories farmer groups from the field multiplication rooting weaning in the field
    • Site location 7,000,000gross margins (Ugsh/ha/year) 6,000,000 tissue culture suckers 5,000,000 4,000,000 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 Luwero Mukono Masaka Rukungiri further away from the market 10 km 350 km MSc thesis (Dusabe, 2007)
    • Intervention sites in Uganda groups participants trainings outcomes farmer training 6 532 270 5 new farmer groups nursery operator training 2 57 28 5 new private nurseries
    • Intervention sites in Burundi groups participants trainings outcomes farmer training 5 281 207 4 new farmer groups nursery operator training 3 30 71
    • Intervention sites in Kenya groups participants trainings outcomes farmer and nursery 6 253 75 2 new farmer operator training groups 7 new nurseries
    • Training: agronomy 60 tissue culture 50 suckersyield (ton/ha/cycle) 40 30 20 10 0 low input high input Crop Protection (2011)
    • Training: the full package nursery operators farmers agronomy agronomy marketing marketing business business financing financing group formation and group dynamics
    • Training: the full package nursery operators farmers agronomy agronomy marketing marketing business business financing financing group formation and group demonstration garden dynamics dedicated market linkages
    • Training: the full package nursery operators farmers agronomy agronomy marketing marketing business business financing financing group formation and group demonstration garden dynamics dedicated market linkages cost-benefit analysis cost-benefit analysis 4 training modules 5 training modules
    • Post-hoc impact survey of 1,055 farmers in Kenya, Burundi and Uganda quantifying drivers of (non) adoption effect on productivity, income, income distribution Kenya: “We find that female farmers are more likely to adopt TC and farm size does not necessarily influence adoption. Surprisingly, we find a negative coefficient for peer group effects on TC adoption.” MSc thesis (Mukamba, 2010) MSc thesis (Musuuza, 2010) PhD thesis (Sentambu, 2010)
    • www.banana2008.com
    • Am I a good endophyte for IITA? increased yield: 22 peer-reviewed journal articles 1 edited book, 3 book chapters enhanced growth: 5 PhD thesis, 16 MSc theses, 2 BSc theses Banana2008; 30 interviews/features on TV, radio, magazines and newspapers multiple modes of action: from endophytes to market pathways
    • Thanks toStudents Partners IITAPhD: Vincent Bauer, Sinnia AGT Daniel CoyneKapindu, Denis Ochieno, BBLF Patrick EmedongPamela Paparu, Nassul Bioversity Abubaker EzaleSentambu CIALCA Stella KabiriMSc: Juliet Akello, Stefan Fred Kato ISAAABurkhart, Astrid Byron, John Kibalama ISABUJahmna Castillo, J Dusabe, Fredrick Kimuli JKUAT James KisaakyeSylvestre Hakizimana,Christian Hillnhütter, Fred Makerere University Lava KumarKato, Catherine Machungo, NARO Jim LorenzenEmmanuel Mukama, RealIPM Moses LulePatrick Musuuza, Peter University of Bonn Jane LuyigaMwaura, Olaf Schnittker, University of Gent Fen BeedJo Thys, Pieter Van University of Goettingen Valentine NakatoDessel, Bancy Waithira University of Hohenheim Salvator NkurunzizaBSc: Patrick Emudong, Joshua Okonya University of PretoriaAmelie Nedela Emily Ouma University of Stellenbosch Philip Ragama VEDCO Medat Tamale Wageningen University Piet Van Asten ZCA