Red fort and rastrapati bhavan compare and comparision

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Red fort and rastrapati bhavan compare and comparision

  1. 1. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST BACHELOR WITH HONOURS IN COMMERCE Group Members: Aman Gupta (8298) Anish Kumar Agarwal (8312) Ambuj Singh (8326) Abhishek Vaid (8253) Ahsan Haider (8263) Arpan Kumar (8267) Akhil (8287) Aditya Utkarsh (8328) Supervisor : Dr. Manish Kanwar Shyam Lal College (Evening) University of Delhi Session 2013-14 (Semester-I)
  2. 2. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST October 20th, 2013Abstract Well as our topic donates the comparison and contraction between Red Fort and Rastrapati Bhavan , so we have discussed about each and every aspect of Red Fort as well as Rastrapati Bhavan. Firstly we have discussed about the Red Fort which is situated at Old Delhi, we have discussed about its history as well as its present situation. Secondly we discussed about the Rastrapati Bhavan also known as president house. We have elaborated it by its plan and architectural designs. Well at end we have discussed environment nearby the Red fort and Rastrapati Bhavan. We are very thankful to Dr. Manish Kanwar Sir our History teacher who gave his valuable time and also motivated us in finishing our project. He made us so enthusiast towards the project. Thank you sir for giving your valuable time to us for the completion of the project work. And as well as thanks for motivating us towards the project work. 2
  3. 3. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Table of Contents Sno Topic Page No 1. Introduction 3 2. History of Red Fort 5 3. Architectural designs 6 4. Lahore gate 7 5. Diwan-i-Aam 8 6. Diwan-i-Khas 9 7. Moti Masjid 10 8. Others 11 9. History of Rastrapati Bhavan 12 10. Plan of Rastrapati Bhawan 13 11. Architecture designs 15 12. Dome 17 13. Mughal Gardens 18 14. Major Issues/Problems 20 15. Suggested solutions/ our learning 21 16. Observations and Discussion 23 17. Conclusion 24 18 Personal Experience 25 19 References 26 Introduction Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official home of the President of India. It may refer to only the mansion (the 340-room main building) that has the President's official residence, halls, guest rooms and offices; it may also refer to the entire 130 hectare (320 acre) President Estate that additionally includes huge presidential gardens (Mughal Gardens), large open spaces, residences 3
  4. 4. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST of bodyguards and staff, stables, other offices and utilities within its perimeter walls. The Red Fort, known locally as Lal Qila is a 17th-century fort complex constructed by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan in the walled city of Old Delhi (in present day Delhi, India) that served as the residence of the Mughal Emperors. The design is commonly credited to Mughal architect Ustad Ahmad. The fort was the palace for Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan's new capital, Shahjahanabad, the seventh city in the Delhi site. He moved his capital here from Agra in a move designed to bring prestige to his reign, and to provide ample opportunity to apply his ambitious building schemes and interests. It served as the capital of the Mughals until 1857, when Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled by the British Indian government. The fort lies along the Yamuna River, which fed the moats that surround most of the walls. The wall at its north-eastern corner is adjacent to an older fort, the Salimgarh Fort, a defence built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546. The construction of the Red Fort began in 1638 and was completed by 1648. The Red Fort has had many developments added on after its construction by Emperor Shah Jahan. The significant phases of development were under Aurangzeb and later under later Mughal rulers. It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007. The earlier Red Fort was built by Tomara king Anangpala, now known as the Qulb Mosque. Both these institutions are in Delhi and are related to the politics of india ...........as rashtrapati bhavan is the official residence of president of india and on 15th aug i.e on independence day the prime minister addresses the nation from red fort ! 4
  5. 5. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Both are related to office of the highest administrative heads of a nation.One represents king ship and another democracy. One is built by red stone another with granite. HISTORY OF RED FORT:Analyzing the red fort history, we have found various facts about the monument in a wonderful manner. It was built by the legendary Mughal King called Shahjahan, who was an amazing admirer of the medieval architecture. 5
  6. 6. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST As per the information about red fort, it is located near the river called Yamuna which is very famous in the history of India. Shahjahanbad was the place where the fort was constructed in an impeccable style. There are different perspectives about the red fort in terms of size and specifications. It is very long and is considered to be 2 kilometers in length which provides it an amazing appearance. People are amazed by the height of the fort because it is said to be more than 100 feet and was built to ward off invaders in an amazing manner. Red fort history has been quite intriguing because it has been witness to crucial events in the past. Different designers were used to build the place and they used a fabulous square grid to achieve the task in a wonderful style. After Indian Independence, the site experienced few changes in terms of addition or alteration to the structures. The Red Fort continued to be used as a cantonment even after Independence. A significant part of the fort remained under the control of the Indian Army until 22 December 2003, when it was handed over to the Archaeological Survey of India for restoration. Architectural designs:The Red Fort covers a total area of about 254.67 acres enclosed within 2.4 kilometres of defence walls. The walls are punctuated by turrets and bastions. They vary in 6
  7. 7. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST height from 18 m on the river side to 33 m on the city side. The fort is shaped like an octagon with the north-south axis longer than the east-west axis. The use of marble, floral decorations, double domes in the buildings inside the fort exemplifies the later phase of Mughal architecture. It showcases a very high level of art form and ornamental work. It is believed that the Kohinoor diamond was a part of the furniture. The art work in the Fort is a synthesis of Persian, European and Indian art which resulted in the development of unique Shahjahani style which is very rich in form, expression and colour. Red Fort is one of the important building complexes of India which encapsulates a long period of Indian history and its arts. Even before its notification as a monument of national importance in the year 1913, efforts were made to preserve and conserve the Red Fort, for posterity. The walls of Lahore and Delhi gates were for the general public and Khizrabad Gate was for emperor's personal use.The Lahore Gate is the main entrance leading to the domed arcade containing shops called the Chatta Chowk (covered bazaar). Silk, jewellery and other items which catered to the royal household were sold in Chatta Chowk in the Mughal period. Chatta Chowk leads to a large open space where it crosses the large north-south street that was originally the division between the fort's military functions, to its west, and the palaces, to its east. The southern end of this street is the Delhi Gate. Lahore gate:- 7
  8. 8. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST The Lahore gate is the main gate to the Red Fort named after its orientation towards Lahore, Pakistan. It is said that during Aurangzeb's reign the beauty of both the gates was spoiled by adding bastions: "The vista like a veil drawn across the face of a beautiful woman". Every year since Indian Independence Day 1947, the national flag has been raised and the Prime Minister has made a speech from the ramparts at the Lahore Gate. In the 1980s, the security of the area was increased by blocking the tower windows as a security measure against sniper attacks. A lift was also added to the gate. Diwan-i-Aam:- 8
  9. 9. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST In the Diwan-i-Aam (or the Hall of Public Audiences) the Emperor, seated in a canopied alcove, would hear complaints and pleas of the commoners through a jharokha (balcony). The hall was ornamented with stuccowork and featured a series of gold columns. It also included a large railing that separated the commoners from the emperor. The Diwan-i-Aam was also used for state functions.[25] The spacious mardana or courtyard behind the Diwan-iAam is surrounded by several interesting structures. 9
  10. 10. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Diwan-i-Khas:In the Diwan-i-Khas( or the Hall of Private Audiences) the Emperor held private meetings with courtiers and state guests. The hall comprises a rectangular chamber with engraved arched openings supported on piers, on all of its sides. Each of the piers is gilded, painted and decorated with floral designs. Pillared chatris (umbrellas) cover the corners of the roof. At the centre of the chamber, the famous Peacock Throne throne was placed over a marble pedestal. The throne was looted in 1739 by Nadir Shah. Two of the marble pedestals were taken away by Captain Tytler from the fort after the 1857 uprising and one of these is located at the New York Metropolitan Museum. In 1760, the Marathas removed and melted the Silver ceiling of the Diwan-i-Khas to generate funds for the defence of Delhi from the Afghan invader Ahmed Shah Durrani. Nahr-iBihisht or the "stream of paradise" flowed through the centre of the hall. The arches at the corner of the walls contain the inscription of the famous verse of the 9th century Persian poet Ferdowsi, which reads– "Agar Firdaus Bar Rooe Zaminast Haminasto Haminasto Haminast" ("If there be a paradise on the earth, it is this, it is this, it is this"). 10
  11. 11. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Moti Masjid:To the west of the hammam is the Moti Masjid, the Pearl Mosque. This was a later addition, built in 1659 as a private mosque for Aurangzeb, Shah Jahan's successor. It is a small, three-domed mosque carved in white marble, with a three-arched screen which steps down to the courtyard. The Moti Masjid measures approximately 12 × 9 metres, with a height of nearly 8 metres. 11
  12. 12. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Others:Other attractions within Red Fort include:  The Hammams (Royal Baths)  The Muthamman-Burj was the octagonal tower where the emperor appeared before the commoners. 12
  13. 13. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST  The Rang Mahal (Palace of Colours) housed the Emperor's wives and mistresses. This palace was crowned with gilded turrets. It was painted and decorated with an intricate mosaic of mirrors. It also had a ceiling overlaid with gold and silver that was reflected in a central pool, which was located in the marble floor of the palace.  Naqqar Khana (Drum House) was located at the entrance point of the Rang Mahal. Music was played at specific times in the day alongside a large gate. People who visited the fort and would come on elephants, would get off of at this gate. History of Rastrapati Bhavan:When the plan for a new city New Delhi adjacent to and south of Old Delhi was developed in the beginning of the 20th century, the Governor-General's House was given an 13
  14. 14. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST enormous size and prominent position. About 4,000 acres of land was acquired to begin the construction of the Viceroy's House and adjacent Central Secretariat between 1911 and 1916. The British architect Edwin Landseer Lutyens, a major member of the city-planning process, was given the primary architectural responsibility. Rashtrapati Bhavan is the official home of the President of India. As the plan for New Delhi was developed, the Governor-General's residence was given an enormous scale and prominent position. Meanwhile, between 1911 and 1916, 300 families were evicted under the "1894 Land Acquisition Act" from Raisina and Malcha villages, thus clearing about 4,000 acres to begin the construction the Viceroy’s House. Lutyens and Baker who had been assigned to work on the Viceroy's House and the Secretariats, began on friendly terms. Baker had been assigned to work on the two secretariat buildings which were in front of Viceroy's House. The original plan was to have Viceroy's House on the top of Raisina Hill, with the secretariats lower down. It was later decided to build 400 yards back, and put both buildings on top of the plateau. While Lutyens wanted the Viceroy's house to be higher, he was forced to move it back from the intended position, which resulted in a dispute with Baker. After completion, Lutyens argued with Baker, because the view of the front of the building was obscured by the high angle of the road. Plan of Rastrapati Bhawan:- 14
  15. 15. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Rashtrapati Bhawan is the house of the President of India. It is a real masterpiece that was built in the British period. It is the focal point of New Delhi and situated in the Raisina Hills. The plan of the building is designed around a massive square with multiple courtyards and open inner areas within. The plan called for two wings; one for the Viceroy and residents and another for guests. The residence wing is a separate four-storey house in itself, with its own court areas within. This wing was so large that the first Indian governor-general, Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, opted to live the smaller guest wing, a tradition that has since been followed by subsequent presidents. The original residence wing is now used primarily for state receptions and as a guest wing for visiting heads of state. The centre of the main wing of the building, underneath the main dome, is the Durbar Hall, which was known as the Throne Room during British rule when it had thrones for the Viceroy and Vicereine (his wife). The interior of this room and almost all the rooms of the palace are bare, relying on stonework and shapes to show austerity rather than intricate decoration. In the hall, the columns are made in Delhi order which combines vertical lines with the motif of a bell. The vertical lines from the column were also used in the frieze around the room, which could not have been done with one of the traditional Greek orders of columns. The hall has a 2-ton chandelier which hangs from a 33-metre height. The two state drawing rooms, the state supper room and the state library are each on the four corners of the hall. There are also 15
  16. 16. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST other rooms such as many loggias (galleries with open air on one side) which face out into the courtyards, a large dining hall with an extremely long table, sitting rooms, billiards rooms, and a large ball room, and staircases. Water features are also through the palace, such as near the Viceroy's stairs, which has eight marble lion statues spilling water into six basins. These lions were symbolic of the heraldry of Great Britain. There is also an open area in one room to the sky, which lets in much of the natural light. 16
  17. 17. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Architecture designs:Various Indian designs were added to the building. These included several circular stone basins on top of the building, as water features are an important part of Indian architecture. There was also a traditional Indian chujja or chhajja, which occupied the place of a frieze in classical architecture; it was a sharp, thin, protruding element which extended 8 feet (2.4 m) from the building, and created deep shadows. It blocks harsh sunlight from the windows and also shields the windows from heavy rain during the monsoon season. On the roofline were several chuttris, which helped to break up the flatness of the roofline not covered by the dome. Lutyens appropriated some Indian designs, but used them sparingly and effectively throughout the building. There were also statues of elephants and fountain sculptures of cobras in the gar of the retaining walls, as well as the bas-reliefs around the base of the Jaipur Column, made by British sculptor, Charles Sargeant Jagger. The column has a "distinctly peculiar crown on top, a glass star springing out of bronze lotus blossom“. There were grilles made from red sandstone, called jalis or jaalis citation needed.These jalis were inspired by Rajasthani design. The front of the palace, on the east side, has twelve unevenly spaced massive columns with the Delhi Order capitals.[citation needed] These capitals have a fusion of acanthus leaves with the four pendant Indian bells. The bells are similar in style to Indian Hindu and Buddhist temples, the idea being inspired from a Jain temple at Moodabidri in Karnataka. One bell is on each corner at the top of the column. It was said that as the bells were silent British rule in India would not end. The front of the building does not have windows, except in the wings at the sides. Lutyens established ateliers in Delhi and Lahore 17
  18. 18. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST to employ local craftsmen, The chief engineer of the project was Sir Teja Singh Malik, and four main contractors included Sir Sobha Singh. Lutyens added several small personal elements to the house, such as an area in the garden walls and two ventilator windows on the stateroom to look like the glasses which he wore. The Viceregal Lodge was completed largely by 1929, and (along with the rest of New Delhi) inaugurated officially in 1931. Interestingly, the building took seventeen years to complete and eighteen years later India became independent. After Indian independence in 1947, the now ceremonial governor-general continued to live there, being succeeded by the president in 1950 when India became a republic and the house was renamed "Rashtrapati Bhavan". 18
  19. 19. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Dome:The dome in the middle involved a mixture of Indian and British styles. In the centre was a tall copper dome surmounted on top of a drum, which stands out from the rest of the building, due to its height. The dome is exactly in the middle of the diagonals between the four corners of the building. The dome is more than twice the height of the rest of the building. The height of the dome was increased by Lord Hardinge in the plan of the building in 1913. The dome combines classical and Indian styles. Lutyens said the design evolved from that of the Pantheon in Rome, while it is also possible that it was modelled partly after the great Stupa at Sanchi. The dome is supported by evenly spaced columns which form a porch with open area between the columns. In the New Delhi summer heat haze this gives an impression of the dome being afloat. The reinforced concrete shell of the outer dome began to be formed at the beginning of 1929. The last stone of the dome was laid on 6 April 1929. 19
  20. 20. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Mughal Gardens:The Mughal Gardens situated at the back of the Rashtrapati Bhavan, incorporates both Mughal and English landscaping styles and feature a vast variety of flowers. The Rashtrapati Bhavan gardens are open to public in February every year. Main garden: Two channels running North to South and two running East to West divide this garden into a grid of squares. There are six lotus shaped fountains at the crossings of these channels. Wheresas the energetic fountains rising up to a height of 12 feet create soothing murmur that enthralls the visitor, the channels are so tranquil in their movement that they seem frozen. In the channels at appropriate times of day can be seen reflections of the imposing building and the proud flowers. There are wooden trays placed on stands in the centre of the channels where grain is put for the birds to feed upon. Terrace garden: There are two longitudinal strips of garden at a higher level on either side of the Main Garden forming the Northern and Southern boundary. The plants grown are the same as in the Main Garden. At the centre of both the strips is a fountain which falls inwards 20
  21. 21. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST forming a well. On the Western tips are located two gazebos and on the Eastern tips two ornately designed sentry posts. Long Garden or the 'Purdha Garden': This is located to the West of the Main Garden, and runs along on either side of the central pavement which goes to the circular garden. Enclosed in walls about 12 feet high this is predominantly a rose garden. It has 16 square rose beds encased in low hedges. There is a red sandstone pergola in the centre over the central pavement which is covered with Rose creepers, Petrea, Bougainvillea and Grape Vines. The walls are covered with creepers like Jasmine, Rhyncospermum, Tecoma Grandiflora, Bignonia Vanista, Adenoclyma, Echitice, Parana Paniculata. Along the walls are planted the China Orange trees. Around the circular garden there are rooms for Office of the horticulturist, a green house, stores, nursery etc. Here is housed the collection of Bonsais, one of the best in the country. All the presidents who have stayed at the Rashtrapati Bhavan have taken keen interest in the maintenance and upkeep of the Mughal Gardens. All have contributed in their own way. The underlying themes however have remained unaltered. 21
  22. 22. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Major Issues/Problems There were no as such problem but the major issue was that as many people to whom we communicated at Red Fort were not aware about the current situation of Rastrapati Bhavan and people at Rastrapati Bhavan were not aware about Red fort’s current situation. 22
  23. 23. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST This was the major issue at both the places as when we talk to people at Red Fort like we say sir have you visited Rastapati Bhavan, they just say no so we were not able to put another question. Even when we have communicated to shopkeepers they were also not aware about both the places. So ultimately we have to put ours personal experience. Secondly inside the museum at the Red Fort photography is banned so we could not show the equipment’s and several other things of Shah jahan;s time. Third the Mughal garden is open in the month of February and so we were no able to go there. 23
  24. 24. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Suggested solutions/ Your learning According to us there should be a film studio at a historical monument like Red Fort where a film should be shown regarding all historical monuments so that the people who are unaware about the historical monuments would go to any historical monument and could get the information and could say that yes I have gone there. We learned several things after visting the physical aspects of Red Fort as well as Rastrapati Bhavan. The house that houses the President of India and the house that boasts of having welcomed the most powerful men in history. The Rashtrapati Bhavan was designed by Edwin Lutyens and built in 1931, to be the central point of the British power in Delhi. Originally called the Viceroy's House, the Rashtrapati Bhavan covers an area of 4.5 acres of land. It has 340 rooms, 37 salons, 74 lobbies and loggias, 18 staircases and 37 fountains. The most magnificent room in the Rashtrapati Bhavan is the Durbar Hall, which lies directly beneath the main dome. All important Indian State and Official ceremonies are held here. To the west, is the famous and beautifully landscaped Mughal Gardens, designed after the terraced gardens the Mughals built in Kashmir. The garden is famous as the 'Butterfly Garden' for the numerous butterflies that visit the varied flowers. The Red Fort, with a circumference of over 2.2 kilometers, was laid out by the banks of the Yamuna river in the 17th century. The Mughal emperor Shajahan built it with the ambition of concentrating the Mughal power in one monument. Monument is perhaps not the right word. A mini-city is more like it. Unfortunately for the emperor, before he could move his capital from 24
  25. 25. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Agra to Shahjahanabad in Delhi, he was taken a political prisoner by his son Aurangazeb. The fort is a delight to one's imagination. Imagine the Naqqar Khana (Drum room) also called Naubat Khana (Welcome Room), where once drums loudly heralded the arrival of the emperor and the Diwan-e-Am (Hall of Public Audience) resounded with the incantations of the people. Amazing, isn't it? There's more to see - Mumtaz Mahal, Rang Mahal (Palace of Colours), Khas Mahal (Emperor's Palace), Diwan-e Khas (Hall of Private Audience), the Hammam (bathing area) and Shah Burj. 25
  26. 26. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Observations and Discussion While we were at Red Fort we saw the security and with our discussion we observed that to prevent terrorist attacks, security is especially tightened around the Red Fort. Delhi Police and paramilitary personnel keep a vigil on the neighbourhoods around the fort. Sharpshooters of the National Security Guard are deployed on high rises near the Red Fort. The aerial space around the fort is declared a no-fly zone during the celebration to prevent aerial attacks, Safe houses are picked in nearby areas where the Prime Minister and other Indian leaders can be rushed to in case of an attack. The fort was the site of a terrorist attack on 22 December 2000 carried out by six terrorists of the Lashkar-e-Toiba. Two soldiers and a civilian were killed, in what was described by the media as an attempt to derail the India-Pakistan peace talks and relations. 26
  27. 27. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Conclusion We concluded that:Both these institutions are in Delhi and are related to the politics of India ...........as Rashtrapati bhavan is the official residence of president of India and on 15th Aug i.e on independence day the prime minister addresses the nation from red fort ! Both are related to office of the highest administrative heads of a nation. One represents king ship and another democracy. One is built by red stone another with granite. But the environment near Red fort is quite good area we have Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib, Church, Jain Mandir, Gori Shankar Mandir, Hazrat Nizamuddin Dargrah. On the other hand the area near the Rastrapati bhavan is very pleasant and a very charming. 27
  28. 28. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST Personal Experience (All group members):Well when we were having our first class of history in 4YUP we were told that we are having a project in which we will be given a topic and we have to go there and collect the information from that day we were very excited regarding the project. Finally we got a very interesting topic regarding comparison and contraction among Red fort and Rastrapati bhavan , a very amazing topic. Well, being a citizen of India and residing in Delhi we were not knowing about the Red fort but when we visited there to collect the information we know much of it. Since we were in the school we have never engaged in such type of project but in college it is a very good as it visiting places enhances our knowledge. When we are with our friends we acts as investigator just like at Red Fort there were underground rooms we went down and saw that the rooms were sealed the locks were covered 28
  29. 29. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST with the stainless steel sheet. So this question raised in each one of us so next day we ask different people and get the answer for that. So it was a very good experience ever had in life…. References 1. Personal visit – (communicating with the people came to the monument, shop keepers and guiders present there ) 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. N. L. Batra (May 2008). Delhi's Red Fort by the Yamuna. Niyogi Books. Retrieved 5 August 2012. "Ustad Ahmad Oxford Reference". Retrieved 13 August 2013. "building the Taj – who designed the Taj Mahal". PBS. Retrieved 13 August 2013. "Red Fort lies along the River Yamuna". Retrieved 4 August 2012. "Red Fort Complex". World Heritage List. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 15 November 2009. 29
  30. 30. INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE RED FORT AND RASTRAPATI BHAVAN COMPARE AND CONTRAST 7. 8. 9. 10. "Red Fort was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007". Retrieved 4 August 2012. Indu Ramchandani (2000). Students' Britannica India. Popular Prakashan. pp. 293–. ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5. Retrieved 6 August 2012. "Comprehensive Conservation Management Plan for Red Fort, Delhi" (PDF). Archaeological Survey of India. March 2009. Retrieved 14 August 2012. Pinto, Xavier; Myall, E. G. (2009). Glimpses of History. Frank Brothers. p. 129. ISBN 978-81-8409-617-0. 30

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