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Sustainable Food Production: Enhancing resilience in smallholders cropping systems and food security through agro-forestry: The case of green grams intercropped with Melia volkensii in the semiarid eastern Kenya
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Sustainable Food Production: Enhancing resilience in smallholders cropping systems and food security through agro-forestry: The case of green grams intercropped with Melia volkensii in the semiarid eastern Kenya

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  • 1. Sponsored By: Hosted By: “Enhancing resilience in smallholder cropping systems and food security through agro-forestry: The case of green grams (Vignia radiata) intercropped with Melia volkensii in the Semiarid Eastern Kenya” Lawrence M. Kimotho1, David Muchiri2.and Lutta. W. Mohammad3 Presented at the International Food Security Dialogue 2014 “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.”
  • 2. Introduction • The arid and semi arid lands of Kenya are characterized by low erratic and unreliable rainfall which often results in crop failures. • There is need therefore to device innovative ways of cushioning the farmers in these areas against loses and food shortage caused by these frequent droughts. • Agroforestry using adapted crop varieties and tree species has shown good potential in terms of providing food and tree products (Broadhead J. S. 2000, Juma et al 1995, M. R Rao et al 1998, and Sheffy et al 2010). • Efforts to establish Melia volkensii a well adapted multi purpose tree in this area has faced challenges especially the tree spacing, propagation materials and intercropping possibilities (Kimondo et al 2008, Kimondo et al 2004, Muok et al 2010, and Mulanda et al 2013). “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.”
  • 3. Introduction cont • Melia volkensii has higher economic value when compared to other multi purpose trees in this area (Wekesa et al 2012) • A trial was therefore established to evaluate the performance of green grams (Vigna radiata Wilczek) intercropped with Melia volkensii at varying spacing. • The aim was to establish the best spacing for the tree which will result in optimum tree products at the same time maximizing on crop production. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.”
  • 4. Methodology • The study was initiated during the short rains (SR) 2009/2010 November January season. • Study sites: Kibwezi in Makueni County and Mutomo in Kitui county • Design: Randomized complete block design. Replicated 3 times. • Trees were planted in 5 plots spaced at 3m by 3m, 4m by 4m, 4m by 4m total pruning, 5m by 5m, 6m by 6m, and a control plot without the trees. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.”
  • 5. Methodology cont. • Green grams (N26 variety) were intercropped with the trees and in the control plot spaced at 45cm by 15cm. • Initial tree growth in the 1st season was based on increase in diameter at ground level / root collar diameter (RCD) and later on diameter at breast height i.e. at 1.3m (DBH) • The diameter and height measurements were taken at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after planting • The other data taken included green gram grain yields “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.”
  • 6. Table 1: - Treatments and plot sizes. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Treatment Plot size Net plot size 3m by 3m 12m by 21m 9m by 9m 4m by 4m 20m by 24m 8m by 8m 4m by 4m Total pruning 20m by 24m 8m by 8m 5m by 5m 20m by 20m 10m by 10m 6m by 6m 24m by 24m 12m by 12m Control (No trees) 10m by 10m 8m by 8m
  • 7. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Plate 1: Planting green grams with the Melia volkensii trees
  • 8. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Plate 2: Harvesting green grams
  • 9. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Table 2: Green gram Grain Yields at various Spacing during LR 2010 and SR 2010/2011 Treatments Grain Yields in Kgs/Ha LR 2010 SR 2010/2011 3m by 3m 523 b 280 b 4m by 4m 742 ab 322 b 4m by 4m Total Pruned 595 b 388 ab 5m by 5m 767 ab 373 b 6m by 6m 822 ab 276 b No Melia 1093 a 607 a LSD (0.05) 355 225 CV % 25.6 33.1 Results
  • 10. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Table 3: Melia volkensii tree Height at various Spacing at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months Treatment Tree Height in cm 3 Months 6 Months 12 Moths 24 Months 3m by 3m 75 a 192 a 237 a 342 b 4m by 4m 71 a 208 a 274 a 387 ab 4m by 4m Total Pruned 76 a 195 a 251 a 384 ab 5m by 5m 76 a 202 a 258 a 358 b 6m by 6m 71 a 202 a 288 a 434 a LSD (0.05) 20.2 43.5 55.0 59.3 CV % 33.0 26.1 28.2 20.0
  • 11. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Table 4: Melia volkensii tree Diameter - RCD and DBH at various Spacing at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months Treatment Tree Diameter - RCD and DBH in cm RCD 3 Months DBH 6 Months DBH 12 Moths DBH 24 Months 3m by 3m 1.8 a 1.6 a 2.6 b 3.9 b 4m by 4m 1.6 a 1.9 a 3.2 ab 4.8 b 4m by 4m Total Pruned 1.6 a 1.6 a 2.7 b 4.1 b 5m by 5m 1.7 a 1.7 a 2.7 b 4.4 b 6m by 6m 1.7 a 2.0 a 3.7 a 6.2 a LSD (0.05) 0.4 0.7 0.91 0.93 CV % 29.9 50.7 36.6 23.6
  • 12. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” y = 0.1x + 1.55 R² = 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 0 2 4 6 Diameter Spacing Spacing - Diameter Relationship at 6 months y = 0.28x + 2.35 R² = 0.509 0 1 2 3 4 0 2 4 6 Diameterincm Spacing Spacing - Diameter Relationship at 12 months Figure 1: Tree Diameter at Varying Spacing Figure 2: Tree Diameter at Varying Spacing
  • 13. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” y = 2.4x + 195 R² = 0.218 190 195 200 205 210 0 2 4 6 Heightincm Spacing Spacing - Height Relationship at 6 months y = 13.7x + 230 R² = 0.651 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 2 4 6 Heightincm Spacing Spacing - Height Relationship at 12 months Figure 3: Tree Height at Varying Spacing Figure 4: Tree Height at Varying Spacing
  • 14. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” y = 92.2x + 483 R² = 0.821 0 200 400 600 800 1000 0 2 4 6 GrainYieldsKgs/Ha Spacing Spacing - Grain Yield Relationship during LR 2010 y = 49.6x + 200.7 R² = 0.569 0 200 400 600 800 0 2 4 6 8 GrainyieldsKgs/Ha Spacing Spacing - Grain yields Relationship during SR 2010/2011 Figure 5: Grain Yield at Varying Spacing Figure 6: Grain Yield at Varying Spacing
  • 15. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” GG Pure Stand 6mX6m 5mX5m 4mX4mPr 4mX4m 3mX3m 100 75.2 70.2 54.4 67.9 47.8 100 45.5 61.4 63.9 53 46.1 Green gram Grain Yields at various Treatments Expressed as % of Pure stand during LR 2010 and SR 10/11 Figure 7: Green grams grain yields in inter cropped plots as % of pure stand
  • 16. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Challenges • Droughts: Out of the six planted seasons there was crop in only three • Availability of planting materials: Melia volkensii seedlings are difficult to raise due to the seeds two hard coats and its dormancy. • Funding: Funding of the activity has been on and off • Many farmers in the dry areas of Kenya have not taken trees as enterprises which could be commercialized
  • 17. Conclusions and Way forward • The green grams grain yields of 75% during the second season and 63% during the third season for the best spacing treatment as compared with the control shows that there is potential in inter cropping green grams with Melia volkensii. • This practice if adopted would provide food, fodder, timber, fire wood, charcoal and hence improve the farmers lively hoods. • There is need for the trial to continue in order to establish for how long the Melia volkensii would be inter cropped with the green grams economically and what would be the best spacing for the Melia volkensii which would give the optimum green gram grain yields and tree products. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.”
  • 18. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” (CIFSRF, IDRC/DRATD, CIDA) Canada University of Alberta Alberta Canada Director KARI Kenya Assistant Director Social Economics and Applied Statistics KARI Assistant Director Food Crops KARI Center Director KARI Katumani Dr. Kigwa KEFRI Kitui Joyce Kituku and Pius Matieka KEFRI Kibwezi Acknowledgements
  • 19. “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Thanks for Listening