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Health & Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) 101

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International Helicopter Safety Team (IHST) workshop presentation from HeliExpo 2013

International Helicopter Safety Team (IHST) workshop presentation from HeliExpo 2013

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  • Agenda includes an introduction to the IHST, a discussion on the “need” for improved safety equipment/programs based on the US Joint Helicopter Safety ANALYSIS Teams recommendations, the Joint Helicopter Safety IMPLEMENTATION’s charge to implement these rec’s (Toolkits, education, mentorship, etc.) and a review of operators combining HUMS and HFDM programs under “one roof.”
  • Introduce the HUMS Toolkit – currently being reviewed by the IHST Executive Committee, will be released by HeliExpo 2013 – Las Vegas.
  • Brief overview of the content – all chapters displayed.
  • Discussion on the Appendix sections such as reference docs (CAA, FAA, etc.), equipment providers and actual case studies.
  • Visit IHST.org to download the latest IHST Toolkits.
  • Transcript

    • 1. HUMS 101Heli-ExpoMarch 4, 2013 HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 1 March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 2. D.B. “Danny” Green US JHSIT HFDM, HUMS IWG Member, HUMS Reporting Member of the HAI Technical Committee, IHST HeliShareHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 2March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 3. Rules of the road• It’s a workshop: Participate, ask questions, interact, network, laugh at my jokes and bail me out when I get in over my head.• Be nice I’m doing this for free.• If “what happens in Vegas stays in Vegas” I’m wasting our time here. My goal is for you will leave today having gained some additional knowledge and information on CBM for use in the operational safety and maintenance of your fleet.• The IHST does not endorse any commercial products or services.• Have Fun!HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 3March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 4. Welcome To Las Vegas What to Expect Today What not to Expect Today • HUMS Terminology • Sales Pitch (I’m only selling proven • Life Lessons concepts not endorsing products) • Tricks of the trade • Extensive Vibration Training – A Perfect Storm • Engineering, Theory and or Scientific – How do we do it? Debates • Equipment Offerings – References • Interactive Case Studies • Q&A • Free Beer as soon as I’m done!HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 4March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 5. Current Responsibilities  HUMS Manager (Aviation Vibration Data Analyst)  17 VHM (Honeywell VXP), 2 HUMS (BHT BHVMS)  HFDM Analyst  16 (Appareo Vision 1000)  HFDM Engineer  Manage Tool Calibration Program  Lean Six Sigma (Black Belt) Project Facilitator  RCA Team Member  Fleet Size approximately 35 aircraftHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety TrackMarch 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV 5 5
    • 6. The Basics of Vibration MonitoringHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 6March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 7. HUMS/CBM BenefitsCBM has some Benefits over scheduled maintenance:•Improved system reliability•Enhanced Safety•Decreased maintenance costs•Increased Readiness•Operation and Support cost benefits•Reduction of human error influences.•Other Intrinsic Benefits: •Increased pilot confidence •The ability to monitor health of an entire fleet, regardless of physical location • As the program matures, the potential to predict when certain faults will occur, based on historical data and specific aircraft data •The ability to more effectively plan maintenance actions over the long-termReference the IHST HUMS Toolkit (IHST.ORG) for complete details HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 7 March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 8. HUMS Terminology Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS): Equipment, techniques, and procedures by which selected aspects of service (Usage) history can be determined in addition to the vibration monitoring of a typical VHM system . Simply put, HUMS is a VHM system that taps into flight and engine data through the use of the aircrafts’ “black boxes” thus providing a more comprehensive look @ the data. Vibration Health Monitoring (VHM): Use of data generated by processing vibration signals to detect incipient failure or degradation of mechanical integrity. A VHM system typically comprises of, vibration sensors and associated wiring, data acquisition and processing hardware, the means of downloading data from the helicopter, the ground station, and all associated instructions for operation of the system (strictly an external vibration monitoring system).HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 8March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 9. CBM VS PdM • Condition Based Maintenance (CBM): Simply described, as maintenance when need arises. This maintenance is performed after one or more indicators show that equipment is going to fail or that equipment performance is deteriorating. • Predictive Maintenance (PdM): In my humble opinion, the exact same as condition based maintenance i.e. using various technologies and methods along with prescribed preventative maintenance schedules to make intelligent advanced maintenance decisions.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 9March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 10. Before you startIdentify detailed requirements:• Benefits vs. Cost• Available Equipment – VHM, HUMS – T.C., STC – Carry-On START HERE• Required Personnel ISHT.ORG – Analyst – Maintenance Support – I.T. Support• In-House or Contract Analysis• Regulatory Requirements• Contractual Requirements• I.T. requirements• Training Requirements HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 10 March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 11. The latest IHST Toolkit: HUMS Jason Alamond Lance Antalock Terese HastyHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 11March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 12. Content developedby leadingindustry HUMSexperts.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 12March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 13. Resources includereference materials, alisting of equipmentproviders and actual casestudies. HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 13 March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 14. IHST.ORG DATA TOOLS PRESENTATIONS VIDEOS NEW !!! TRAINING FACT SHEETSHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 14March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV 14
    • 15. Life Lessons Learned from a HUMS Analyst1) If you are going to fly around with the added weight and cost of the equipment…USE IT!2) Weekly downloads are insufficient for timely and accurate analysis. – Daily is preferred but between flights is becoming regular practice in some operations due to the length of flights.3) Communicate, Communicate, Communicate – Pilots, mechanics, dispatchers, written reports, i.e. logsheets, inspection forms AOCRs follow the clues.4) Be curious, be nosey, be a pain in the butt, ask why 5 times, just get the answers (we’re talking CSI stuff here)!5) Being wrong is okay, being scared of being wrong is not. Humility while painful, could cost or save lives!6) When in doubt seek a higher power (someone has probably seen it before) paralysis through analysis is unacceptable!D.B. “Danny “ GreenHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 15March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 16. Tools/Tricks of the Trade • Vibration Monitor Data • Vibration Spectrum Data • Vibration Signature Data • Logsheets, Inspection Forms, AOCRs • Trending • Limits/Rate of Change • Aircraft Advisories, Fault logs, Exceedences • Proper Interviews: – Pilots, Mechanics and anyone else who may know anything about the conditions in question.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 16March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 17. Monitor Data Monitor data is amplitude and time. The data is collected and filtered to view specific components. Alarms are developed by trending the data over a period of time. Monitor data should be reviewed daily at a minimum to check for any questionable change in vibration levels. – Monitor data is collected automatically on the VXP when rotor speed reaches 96% (different systems vary). – The Bell BHVMS collects Survey Data based on regime recognition and collects Monitor Data @ 120 knots. This data should be downloaded and analyzed daily. Monitor data is the lifeblood for any CBM program.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 17March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 18. Monitor View HoneywellHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 18March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 19. Signature/Spectrum Data Spectrum/Signature data is Amplitude and Frequency. • Spectrum data is a very powerful tool. It allows you to perform in depth analysis in real time. Spectrums provide a detailed view which may include harmonics, side bands and resonance. It allows the user to determine imbalance from misalignment, tooth wear from missing teeth, looseness etc.. Spectrums can be generated when a monitor alarm is exceeded for that component or to address a pilot complaint. • Complete aircraft signatures must be manually generated using predetermined routes or operator determined routes. To get the full power available from signatures, a base line signature should be taken on each aircraft when new or equipment is first installed. • Signatures should also be taken prior to major inspections and when the aircraft is released back into service. A very underused tool that can solve so may problems and answer so many questions before the pilot ever shuts down!HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 19March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 20. Signature/Spectrum ContinuedHoneywellHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 20March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 21. Paperwork Laugh if you will, but everyday starts with a cup of coffee and logsheets. In my opinion logsheets are one of the most overlooked tools of our trade (and I’m going to drink coffee anyway). Statistics show and I will back them up 100% that one of the most frequent failure detections is post maintenance. By studying the previous nights maintenance prior to my analysis, I already know what was worked on, what part was changed, chip lights, pressures and what the pilot thinks they might be feeling. Now, armed with this information, I can dive into my analysis already knowing the details and go looking for trouble or better yet, already have the answer in hand to address several questions on my screen! I have found this method both extremely effective as well as efficient! This method is also very effective post inspection with Inspection Forms .HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 21March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 22. Trending• In my humble opinion, if you aren’t trending, you don’t even have a program, you are simply going through the motions.• I am a fan of daily trending each condition indicator (CI) against itself on that airframe as well as against the entire fleet. Changes will show long before ANY alarm and this allows time for planning or immediate action if required.• Red, Yellow and Green indicators are great for the first line of defense ( flight line maintainer) but other than being used for a “heads up”, a successful analyst cannot predict failures based on these indicators nearly as far in advance, if at all.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 22March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 23. Limits (My Way)  We (I) establish our own limits based on trend data from our fleet averages and aircraft averages over extended time. We also compare our limits against the programs preset alarms and alerts. Those thresholds are calculated statistically based on data available to Honeywell, primarily using fleet average plus 4 and 6 sigma.  We have found through our experience and daily trending using rate of change, that we are not necessarily comfortable with the OEM’s limits even if known or available.  After identifying certain component premature wear well before any exceedences, we hsve determined that we were able to achieve much lower limits in many cases and have adjusted our limits accordingly.  In doing so we have realized less premature wear on certain components, less airframe cracking issues and fewer unexpected failures.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 23March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 24. Rate of Change Rate of change is a very reliable indicator, especially when trended over time comparing a particular aircraft with itself and the fleet. Rate of change is often the key to detection of an evolving defect which is why daily trending is mandatory. Many CIs have no limits established by the OEM even if the OEM supports the HUMS. Many OEM limits are set to support warranties Limits driven by warranties may not support key CBM objectives to minimize: Wear of mechanical drive train components. Structural usage of airframe skins, frames and attachment fittings.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 24March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 25. Aircraft Advisories, Faults and Exceedences A typical vibration system will usually include advisories, faults and exceedences. It is important for the front line maintainer to become familiar with and use these tools on a daily basis.  Advisories: limits exceeded, time exceeded, maximum amplitude etc.  Faults: a built in test that tests the sensors for proper operation  Exceedences: Red, Yellow, Green indicators to give a quick glace of a CI’s condition.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 25March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 26. Most Common Findings:  Main Rotor: Shear Restraints, Trim Tabs, Isolation Mounts, Bearings  Tail Rotor: Bearings, Trunnions, Blades, Gearboxes  Tail Rotor Drive: Hanger Bearings, Drive Shafts, Hanger Bearing Mounts and Airframe Cracks  Main Transmission: Output Shafts, ECU Drive  Engines: FOD, Worn Mounts, Oils Pumps, Shafts  Oil Coolers: Fan/Blower Bearings, Trash  Starters: Bearings, Brushes, Looseness  Hydraulic Pumps: Shafts, Seals, Drives and Stripped StudsHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 26March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 27. Equipment Options and ResourcesHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 27March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 28. Equipment Options Company Name Website Description Eurocopter www.eurocopter.com Their Modular Aircraft Recording Monitoring System is (M’ARMS) The HUMS installed on several Eurocopter models. Benefits include improved safety and early detection of impending mechanical failures. It also allows cockpit voice and video recording, as well as usage and quick-access recording. GE Aviation www.geaviation.com Their Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) technology is available for both rotary- and fixed-wing platforms. They recently acquired Smiths Aerospace, formerly Stewart Hughes. Goodrich/UTC Aerospace System ww.goodrich.com A primary supplier of HUMS for military and commercial aviation. Provides both the Integrated Mechanical Diagnostics - Health and Usage Management System (IMD - HUMS) and the Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), both of which provide advanced diagnostic information to maintainers. These products contribute to increased safety and enhanced maintenance planning. Honeywell www.honeywell.com Best known for their VXP Health Monitoring System, which is fully certified and designed to support future upgrades. Benefits of this system include more effective maintenance, the latest advancements in technology, Now offering the Zing line of products.HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 28March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 29. Resources Title Author Date Health and Usage Monitoring Systems Toolkit IHST HUMS IWG January, 2013 Reliability Centered Maintenance II Moubray, J, 1997 Helicopter Flight Data Monitoring Toolkit 2nd edition IHST HFBM IWG 2011 Vibration Health and Usage Monitoring for the AW139 Honeywell/Hobgood, T. 2007 Condition Based Maintenance Definition Wikipedia January, 2013 MSG-3 in the Helicopter World Jessen, L., Jenkins B. January 2011 IHST.ORG Edition I Edition IIHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 29March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 30. Interactive Vibration Case Studies… Can you Analyze the Problem?HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 30March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 31. AW139 Worn Hydraulic Pump Case StudyNoticed increased vibration trending on the#2 input hydraulic pump. No limits wereexceeded but when the aircraft was down ?for other maintenance, the pump wasremoved to inspect based on this data and ?the worn pump drive shaft was found aswell as damage to the pump. ? ?HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track “ 31March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 32. Hanger Bearing Case Study#1 hanger bearing showed increased Broad BandVibrations (1P and 2P were normal). After visualinspection and rotational check for smoothness, thebearing was greased. Grease solved problem forseveral days but the problem would return (seebelow). This process was repeated until the aircraft ?was available for the next hangar check (very largejob, remote a/c) and the bearing could be changed. ?Replacement solved the problem and upon teardownand root cause inspection, it was noticed that theballs were riding across the outer race once the freshgrease would break down? increasing the Broad thusBand vibes. ? ? 9.26 mm 7.5 mm ? ? ?HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 32March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 33. AW139 T/R Paddle Change ? ? STOP WORK AUTHORITY Used (A/C Grounded Immediately)HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 33March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 34. 430 Main Rotor F/A and Vertical Increase ? ?HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 34March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 35. AW139 MGB Lateral ? ? ? ? ?HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 35March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 36. MGB TRDS Output Adapter Flange Pre TB139-176HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 36March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 37. TB 139-176HAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 37March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV
    • 38. QUESTIONS? D.B. “Danny” Green Mobile 985.768.1823 Office 601.749.4059 dannygreen@chevron.comHAI Rotor Safety Challenge – Safety Track 38March 6, 2013 Las Vegas, NV