0
Presented at the International Food Security Dialogue
2014
“Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional
Secur...
Survival of the fittest or survival of the most creative & hard working?!
Near Lake Langano, Ethiopia (2011); Courtesy of ...
Molla Assefa Mengistu (PhD student, U
ofS)
Wondwosen Tena (PhD student, HU)
Walelign Worku (Plant Science)
Sheleme Beyene ...
 The total area of the country is about
111.5 million ha, out of which 74.3
million ha is suitable for annual and
perenni...
Food supply systems in Ethiopia
Three
major
systems
Crop
production
Livestock
Market
dependent
system
75% of the populatio...
400-1400 Sorghum
Corn
1400-2200Sorghum
Corn
Teff
Wheat
Barley
Beans, dry
Chickpeas
Lentil
Snap bean
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Ju...
http://ethiopia.usaid.gov/program/feed-the-future
Pulse Production Regions:
~ 13 percent of the croplands
Production is se...
Research sites in SNNPR
500 km
Prevalent Zn and Fe deficiency
Research components:
Pulse agronomy &
Breeding
Soil management & N fixation
Food processing and
nutrition
Nutrition educat...
IMPACT PATHWAY
Identify Target Populations
Setting Targets
Screening for micronutrient rich genotypes
Discovery
Crop Impro...
Key factors for expanding area of pulses
and enhancing productivity of pulses
Availability and adoption of suitable varie...
Case of chickpea
 Low productivity in the region (0.6 -0.8 tons/ha)
 Due to predominant cereal-cereal rotation, soils ar...
Map of Ethiopia showing sampling sites for Rhizobium collection
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
CP
01
CP
04
CP
05
CP
07
CP
08
CP
10
CP
12
CP
16
CP
19
CP
20
CP
22
CP
27
CP
30
CP
33
CP
36
CP
4...
Seeds before inoculation with ignite based inoculant Seeds after inoculation
Preparation of
chickpea inoculation
trial
Inoculation trial (Nov 2013 Halaba)
Inoculation trial (Nov 2013 Halaba)
Inoculated plot Un-inoculated plot (control)
Inoculated and non inoculated chickpea plants
Only released varieties plus local checks
Kabuli
Arerti
Chefe
Ejeri
Habru
Shasho
Desi
Wolaita local
Butajira local
Mastewa...
Variety trials: Site selection and land preparation
Top three chickpea varieties based on farmers’
participatory evaluation:
Butajira (2011), Wolaita (2011), Hulbareg (2013)
...
Grain yield of chickpea varieties at Wolaita and Butajira
(based on 2011 & 2012 trials)
 All improved varieties performed...
Variety
Grain yield
(t/ha)
100-seed
weight (g)
Shasho (#2) 3.0 a 27.7 b
Mastewal (#3) 2.8 a 22.6 d
Natoli (#1) 2.8 a 26.5 ...
Wolaita Butajira
Average monthly rainfall (mm) 1996-2010
Location Seeding time (2011 and 2012)
Early Medium Late
Wolaita 7...
Habru Local check
Early Seeding
Maturity (days) 101 99
Yield (% check) 118% 100
Medium
Seeding
Maturity 103 99
Yield (% ch...
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Snap Bean (early) Chickpea(early) Cereals
(irrigation)
Cereal-based
rotati...
Evaluations of chickpea elite varieties and germplasm lines for
micronutrients and carotenoid complex across locations and...
Implementation:
 Scaling up and out: Var. Habru and Mastewal
Seed production ~ all stake holders
 Linking formal eg. Eth...
Year No. of
districts
No.
kebeles
No. of
farmers*
Area
(ha)
Seed supply
(tonnes)
2012 3 4 45 3 0.4
2013 4 8 600
(794)
150
...
Thank
You!
Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF):
Call 1 (2010-2013);
Call3 (2012-2014);
Pre Scaling...
Participating farmers
Sustainable Food Production:  Improving Food Security and Human Nutrition in Southern Ethiopia through Plant Breeding, Agr...
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Sustainable Food Production: Improving Food Security and Human Nutrition in Southern Ethiopia through Plant Breeding, Agronomy and Soil Nutrient Management of Pulse Crops

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Transcript of "Sustainable Food Production: Improving Food Security and Human Nutrition in Southern Ethiopia through Plant Breeding, Agronomy and Soil Nutrient Management of Pulse Crops"

  1. 1. Presented at the International Food Security Dialogue 2014 “Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World.” Sponsored By: Hosted By:
  2. 2. Survival of the fittest or survival of the most creative & hard working?! Near Lake Langano, Ethiopia (2011); Courtesy of Dr. Tesfaye Abebe
  3. 3. Molla Assefa Mengistu (PhD student, U ofS) Wondwosen Tena (PhD student, HU) Walelign Worku (Plant Science) Sheleme Beyene (Soil Science) Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel (Soil Science) Legesse Hidoto (PhD student, HU) Zenebe Worku (Extension, HU) Tewodros Tefera (Agricultural Economic) Bunyamin Tar’an (Plant Sciences) Fran Walley (Soil Science) Carol Henry (Nutrition) Susan Whiting (Nutrition) Bob Tyler (Food Science) Gord Zello (Nutrition)
  4. 4.  The total area of the country is about 111.5 million ha, out of which 74.3 million ha is suitable for annual and perennial crop production and only 15 million is under utilization  45 % (50.2 million hectares) is mid- highland and highland; the remaining is lowland.  The average annual rainfall ranges from 200 to 2500 mm.  The agroecology is highly diversified (18 major and 49 sub-agro ecological zones). Agriculture sector in Ethiopia:  Accounts for 47% of the GDP,  Provides 85% of employment, and  Provides 90% of foreign exchange.
  5. 5. Food supply systems in Ethiopia Three major systems Crop production Livestock Market dependent system 75% of the population Mostly in highland 10% of the population Mostly in arid and semiarid zones 15% of the population Dependent on the preceding food supply Diverse range of production Failure of rain during cropping season Shortage of food supply
  6. 6. 400-1400 Sorghum Corn 1400-2200Sorghum Corn Teff Wheat Barley Beans, dry Chickpeas Lentil Snap bean Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Sowing Mid-season Harvest Crop Calendar of Ethiopia (Cereals and Pulses) Altitude (m) (irrigation)
  7. 7. http://ethiopia.usaid.gov/program/feed-the-future Pulse Production Regions: ~ 13 percent of the croplands Production is seasonal following the rainfall pattern Two seasons Three seasons Four seasons
  8. 8. Research sites in SNNPR 500 km Prevalent Zn and Fe deficiency
  9. 9. Research components: Pulse agronomy & Breeding Soil management & N fixation Food processing and nutrition Nutrition education Social Economy & Gender Chickpea, lentil, snap bean, faba bean Capacity building Food and nutrition security 21 MSc students 8 PhD students 7 Faculties – research sabbatical to U of S Nutrition Education Farmers training as seed growers Analytical lab. (AAS) Soil Microbiology lab. Field equipment
  10. 10. IMPACT PATHWAY Identify Target Populations Setting Targets Screening for micronutrient rich genotypes Discovery Crop Improvement/Varietal testing/Agronomy Genotype x Environment, Variety release Nutrient Retention Processing Studies Bioavailability and Efficacy Studies Development Seed Production and Distribution System Education, Promotion and Consumer Acceptance Improved diet for target population Dissemination
  11. 11. Key factors for expanding area of pulses and enhancing productivity of pulses Availability and adoption of suitable varieties (short-duration, high yielding, disease resistant, drought tolerant); Availability and adoption of low cost agronomic package including the use of inoculant; Promotion of pulses in cereal based cropping system; Transportation and linking farmers to markets.
  12. 12. Case of chickpea  Low productivity in the region (0.6 -0.8 tons/ha)  Due to predominant cereal-cereal rotation, soils are generally deficient in nitrogen fixing bacteria, which contributes to poor yield of chickpea especially under no N application;  Other problems: drought, disease, human theft Participatory variety selection : Both extension and research approach Simultaneous efforts of promotion and dissemination The objectives were to: Identify adapted and high yielding varieties of chickpea Familiarize farmers with improved varieties and production technology  Majority of farmers are willing to grow chickpea if they could access to improved varieties.
  13. 13. Map of Ethiopia showing sampling sites for Rhizobium collection
  14. 14. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 CP 01 CP 04 CP 05 CP 07 CP 08 CP 10 CP 12 CP 16 CP 19 CP 20 CP 22 CP 27 CP 30 CP 33 CP 36 CP 41 CP 44 CP 49 CP 51 CP 53 CP 61 CP 65 CP 67 CP 69 CP 76 CP 77 CP 78 CP 79 CP 82 CP 84 CP 88 CP 95 CP 96 CP 97 CP 99 CP 101 CP 102 CP 105 CP 109 CP 113 N- N+ Shootdryweight/plantinmg Rhizobial strains Symbiotic effectiveness of selected rhizobial strains on chickpea (45 days) CP41 is a local isolate and it is better than the introduced and as good as N+ treatment CP 41 CP113 (Commercial strain from Canada) N fertilizer Data from Fran Walley and Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel (2011)
  15. 15. Seeds before inoculation with ignite based inoculant Seeds after inoculation Preparation of chickpea inoculation trial
  16. 16. Inoculation trial (Nov 2013 Halaba)
  17. 17. Inoculation trial (Nov 2013 Halaba) Inoculated plot Un-inoculated plot (control)
  18. 18. Inoculated and non inoculated chickpea plants
  19. 19. Only released varieties plus local checks Kabuli Arerti Chefe Ejeri Habru Shasho Desi Wolaita local Butajira local Mastewal Natoli Participating farmers were selected with the development agent (DA): consent and ability to provide land • Seedling vigor • Earliness • Plant height • Plant vigor • Disease resistance • Insect resistance • Biomass • Grain yield • Seed colour • Seed size • Taste • Marketable • Overall Assessment:
  20. 20. Variety trials: Site selection and land preparation
  21. 21. Top three chickpea varieties based on farmers’ participatory evaluation: Butajira (2011), Wolaita (2011), Hulbareg (2013) (2011) (2011) (2013)
  22. 22. Grain yield of chickpea varieties at Wolaita and Butajira (based on 2011 & 2012 trials)  All improved varieties performed better than the local t/ha 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Arerti Chefe Ejeri Habru Shasho Local Mastewal Natoli Wolaita Butajira NS at Wolaita
  23. 23. Variety Grain yield (t/ha) 100-seed weight (g) Shasho (#2) 3.0 a 27.7 b Mastewal (#3) 2.8 a 22.6 d Natoli (#1) 2.8 a 26.5 bc Ejere 2.7 a 33.9 a Arerti 2.6 ab 23.8 cd Habru 2.1 b 29.1 b Local 2.1 b 10.3 e LSD (5%) 0.54 3.3 CV 11.78 7.47 Grain yield of chickpea varieties at Hulbareg (2013)
  24. 24. Wolaita Butajira Average monthly rainfall (mm) 1996-2010 Location Seeding time (2011 and 2012) Early Medium Late Wolaita 7th September 16th September 27th September Butajira 6th September 16th September 28th September Effects of seeding dates Molla Mengistu, PhD student
  25. 25. Habru Local check Early Seeding Maturity (days) 101 99 Yield (% check) 118% 100 Medium Seeding Maturity 103 99 Yield (% check) 117% 100 Late Seeding Maturity 100 98 Yield (% check) 127% 100 Performance of chickpea cultivar Habru across locations and seeding dates (2011&2012)  No significant effects of seeding dates on yield;  All improved varieties performed better than the local.  Early maturing variety such as Habru is suitable for use for double crop in cereal-based rotation
  26. 26. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Snap Bean (early) Chickpea(early) Cereals (irrigation) Cereal-based rotation Wolaita Butajira Rainfall (mm) Rainfall (mm)
  27. 27. Evaluations of chickpea elite varieties and germplasm lines for micronutrients and carotenoid complex across locations and years
  28. 28. Implementation:  Scaling up and out: Var. Habru and Mastewal Seed production ~ all stake holders  Linking formal eg. Ethiopian Seed Enterprise (ESE)& non-formal seed sectors  Establishment of village seed banks/farmer cooperatives  Possible involvement of agro-entrepreneurs in seed supply chain  Supply of macro and micronutrients  Link farmer groups with industry/suppliers – involvement of local gov.  Soil testing facilities and soil health cards?  Supply of inoculants ~ link with N2Africa Project  Grain handling, transportation and storage.  Value addition and linking farmers to market
  29. 29. Year No. of districts No. kebeles No. of farmers* Area (ha) Seed supply (tonnes) 2012 3 4 45 3 0.4 2013 4 8 600 (794) 150 (200) 21 2014 6 12 3,000 750 105 2015 15 30 15,000 3,750 525 2016 30 60 30,000 7,500 1,050 Target districts, kebeles (villages), farmers and area coverage of chickpea production in five year scaling up * targeting 20-30% female farmers
  30. 30. Thank You! Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF): Call 1 (2010-2013); Call3 (2012-2014); Pre Scaling Up (2013-2014) Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Centre Southern Agricultural Research Institute Bureau of Agriculture Southern Farmers Cooperatives Federation and member coops union Zone and District agriculture offices, AgriService Ethiopia Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute Participating farmers
  31. 31. Participating farmers
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