Baseline constraints analysis and research needs for cocoa and other tree systems

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Analysis and research on issues such as rehabilitation,ipm, and quality of cocoa in relation with other tree systems as well as its institutional issues. "Cassava and plantains are most widespread and economically important staples in food belt. Need to bring these crops along with cocoa."Jim Gockowski

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Baseline constraints analysis and research needs for cocoa and other tree systems

  1. 1. Baseline Constraints Analysis and Research Needs for Cocoa and Other Tree Systems Planning Meeting of the Horticulture and Tree Crops Program, November 24, 2009
  2. 2. Cocoa--Background <ul><li>Most important cash crop in humid forest zone of Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon. In 2008/2009 the West African farm gate receipts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1.2 billion in RCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$700 million in Ghana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$500 million in Nigeria and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$400 million in Cameroon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Government revenues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$1 billion in RCI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$650 million in Ghana </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Output has grown by roughly 4% in last 20 years in West Africa but yields have grown by less than 1%. </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa is among the principal drivers of deforestation in West Africa. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Low Productivity <ul><li>Yields (KG/HA) decline over time </li></ul>OLD COCOA REGION NEW COCOA REGION 593 378 Cameroon 558 361 Nigeria 490 200 Cote d’Ivoire 433 421 Ghana
  4. 4. <ul><li>Research Thrust One Rehabilitation </li></ul>
  5. 5. Old tree stocks <ul><li>Median age above 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>Use of land races </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional seed production and distribution systems </li></ul><ul><li>Limited development of clonal varieties </li></ul><ul><li>No diffusion of clonal material </li></ul><ul><li>Too much shade </li></ul><ul><li>Average height of trees hampers management </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cocoa genetics <ul><li>Traditional recurrent breeding programs </li></ul><ul><li>Perennial tree crop with 7 to 8 years to establish trial results </li></ul><ul><li>State-owned seed gardens for multiplication very inefficient, not upgraded, most with varieties developed in the 60s. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant investment by private sector (Mars) and public sector (USDA and CIRAD) in genome sequencing and MAS </li></ul><ul><li>Investments in somatic embryogensis by Nestle’s </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual germplasm conservation strategy coordinated by CACAONET http://www.cacaonet.org/ created Global Strategic Active Collection (GSAC) as a dynamic and dispersed collection composed of accessions that are in the public domain and with combinations of characteristics of immediate value to breeders. Of 247 accessions only 26% in 2 or more locations. 100 accessions in prebreeding collection </li></ul><ul><li>70% of cocoa output from WCA but no international genebank in the region </li></ul>
  7. 7. Soil fertility <ul><li>Old cocoa growing areas typically show declining yields. Little fertilizer used in sector. </li></ul><ul><li>In areas where there is some use there is usually only one recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Cassava and plantains are most widespread and economically important staples in food belt. Need to bring these crops along with cocoa. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Timber, fruit tree, plantain, cassava associations <ul><li>Cocoa Livelihoods Program to plant 18,500 ha of improved cocoa with trees </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa Livelihoods Program to plant 18,500 ha of improved cocoa with improved cassava and plantains </li></ul>
  9. 9. B. Research Thrust Two IPM and quality
  10. 10. Pest and Disease <ul><li>Black pod disease up to 90% losses w/ Phytophthora megakarya; 10-30% w/ P. palmivora </li></ul><ul><li>Capsids/mirids up to 25 % losses attacks pods </li></ul><ul><li>Cocoa swollen shoot virus (badnavirus)—requires uprooting of infected tree. Seemed dormant up until recently, is getting to be a real problem in RCI, Ghana, Togo and Nigeria. COPAL has called for a regional research effort. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Quality standards/food safety/pesticide residues <ul><li>New EU minimum residue levels </li></ul><ul><li>Ochratoxin and aflatoxin can be high </li></ul><ul><li>Free fatty acids and polyphenols </li></ul>
  12. 12. Institutional issues <ul><li>Lack of extension services </li></ul><ul><li>Undeveloped fertilizer markets </li></ul><ul><li>Seed distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Credit markets </li></ul><ul><li>Land tenure </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sources of Productivity Innovations Sources of Marketing and financial innovations Sources of Diversification & Cocoa Agroforestry Innovations Farmer beneficiaries Extension services NGOs Farm suppliers Farmer organizations Exporters Buying agents Financial institutions STCP Innovation Platform STCP Innovation Platform Innovation Testing and Validation, Integrated Production and Marketing Approach Policy and Impact Analysis, Institutional Analysis of Scaling Out, Research on Innovation Pathways and Knowledge Delivery Systems, Stakeholders

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