Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through
an interdisciplinary “Dialogo de Saberes” approach...
Presentation overview
1. An Introduction to Fisheries in the Northern Bolivian Amazon
2. Methods and tools
3. Results
1. B...
Study population
North Amazon
Fishing Families
An Introduction to Fisheries in the Northern
Bolivian Amazon
• > 60% of Bolivia‟s land area
• 850 + documented fish specie...
Changing context: living
with/through transition
• land reform
• increased access
• increasing demand
• Infrastructure pro...
Imágenes extraídas de Miranda-Chumacero et al. (2010)
Main commercial species in
Bolivian Amazon (to 1970s)
Pseudoplatysto...
paiche
especies
nativas
Urban fisheries
landings
(Riberalta-based
boats)
Rural fisheries
landings (indigenous
and campesin...
Methods and Tools
1. Baseline information:
1. Household survey,
2. Fisheries Data Collection,
3. Gender and Diversity Anal...
Household Survey: Determinants of
Food Security
811 households
2 phases
Low water: 2011
High water: 2012
HFIAS
DIETARY DIV...
50%
RURAL (Indigenous + campesinos)
HFIAS
FoodInsecurityCorrelates
Baker-French thesis, UBC
RURAL (Indígenas + campesinos)
P-value
Odds
Ratio Lower Upper
Self-ident...
Fisheries Data, gender and identity
• 5 communities
• High-water and low-water
• 154 fishers (16 F, 138 M) observed in lan...
Division of labor in Fishing
Relative Participation
Activity Women Men Youth Comments
Net construction and mending xxx xx
...
Gender and Diversity Analysis: Capacities and Vulnerabilities
Dimension Vulnerabilities Capacities
Material High Flood vul...
Gender
Transformative
Approaches
in
Fisheries
Some conceptual references
Social learning:
• Balbin (1986) – Dialogo de Saberes
• Freire (1968) – Pedagogia dos oprimdos
...
Gender Transformative
Approach Model (Kantor, 2013)
Practice
• Engages with both women & men
• Addresses unequal power dyn...
Points of Reflection
OPTIMIZACIÓN
DE LA
CADENA DE
VALOR
Investigación-acción
Indicadores
de resultado
Indicadores
de resul...
„Dialogo de Saberes‟ in the
Value Chain
Four levels of interaction and reflection –
„para dentro‟ (collective consciousnes...
IPVCA – Economic Feasibility Study with El Sur communities
Indicators Numbers
Meetings 90+ planning and
mobilizaiton meeti...
Resultado EVE
160 kg 160 kg 160 kg
628,6 bs 628,6 bs 628,6 bs
5,53 bs 5,53 bs 5,53 bs
12,60 bs 15,0 bs 17,0 bs
CENÁRIO ATU...
“Dialogo de Saberes”
Food Security Interventions,
• Integrated with other
livelihood-focused interventions
• Valuing local...
• Local dietarydiversity poster createdbyyouth –
“Familiescookingtogether, healthy and diverse!”
• Schoolgardens – engagin...
Results
- 95% workshop participation rate
- New link with Municipal Health Network
- Increased attention from municipal he...
Three levels of workshop and focus
group activity:
Key features that made a difference
Learning together with local people...
Gender Transformative
Approach Model (Kantor, 2013)
Practice
• Engages with both women & men
• Addresses unequal power dyn...
Reflection questions
• Howcan social learningorgendertransformative
approaches usingaction-learningtoolsbetterassistin
bui...
Thank you!
alison@worldfish.org
www.pecesvida.org
Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dial...
Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dial...
Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dial...
Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dial...
Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dial...
Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dial...
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Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dialogo de Saberes" approach

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  • Local proposal for improved pricing structure
  • Gender and Livelihoods: Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary "Dialogo de Saberes" approach

    1. 1. Transformative learning among communities and extension workers through an interdisciplinary “Dialogo de Saberes” approach: a case study of gender and food security interventions in Bolivian Amazon fisheries. Macnaughton, A., Ward, E., Coca, C., Rainville, T.K. and Carolsfeld, J. Presented at: International Food Security Dialogue 2014 May 2, 2014 Sponsored by: Hosted by: Session Theme: Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World
    2. 2. Presentation overview 1. An Introduction to Fisheries in the Northern Bolivian Amazon 2. Methods and tools 3. Results 1. Baseline information: Household survey, Gender and Diversity Analysis: Capacities and Vulnerabilities 2. Integrated Value Chain Mapping 3. „Dialogo de Saberes‟ focus groups and workshops 5. Discussion
    3. 3. Study population North Amazon Fishing Families
    4. 4. An Introduction to Fisheries in the Northern Bolivian Amazon • > 60% of Bolivia‟s land area • 850 + documented fish species (more in under-studied reaches) • >10 000 est. people in full-time commercial fisheries (60% male, 40% female), more in subsistence fishing (est. $ 7M/year) • 100% artisanal-levelfleet, lowtechwithmanybottlenecks • Diversity of fishers: Urban-based, campesinos and indigenous peoples (Takana, Esse Ejja, Cavineño, Chacobo, Pacahuara, etc.) • Women at alllevels of value-chain (fishing, owningboats,processing and distributing), strongestpresence in pre and post-harvestactivities and subsistence. • Some social stigmaassociatedwithfishing, butnotgenderspecific • Beingtransformedbyintroducedspecies - paiche
    5. 5. Changing context: living with/through transition • land reform • increased access • increasing demand • Infrastructure projects • changing climate and extreme weather • Introduced species
    6. 6. Imágenes extraídas de Miranda-Chumacero et al. (2010) Main commercial species in Bolivian Amazon (to 1970s) Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (surubí) Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum (chuncuina) Colossoma macropomum (pacú) Piaractus brachypomus (tambaquí)
    7. 7. paiche especies nativas Urban fisheries landings (Riberalta-based boats) Rural fisheries landings (indigenous and campesino) Total landings: 24 927 kg/month 20 % (25 spp.) 80 % 65 % (>60 spp) 35 % Urban and rural commercial catch composition in the Bolivian North Amazon (low water season 2011) Impacts of paiche on fishery production
    8. 8. Methods and Tools 1. Baseline information: 1. Household survey, 2. Fisheries Data Collection, 3. Gender and Diversity Analysis: Capacities and Vulnerabilities 1. Integrated Value Chain Analysis 2. „Dialogo de Saberes‟ focus groups and workshops
    9. 9. Household Survey: Determinants of Food Security 811 households 2 phases Low water: 2011 High water: 2012 HFIAS DIETARY DIVERSITY FISH CONSUMPTION LIVELIHOODS
    10. 10. 50% RURAL (Indigenous + campesinos) HFIAS
    11. 11. FoodInsecurityCorrelates Baker-French thesis, UBC RURAL (Indígenas + campesinos) P-value Odds Ratio Lower Upper Self-identifies as indigenous (mother) (Binomial: si/no) <0.01 2.87 1.71 4.83 Works in fishing/agriculture (mother) (Binomial: si/no) 0.02 0.43 0.21 0.86 Social Assistance recipient (Binomial: si/no) 0.03 0.43 0.20 0.92 Collection and consumption of forest products in past year (Binomial: si/no) <0.01 3.85 1.92 7.69
    12. 12. Fisheries Data, gender and identity • 5 communities • High-water and low-water • 154 fishers (16 F, 138 M) observed in landings records • 100% of regional women focus group participants (n=54) expressed detailed knowledge of fishing techniques (learned from husbands, fathers, or occasionally mothers) and engaged in at least occasional fishing, especially during dry season. • 0 of the same women considered themselves even part-time „fishers‟. • Similarly, in individual interviews of men locally recognized as „fishers‟, and whose annual income was derived almost exclusively from fishing in the last year (n=28), >50% considered themselves „primarily farmers‟ or „mixed farming and fishing‟ livelihoods.
    13. 13. Division of labor in Fishing Relative Participation Activity Women Men Youth Comments Net construction and mending xxx xx Not done by all women, some help husbands in this task Clean & scale fish xxx xx xx Primarily women older than 15 yrs; "we are the fisherwomen of fish products" Prepare cooler xxx Gutting xxx Mostly men Salt xxx xxx Done by both Scale fish xxx Scaling fish is more difficult Put fish in cooler or freezer xxx Take the fish to selling point XXX Buy ice and materials in Riberalta XXX Preparing fish for sale x Sell fish xx xxx Men sell fish outside of community, most women don't drive Sell fish in community xxx xx From 6 am to 1 pm Manage finances xxx xxx Women are responsible for children; Men act like they “don't even know if they have kids”
    14. 14. Gender and Diversity Analysis: Capacities and Vulnerabilities Dimension Vulnerabilities Capacities Material High Flood vulnerability (M, F) Limited livelihood options, high dependence on fishing (M, F) Lack of health services (M, F) Chronic infection due to untreated water, poor hygiene (M, F) High diversity of fish resources availabile, relatively abundant (M, F) Communal access rights to land and aquatic resources rights (M, F) Social Dependence on middlemen for „habilito‟ loans to cover fixed and variable costs, lack of transparency, high exploitation (M, F) Not participating in financial transactions, dependence on men for income (since men take fish to port to sell) (F) High levels of community solidarity (M, F) also with neighbouring communities (shared community association for fishing) Attitudinal Defeatist attitudes regarding flooding vulnerability, lack of mitigation measures (F, M) Self-identification as „farmers‟ (F, M) Strong identity with community (M, F) Strong identity as „farmers‟ (M, F)
    15. 15. Gender Transformative Approaches in Fisheries
    16. 16. Some conceptual references Social learning: • Balbin (1986) – Dialogo de Saberes • Freire (1968) – Pedagogia dos oprimdos • Thiollent (1984) – Action Learning • Friedmann (1987) – “Planning as Social Learning” • O‟Sullivan et al (2003) Experiential Transformative Learning Gender analysis and approaches: • Moser (1993) Gender Planning and Development • Kabeer (1999) Gender and Empowerment • Kantor (2013) Gender Transformative Approach in Aquatic Agricultural Systems (CGIAR-AAS)
    17. 17. Gender Transformative Approach Model (Kantor, 2013) Practice • Engages with both women & men • Addresses unequal power dynamics • Crosses scales • Challenges oppressive norms • Integrates w/ practical interventions Outcomes Inclusive & Sustained socio-ecological transformation Gender Equitable system (social enabling env.) More & Better life choices for poor women and men Research Understands People & Social diversity in their context Dynamic and Iterative, Enables critical learning, reflection & questioning Multi-scale
    18. 18. Points of Reflection OPTIMIZACIÓN DE LA CADENA DE VALOR Investigación-acción Indicadores de resultado Indicadores de resultado Indicadores de resultado Indicadores de resultado Indicadores de esfuerzo Indicadores de esfuerzo Which method works better? 2011-2012 2013 Impossible to measure short-term results of social learning Integrated Participative Value Chain Analysis
    19. 19. „Dialogo de Saberes‟ in the Value Chain Four levels of interaction and reflection – „para dentro‟ (collective consciousness and group identity construction), „para fuera‟ (consolidating identities and testing approaches in engagements and negotiations with other actors), „para arriba‟ (intersection of technical-local and new knowledge) and „para bajo‟ (knowledge application) including working together in hands-on projects in the community, generation of appropriate solutions for locally identified priorities and a focus on engaging families.
    20. 20. IPVCA – Economic Feasibility Study with El Sur communities Indicators Numbers Meetings 90+ planning and mobilizaiton meetings Analysis workshops 7 Participants >90% of adults and adolescents from 3 indigenous communities, invited participants from additional 10 communities Proportion female and male participants 60% female 40% male Numero de instituciones involucradas 5 instituciones Results indicators Metric Improved income at producer level New pricing table approved, considering production costs Institutional strengthening Change in Attitudes Collective equipment purchase (netmaking supplies)
    21. 21. Resultado EVE 160 kg 160 kg 160 kg 628,6 bs 628,6 bs 628,6 bs 5,53 bs 5,53 bs 5,53 bs 12,60 bs 15,0 bs 17,0 bs CENÁRIO ATUAL PROPUESTA 1 Precio Promedio de Venta al Comercializador PROPUESTA 2RESULTADO DEL EVE Volume do Pescado (mensual) Costos Fijos Costos Variables TABELA SÍNTESE VALORES UNIDAD DESCRIPCIÓN Volume de pesca 160 kg 40kg X 4 faenas = captura mensual Costos Fijos mensuales 628,6 bs TABLA DE DEPRECIACIÓN Costos Fijos /kg 3,9 Bs/kg costo fijo mensual / 12 meses Costos Variables/kg 5,53 bs/kg TABLA DE LOS COSTOS VARIABLES Costos Totales/kg 9,45 bs/kg costos fijos + costos variables Precio Promedio de Venta 12,60 bs/kg precio actual de la tabla Ganancia Liquida/kg 3,15 bs/kg precio promedio de venta - costos totales GANANCIA LÍQUIDA/MÊS 503,4 bs/mês ganancia liquida/kg X 160 kg/mês PRECIOS ACTUALES E PROPUESTA DE PRECIOS MAS JUSTOS 12,60 15,0 17,0 CATEGORIAS DE PESCADO Categoria 1 Categoria 2 Categoria 3 PROMEDIO 13,23 15,00 17,00 7,67 10,00 12,00 PRECIOS ATUALES (Bs) PROPUESTA 1 (Bs) PROPUESTA 2 (Bs) 16,90 20,00 22,00
    22. 22. “Dialogo de Saberes” Food Security Interventions, • Integrated with other livelihood-focused interventions • Valuing local diversity • Strengthening support networks with public health agency • Building self-confidence and community organizing
    23. 23. • Local dietarydiversity poster createdbyyouth – “Familiescookingtogether, healthy and diverse!” • Schoolgardens – engagingfamilies • Community-school workshops (everyoneparticipates) • Practical training in hygiene and processingfor use at-home and in commercialfishing (everyone) • Improvedknowledgeregardingbreastfeeding, infant and youngchildfeeding and development, recognizingsigns of infection, treatmentoptions (women and men) “Dialogo de Saberes” Results
    24. 24. Results - 95% workshop participation rate - New link with Municipal Health Network - Increased attention from municipal heath services (50% increase in frequency of community visits) - 100% of women and men engaged in discussion about women‟s and men‟s health rights - 90% of families implement kitchen gardens for improved dietary diversity and additional income
    25. 25. Three levels of workshop and focus group activity: Key features that made a difference Learning together with local people about their priorities for development Trust-building and integrated entry points that promote opportunities for inclusive participation in areas that might otherwise be assumed to be „for men‟ or „for women‟ Creating spaces for leadership development and empowerment through the co-production of knowledge and valuing of contributions of women, men and families, Including special initiatives to identify the strategic contributions and needs of women in the fisheries and aquaculture value chains; and Applying locally-adapted training and learning-by-doing capacity building to address bottlenecks, (fisheries management, improved hygiene and processing, recognition and and ultimately, to improve food security. valuing the participation of females, social organization
    26. 26. Gender Transformative Approach Model (Kantor, 2013) Practice • Engages with both women & men • Addresses unequal power dynamics • Crosses scales • Challenges oppressive norms • Integrates w/ practical interventions Outcomes Inclusive & Sustained socio-ecological transformation Gender Equitable system (social enabling env.) More & Better life choices for poor women and men Research Understands People & Social diversity in their context Dynamic and Iterative, Enables critical learning, reflection & questioning Multi-scale
    27. 27. Reflection questions • Howcan social learningorgendertransformative approaches usingaction-learningtoolsbetterassistin buildingenabling social environmentduringthebaselineassessmentstage? How to measurecontributionsatthisstage?
    28. 28. Thank you! alison@worldfish.org www.pecesvida.org

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