Review of Potential Crop Yields in Nigeria
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This study reviews and documents available literature on the potential yields of crops such as rice,cassava,maize, e.t.c in Nigeria. The study was done with a view to shedding light on the agriculture ...

This study reviews and documents available literature on the potential yields of crops such as rice,cassava,maize, e.t.c in Nigeria. The study was done with a view to shedding light on the agriculture production possibility frontier for planning purposes.

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Review of Potential Crop Yields in Nigeria Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Review of Potential Crop Yields in Nigeria By Manson Nwafor ReSAKSS WA, IITA
  • 2. Outline• Background• Objective• Methodology• Results by crop• Summary of results• Policy ImplicationsRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 2
  • 3. Background• The Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) aims at reviving the agriculture sector in Africa through improved partnerships and evidence based policy making• It targets a minimum of 6% growth in the sector and devotion of 10% of national budgetary resources to the agriculture sector as a means of achieving the millennium development goal No 1.• Careful planning is required to achieve these objectives. A stocktaking of the factors that will determine agriculture outcomes was necessary. One of this was the scope/possibility of increasing crop yields.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 3
  • 4. Objective• the objective of the study was to review and document available literature on the potential yields of crops in Nigeria. The study was done with a view to shedding light on the agriculture production possibility frontier for planning purposes.• The study did not aim at documenting adoption rates or factors determining adoption rates. It also did not aim at documenting the factors that determine actual yields.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 4
  • 5. Methodology• Descriptive analysis and critical literature review• Over 300 publications• Definition of low, high and potential yieldRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 5
  • 6. Rice Yields• high rice yields ranged from 2.9 to 7 t/hectare and averaged 4.2 t/ha.• The potential yield (5.4 t/ha) was obtained by farmers who used improved varieties and technologies provided by the rice alliance.• In 2006 the national average yield of rice was 1.975 t/ha. This gives a yield gap of 3.43 t/ha or 173 percent.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 6
  • 7. Cassava• High yields ranged from 12.5 to 60 t/ha and averaged 24.7• the selected potential yield was 28.4 t/ha (Tarawali et al [2008]). This yield was achieved by farmers that used improved varieties under the IITA Cassava Enterprises Development Project (CEPD).• the 2006 national average yield was 12.5 t/ha. This gives a yield gap of 15.9 tonnes or 127%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 7
  • 8. Maize• High yields for maize ranged from .48 to 8 t/ha. The average high yield was 3.2 t/ha.• The yield reported by Valencia et al [1999] was selected as the potential yield. This yield was achieved by farmers working with the state agriculture development projects in 6 northern states using improved varieties and practices. They were able to achieve a high yield of at least 4 t/ha.• Comparing the potential yield to the 2006 national average yield (1.57 t/ha) gives a yield gap of 154%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 8
  • 9. Sorghum• High yields for sorghum ranged from 1.5 to 5 t/ha. The average high yield was 3 t/ha• 3.2 t/ha was selected as the potential yield. This was the average yield achieved by farmers in 14 states of the country using improved as opposed to traditional practices (FMA [1995]).• The 2006 national average yield of sorghum was 1.18 t/ha. The yield gap is 171%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 9
  • 10. Millet• Millet high yields ranged from 1.07 to 5 t/ha with an average of 2.59 t/ha.• The high yield of 2.4 t/ha was selected as it was the highest best documented yield achieved by farmers. This yield was achieved by farmers using improved practices as opposed to traditional practices (FMA [1995]). Data was collected by the agricultural projects monitoring and evaluation unit during a survey of 14 states in the country• Comparing the potential yield to the 1.09 t/ha 2006 national average yield gives a yield gap of 121%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 10
  • 11. Yam• Yam high yields ranged from 3.43 to 45.9 t/ha with an average of 19 t/ha• 18 t/ha was selected as the potential yield. This yield was achieved by farmers that participated in the National Special Programme for Food Security in 109 sites across the country (FMAWR [2007b]).• Comparing the potential yield to the 2006 national average yield gives a yield gap of 5.4 t/ha or 43%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 11
  • 12. Irish Potato• Only 2 useful publications were available.• The high yields stated were 10.5 and 30 t/ha.• 10.5 t/ha was selected as the potential yield (FMA [1995]). Data was collected by the agricultural projects monitoring and evaluation unit during a survey of 14 states in the country• Comparing the potential yield with the 2006 national average yield (7.8 t/ha) gives a yield gap of 2.7 t/ha or 34%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 12
  • 13. Soyabean• Based on 3 useful reports• The yields ranged from .64 to 2 t/ha• 2 t/ha was selected as the potential yield. This yield was obtained through the use of improved farm practices (FMA [1995]). Data was collected by the agricultural projects monitoring and evaluation unit during a survey of 14 states in the country• Comparing the potential yield with the 2006 national average yield (1.21 t/ha) gives a yield gap of .79 t/ha or 66%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 13
  • 14. Beniseed• Only one report by the Raw Materials Research and Development Council (RMRDC) was found.• As the only data available, the stated high yield of 1 t/ha was selected as the potential yield. It was based on stakeholders’ best estimate.• Comparing the potential yield with the 2006 national average yield (.63 t/ha) gives a yield gap of .36 t/ha or 57%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 14
  • 15. Melon• Melon high yields ranged from .29 to 1.1 t/ha with an average of .56 t/ha• .52 t/ha was selected as the potential yield. This yield was achieved by farmers in Akwa Ibom state who used improved technologies and technical knowledge provided by the state agriculture development project (Okpongete et al [1995]).• Comparing the potential yield with the 2006 national average yield (.42 t/ha) gives a yield gap of .1 t/ha or 24%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 15
  • 16. Cowpea• Based on 3 reports• The high yields ranged from 1.84 to 2.69 t/ha with an average of 2.28 t/ha.• 2.3 t/ha was selected as the potential yield. This yield was achieved by farmers who used improved rather than traditional practices. Data was collected by the agricultural projects monitoring and evaluation unit during a survey of 14 states in the country• Comparing the potential yield with the 2006 national average yield (.55 t/ha) gives a yield gap of 1.75 t/ha or 317%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 16
  • 17. Okra• Based on one report• The high yield obtained was 4 t/ha. This yield was achieved by farmers that participated in the National Special Programme for Food Security in 109 sites across the country (FMAWR [2007b]). Participating farmers received improved varieties, agrochemicals as well as training on improved practices and other forms of assistance.• Comparing the potential yield to the 2006 national average yield (3.13 t/ha) gives a yield gap of .87 t/ha or 28%.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 17
  • 18. Summary: Yield Gaps 350 300 250 Yield 200 Gap (%) 150 100 50 0 Rice Cassava Maize Sorghum Millet Yam Irish Soybean Beniseed Melon Cow pea Okra Potato CropRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 18
  • 19. Policy Implications• There is considerable room for yield improvement and , consequently, expansion of output (even with less reliance on area expansion). Consequently, policies which aim at increased imports as a way of dealing with supply gaps is counter-productive• It is necessary for policy makers to consider realistic yield targets when setting production targets for the sector and different crops. it would be necessary not to expect yields which are very far from practical potential yields.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 19
  • 20. Thank You for Your AttentionRegional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System – West Africa Page 20