Wild Bananas, Domestication, Extinction and Breeding Possibilities

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WILD BANANAS(Ancient group, Many species, Subspecies),DOMESTICATION,PARTHENOCARPY,BREEDING STRATEGY

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Wild Bananas, Domestication, Extinction and Breeding Possibilities

  1. 1. Wild Bananas,Domestication, Extinctionand Breeding Possibilities Ivan Buddenhagen 11/2005 Revised 9/2008 4/14/2011 1
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  4. 4. WILD BANANAS- ANCIENT GROUP- MANY SPECIES, SUBSPECIES- NOW RARE, ISOLATED- EXTINCTION ± 95%
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  10. 10. M. acuminata seedlings in the wild4/14/2011 10
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  13. 13. MUSA – 4 SECTIONS- EUMUSA (n=11)- RHODOCHLAMYS (n=11)- CALLIMUSA (n=10)- AUSTRALIMUSA (n=10)4/14/2011 13
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  21. 21. WILD BANANAS NO RESEARCH- BIOLOGY?- CLIMATIC ADAPTATION?- SELECTION FORCES? - SEED PRODUCTION - SEED DISSEMINATION - PLANTS SHORT LIVED
  22. 22. WILDS- NON - PARTHENOCARPIC- SEED FERTILE- BAT POLLINATED- BAT DISSEMINATED- BIRDS, INSECTS, MAMMALS? 4/14/2011 22
  23. 23. • Bat pollinating M. acuminata in Thailand. Photo courtesy of M. Tuttle Bat Conservation Intl.4/14/2011 23
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  29. 29. MAN’S ROLE IN EXTINCTION- MAJOR ELIMINATION OF HABITAT- EATING BATS- HARVESTING BUDS
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  35. 35. NATURAL SELECTION IN WILDS• Parthenocarpy Neutral?• Female infertility Negative• Seed dormancy Positive• Seed longevity Positive 4/14/2011 35
  36. 36. NATURAL SELECTION IN WILDS- Less height Negative- Vertical bunch angle Negative- Vertical peduncle Negative- Long fingers Neutral- Pathosystem balance Positive
  37. 37. DOMESTICATIONMIGRATION OF MAN TO: – SOUTH ASIA – SOUTHEAST ASIA – ARCHIPELAGOS – NEW GUINEASEA LEVEL CHANGESVOLCANIC ERUPTIONSLINGUISTICS4/14/2011 37
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  39. 39. DOMESTICATION REDEFINED- Jungle plant to garden- Making a clone- Using Fiber, Leaves- Migrating with clone
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  45. 45. DOMESTICATION - EXACTLY WHERE ? - HOW MANY PLACES ? - FROM WHICH WILDS ? - STILL OCCURRING ?4/14/2011 45
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  47. 47. INTRUSION- CREATED OUTCROSSING - TRIPLOIDS - AA X BB HYBRIDS - MORE HUMAN SELECTION- ADDED MORE PARTHENOCARPY 4/14/2011 47
  48. 48. PARTHENOCARPY- MULTIPLE OCCURRENCE IN WILDS- SAME GENES?- INDEPENDENT FROM STERILITY AND TRIPLOIDY- FRUIT-EATING BATS/PRIMATES POSITIVE SELECTION?
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  50. 50. PARTHENOCARPY- In some wilds?- Hardly detectable- Complementary dominant genes?- No biochemical/molecular studies- Present in balbisiana? 4/14/2011 50
  51. 51. Wild acuminata malaccensis 4/14/2011 51
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  53. 53. Segregating for parthenocarpy and Foc resistance 4/14/2011 53
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  55. 55. DIFFERENT PARTHENOCARPIC ORIGINS IN AAs?- Yes, in different subspecies - SW India - SE Asia and Sumatra - New Guinea - Philippines- Do parthenocarpic genes differ?4/14/2011 55
  56. 56. DOMESTICATES - PARTHENOCARPIC - LOW SEED FERTILITY - PURE ACUMINATA – AA/AAA - BALBISIANA HYBRIDS – AB, AAB, ABB4/14/2011 56
  57. 57. DIFFERENCES BETWEENDOMESTICATES AND WILDS »Parthenocarpy? »Female infertility »Height? »Bunch angle »Finger length? 4/14/2011 57
  58. 58. DOMESTICATION CREATED MAJOR DISEASESIN WILDS:- Little known of pathogens/pests- Some co-evolved- Co-evolution towards balance- Clonality freezes host evolution
  59. 59. HOW FOR FUSARIUM WILT?-By intrusion of clones into balanced Musa/Fusarium coevolved sites.-By intrusion of commensal Fusaria inside clones.
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  61. 61. HOW FOR BACTERIAL WILTS?-Intrusion of bananas into new- encounter situations (bacteria from other hosts) (Moko)-Intrusion of new-encounter bacteria into old banana sites (Xantho wilt)
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  63. 63. HOW FOR MYCOSPHAERELLA?- Musa co-evolved pathosystem- Clonal movement into different pathogen populations- Changing ecological dynamics- Freezing host genes
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  65. 65. THE BALBISIANA ENIGMAWhere truly native, pre-Man?Why no subspecies?Does parthenocarpy occur?Where hybridized with which A’s?Is it domesticated?
  66. 66. ANSWERS- Extensive range is largely clonal introduction- Usually clonal near towns- Clones bear empty seeds-Rare feral seeded populations derived from clonal
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  71. 71. ANSWERS- Greatest diversity with named clones: Assam N. Bangladesh- Truly native: Himalayan foothills eastward Arunachal Pradesh (+ E and W?) Burma/Thailand/S. China interface? 4/14/2011 71
  72. 72. ANSWERSNo subspecies because:- Only one wild “population” known - small area.- Not anciently evolved in separate areas.- Free breeding wilds poorly sampled/studied. 4/14/2011 72
  73. 73. ANSWERSNo parthenocarpy?- Maybe, but contentious- But, not selected for parthenocarpy - “Domesticated” for fiber/leaves - Moved by fisherfolk 4/14/2011 73
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  76. 76. Budless Kepok4/14/2011 76
  77. 77. ANSWERSDomesticated?- Yes - Clonality- But seeded, so falsely considered “Wild”
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  79. 79. ANSWERSWhere hybridized? - Balbisiana intrusion into different AA wilds and derived clones - SW India, Sri Lanka - Philippines  New Guinea - South Burma/adjacent area? 4/14/2011 79
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  81. 81. BREEDING POSSIBILITIES- They expand with understanding - Domestication origins - Wild origins - Pathosystem origins 4/14/2011 81
  82. 82. BREEDING POSSIBILITIES REQUIRE: - Exploring/Collecting of wilds - Connecting clonal A’s to wilds - Screening wilds properly - Screening AA diploids properly 4/14/2011 82
  83. 83. BREEDING STRATEGY- NEW APPROACH- LEAVE EXISTING TRIPLOIDS EXCEPT AWAK- USE CLONAL DIPLOIDS- AND4/14/2011 83
  84. 84. RESYNTHESIZE- From original wilds- Find them- Rescreen for R first- Rehybridize4/14/2011 84
  85. 85. CREATE ENTIRELY NEW BANANAS ?- Find more BBs - Select & Screen- Find more AAs - Select & Screen4/14/2011 85
  86. 86. RE-HYBRIDIZE - Best AAs and BBs to ABs - Double to ABAB - Double to AAAA/BBBB - Create TRIPLOIDS4/14/2011 86
  87. 87. BETTER BREEDING REQUIRES:- Broader germplasm base- Better exchange of germplasm- Wider horizons of possibilities 4/14/2011 87
  88. 88. Best Banana in myGermplasm Collection 4/14/2011 88

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