Can you see the Elephant? - Ron Ross

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Can you see the Elephant? - Ron Ross

  1. 1. Challenging Business Analysts: Can You See the Elephant?by Ronald G. RossCo-Founder & Principal, Business Rule Solutions, LLCBRSolutions.comExecutive Editor, Business Rules JournalBRCommunity.com References: Business Rule Concepts (3rd Edition), Ronald G. Ross, 2009, BRSolutions.com Principles of the Business Rule Approach Ronald G. Ross, Addison-Wesley, 2003Business Rule Solutions, LLCThe Business Rule Technique Company 1 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. About Ronald G. Ross Ronald G. Ross is Co-Founder and Principal of Business Rule Solutions, LLC (BRSolutions.com). BRS provides workshops, consulting, publications, and methodology supporting business analysis, business rules, business vocabulary, decisioning, and rule management. His popular public seminars, the first on business rules (starting 1996) and the longest-running in the industry, are given through AttainingEdge in North America and IRM-UK in Europe. Mr. Ross co-develops ProteusR, BRS’s landmark methodology, featuring numerous innovative techniques including the popular RuleSpeakR (free on RuleSpeak.com, now also in Spanish, German and Dutch). These are the latest offerings in a 35-year career that has consistently featured creative, business- driven solutions. Mr. Ross is also Executive Editor and regular columnist of BRCommunity.com and its flagship on-line publication, Business Rules Journal. Sponsored by BRS, BRCommunity.com is a non-commercial vertical community for professionals working in the field. Mr. Ross was formerly Editor of the Data Base Newsletter from 1977 to 1998.Mr. Ross is recognized internationally as the “father of business rules.” He has served as Co-Chair of the annualBusiness Rules Forum Conference since 1997. He was a charter member of the Business Rules Group (BRG) inthe 1980s, and an editor of the two landmark BRG papers, “The Business Motivation Model: Business Governancein a Volatile World” (2000, revised 2005, 2007) and the “Business Rules Manifesto” (2003). He is also active inOMG standards development for business rules and business models, including SBVR.Mr. Ross (RonRoss.info) is the author of eight professional books. His newest are: Business Rule Concepts (2009),a third edition of his popular, easy-to-read handbook, and Principles of the Business Rule Approach, Addison-Wesley (2003). An earlier work, The Business Rule Book (1994, 1997), was the seminal work in the field. Mr.Ross received his M.S. in information science from Illinois Institute of Technology, and his B.A. from Rice U. Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 2 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Can You See The Problem? what you need to run business operations day-in and day-out Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 3 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Can You See The Problem?Manager’s LamentLarge Health Care Organization 24 person-years per year to maintain a 30-yearold monolithic COBOL legacy system. 400 person-days over a 4-month period to make changes tobusiness rules of ‘moderate’ complexity.“Truth be told, we work for our legacy systems, not the business.”“Our business leads are so familiar with the limitations of our legacysystems, they don’t even consider business innovations they know fromexperience to be difficult for the system to handle … Sometimes Iwonder if they can even think through innovation effectively any more.” Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 4 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Can You See The Problem? Business Process / Value Chain organize prepare formalize raw to do the material do results Guidance Sphere Business policies Business rules Guidelines Instruction points and suggestions Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 5 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Can You See The Problem? Laws,Product/Service Business Regulations,Rules & Guidelines Policies Agreements, & Contracts Program Procedure Manuals, Code Reference Documents & “Help” Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 6 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Can You See The Problem? Laws,Product/Service Business Regulations,Rules & Guidelines Policies Agreements, & Contracts Program Procedure Manuals, Code Reference Documents & “Help” Problems … No single sourcing Stove-pipe semantics “Governance, compliance Lack of traceability and consistency are all a Erratic, disorganized feedback function of correct rules.” Un-agile business Steve Hendrick - Keynote Business Rules Forum 2009, Las Vegas Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 7 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Developing Business Capabilities vs. IT Systems Senior Software Engineer: “Use cases (in the classic definition) contain quite high-level information and do not drill down to the level of the business rules.” Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 8 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Developing Business Capabilities vs. IT Systems Functional Requirement: a requirement that defines a function of a software system … what a system is supposed to accomplish Use Case: a description of a system’s behavior as it responds to a request from the outside … Use cases are used to capture a systems behavioral requirements Non-Functional Requirement: a constraint imposed on the design or implementation of a system (such as performance requirements, security, or reliability) Wikipedia Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 9 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Developing Business Capabilities vs. IT SystemsMind Experiment:If you threw away all thesystems and had to dothe business by hand, what you needwhat would you need? to run business operations day- in and day-out Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 10 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Developing Business Capabilities vs. IT Systems what you need to run business operations day- in and day-out business processes (the doing zone) Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 11 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Developing Business Capabilities vs. IT Systems business rules (the knowing zone) what you need to run business operations day- in and day-out business processes (the doing zone) Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 12 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. About Business RulesThis is not a (business) rule … If ACT-BL LT 0 then set OD-Flag to ‘yes’.This is a business rule … An account must be considered overdrawn if the account balance is less than $0. Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 13 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. About Business Rules “The really rapid change is in the rules … not in the processes.” “If you separate the rules, you can develop remarkably stable processes.” Roger T. Burlton Chair, Business Process Forum, BBC 2010 Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 14 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. About Business RulesIt’s Your Choice … Rule #3 Rule #2 Rule #4 Rule #5 Program Code Rule #1 Business Rules e n g in Rule E E) (B R General Rulebook System (GRBS) ‘Black Box’ ‘White Box’ Development Development Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 15 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. About Business Rules “Business rules are fundamental to an organization.” “Business analysts need a consistent, repeatable approach to dealing with business rules.” Kathleen Barret Chair, Business Analysis Forum, BBC 2010 CEO, IIBA From: Business Rules Journal, www.BRCommunity.com, October, 2010. Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 16 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. About Business RulesOne Organization’s AchievementFinancial Services – Credit Card Fraud DetectionBusiness Set-Up Suspicious transactions kicked out to fraud specialists for manual inspection. Fraud specialists are an expensive and largely non-scalable resource.Scenario The bad guys pick up and move shop from Idaho to Manhattan. Transactions deemed suspicious by zip code yield a 10x increase in volume. Additional selection criteria (e.g., location of store, type of store, frequency ofuse, size of transaction, etc.) introduced to keep the volume of kick-outsrelatively constant.Achievement Before rules engine … elapsed time: 30-60 days. After rules engine … elapsed time: 3-6 days. Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 17 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Where Do Business Rules Come From? Example: eBook Contract Business Rules The following guidance (business rules) (7b) eDistributor shall either remit to Publisher, or issue a credit in Publishers is embedded in the Agreement: favor, subject to Minimum Monthly Remittance Amount thresholds determined by eDistributor (e.g., $150), balance due by Electronic Funds Transfer ("EFT") no later(1b) Publisher hereby appoints eDistributor in those Countries listed than forty-five (45) days following the close of the previous Monthly Sales Period.… as its non-exclusive agent for the sale and delivery of eBooks (7c) Payment shall be made in the Currency set forth for the applicable Countrythrough the Online Store, on Publishers behalf, to end-users for theirpersonal, non-commercial use (8a) No later than forty-five (45) days following the end of each Monthly Sales Period, eDistributor will make available to Publisher a sales report(1e) eDistributor will market and solicit to end-users, and obtain and (3b) Publisher shall (8e) eDistributor shall withhold any taxes, duties, charges or levies on paymentsfulfill orders for, eBooks on Publishers behalf, including delivery ofcopies of Previews for free to potential eBook customers provide and make by eDistributor to Publisher … and eDistributor shall remit any such withholding to the appropriate tax authority(1p) eDistributor will provide receipts for the purchase price payableby end-users for eBooks available New Releases (10b) Publisher shall provide an appropriate copyright notice in the Content File …(3b) Publisher shall provide and make available New Releases to to eDistributor on the which eDistributor shall display for each eBook.eDistributor on the same day and date as Publisher makes any NewRelease otherwise available to end-users in any format, including same day and date as (10d) In the event of a security breach of the Online Store servers such that unauthorized access to Publisher Content becomes available, eDistributor willphysical copies. disable all access to such serversPublisher makes any or destroy content on such servers within twenty-four (24) hours. (12c) eDistributor shall maintain complete Release otherwise and New records regarding sales of eBooks(3e) Publisher shall deliver Content Files to eDistributor, atPublishers expense, in the Delivery Format and using the DeliveryMethod reasonably specified by the eDistributor available to end-users proceeds payable to Publisher for at least three (3) years(3f) Publisher shall not include any digital watermark or similar (13a) For New Release hardcover titles, Publisher shall determine in its discretiontechnologies in the Content File a Customer Price not greater than theany format, including in Maximum Customer Price for the given(6b) For sales of eBooks, eDistributor shall be entitled to a Country and Pricing Tier. physical copies.commission of thirty percent (30%) of the Customer Price payable (13c) For all books published in mass market or trade paperback with a list priceby eBook purchasers net of any and all taxes collected of $22.00 or less, the Customer Price set by Publisher shall not be greater than $9.99 during the first twelve (12) months after publication in those formats.(6d) eDistributor shall be entitled to a commission on the delivery ofany eBook to any eBook purchaser, even if eDistributor is unable to (13f) All prices set by Publisher hereunder for any eBooks must be in dollarcollect the Customer Price for that eBook from that eBook purchaser. increments that end in "--.99," except if Publisher sets the price at $0 (i.e., free).(6f) The “Sale” of an eBook shall occur when an eBook is first (15c) End-users acquiring eBooks may use eBooks on up to five (5) Transferdelivered Business Rule Solutions, LLC to an end-user. Devices and an unlimited number of Non-Transfer Devices at the same time The Business Rule Technique Company 18 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Where Do Business Rules Come From? Example: What is the maximum Outcome Restriction: eBook Contract price allowed for an eBook? A Maximum eBook Price over $1.00 must end in 99 cents. Decision Table Publisher’s Hardcover Maximum eBook Price The pricing rules in the decision table List Price opposite are included in the Agreement. $0 $0 100% of Publisher’s $0.01 to $4.99 Hardcover List Price 75% of Publisher’s $5.00 to $9.99 Hardcover List Price $10.00 to $19.00 $9.99 $19.01 to $25.00 $11.99 $25.01 to $28.00 $12.99 $28.01 to $30.00 $13.99 $30.01 to $35.00 $14.99 Reference: $35.01 to $40.00 $15.99 Decision Analysis Using Decision Tables and Business Rules, by Ronald G. Ross, 2010, $40.01 to $45.00 $16.99 76 pp., in-depth white paper, free on http://www.brsolutions.com/b_decision.php $45.01 to $70.00 $19.99 $70.00 and over 40% of Publisher’s Hardcover List Price Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 19 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Where Do Business Rules Come From? Example: eBook Contract Vocabulary Terms shall have the following meanings eCONNECT means the proprietary content and account management tool for purposes of this Agreement: known as eConnect, made available by eDistributor to Publisher during the Term.ARTWORK means book covers, photos, drawings, and illustrations NEW RELEASE means any adult trade fiction or nonfiction book during theassociated with Publisher Content, including any artwork that is seven (7) month period following its first publication in any format.included in copies of Publisher Content in digital format, and which ONLINE STORE means the electronic eBook store owned or controlled byhas been provided by or on behalf of Publisher to eDistributor. All eDistributor or an eDistributor affiliate.Artwork provided to eDistributor shall have been cleared foreDistributors use for the purposes of performing its functions under eBOOK means an PREVIEW means an excerpt from each item of Publisher Content (e.g., the firstthis Agreement. chapter or 10% of the book) used to promote the corresponding Publisher individual Content File Content, as selected by Publisher in the metadata. The Parties agree thatCOMMISSIONAIRE means that a non-risk bearing agent acts in itsown name but on the account of a principal. containing Publisher Previews need not be protected using the Security Solution or be subject to any content usage rules other than limited for personal, non-commercial use. PUBLISHER CONTENT meansContent, Artwork, InsertCONTENT FILE means a digital file comprising at least an item of publishable textual and graphical book contentPublisher Content, associated Artwork, metadata and/or Insert owned or controlled by Publisher cleared for distribution in digital form.Content and Extras. Content (if any), Extras PUBLISHER MATERIALS means, collectively, all materials furnished by or on behalf of Publisher to eDistributor in any) and metadata in (if furtherance of its appointment, includingCUSTOMER PRICE means the price displayed to the end-user on theOnline Store, as set and designated by Publisher for each eBook. any Publisher Content, Artwork, metadata, Insert Content, Previews and anyeBOOK means an individual Content File containing Publisher extra bonus-type text, audio, video form authorized by a or audio-visual content (“Extras”).Content, Artwork, Insert Content (if any), Extras (if any) and metadatain a form authorized by Publisher for download on the Online Store. Publisher for download SECURITY SOLUTION means eDistributors proprietary digital rights management solution marketed as “eSecurity”.Each eBook available for sale hereunder will be designated by itsInternational Standard Book Number (ISBN) in the metadata. on the Online Store. TERM means the period beginning on the Effective Date and continuing for one year followed by automatic monthly renewal periods, unless terminated pursuantENHANCED eBOOK means an eBook which is in some way to Section 15 or, after the first anniversary of the Effective Date, for any or nodifferentiated from the standard version of the eBook delivered by reason by either Party upon advance written notice of not less than thirty (30)Publisher. An enhanced eBook may or may not be primarily intended days.to be used for the reading of text. TERRITORY means those countries set forth in Exhibit A. For the sake of clarity,INSERT CONTENT means promotional content provided by or on Publisher shall select the particular countries in which eDistributor may makebehalf of Publisher and associated with Publisher Content, such as eBooks available, on a title-by-title basis, using eConnect or via other technicalbook reviews, author bios, forewords and similar content. Business Rule Solutions, LLC means provided and approved by eDistributor. The Business Rule Technique Company 20 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. What the Business Rule Approach is AboutWhat Not To Do … SDLC Program Code Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 21 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. What the Business Rule Approach is About1. Separation of FunctionalityBusiness Rules Deliveredfrom FunctionalRequirements ne Rule Engi Rule RE) Repository (B Decision Logic tion Business Workers plica m Ap f or IT Plat Functional Requirements & Use Cases Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 22 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. What the Business Rule Approach is About2. Business RulesPushed Out Toward Functionality DeliveredBusiness Workers ne Engi General Rule RE) Rulebook (B System (GRBS) Decision tion plica m Logic Business Workers Ap f or IT Plat Functional Requirements & Use Cases Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 23 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. What the Business Rule Approach is About3. Liberation ofBusiness Rules Softwarefrom the Software Release CycleRelease Cycle ne Engi General Rule RE) Rulebook (B System (GRBS) Business Rule tion Business Workers Life Cycle plica m Ap f or IT Plat Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 24 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Can You See the Elephant?Three Questions with the Same AnswerWhat is the difference between … Requirements and business rules? Project management and business governance? Agile in software and agile in business? Software ReleaseSoftwareDevelopment Business Rules IT Business Workers Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 25 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Can You See the Elephant?What Traceability Does the Business Need? Governing Rules Managing the Business Practicable Business Rules Operating the Business Running the Automated Systems Rules Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 26 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Can You See the Elephant? “govern” 1a: to exercise arbitrarily or by established rules continuous sovereign authority over; especially: to control and direct the making and administration of policy in So ‘governing’ involves how policy and rules are … created (“made”). deployed (managed, distributed and monitored) within day-to-day operations (“administration”).“business governance”… a process, systematic approach, organizational From: Merriam-Websterfunction, and set of techniques Unabridged Dictionary (emphasis added)… for creating and deploying business policy andbusiness rules into day-to-day business operations Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 27 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  28. 28. Business Rules and Business StrategyHow Does a Business Achieve True Success? By knowing clearly what its ends are … End … vision, goal or objective* … That means business strategy By setting business policies accordingly … Business Policy … “business rule in the making” … To ensure alignment of business processes with strategy* Reference - The Business Motivation Model: “Any customer can have a car painted any Business Governance in a Volatile World, color that he wants so long as it is black.” by the Business Rules Group, www.BusinessRulesGroup.org Henry Ford (1863-1947) My Life and Work (1922), Chapter IV Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 28 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Challenging Business Analysts: Summary See the Elephant?! ~~ Thank You! Business Rule Solutions, LLC The Business Rule Technique Company 29 Copyright, BRS. All rights reserved.

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