Total fish production- 486,170 Mt (2012)Marine fish- 417,200 MtAquaculture- 68,950 MtForeign exchange earnings- US$ 246 Mn (2011)Employment- 650,000 peopleContribution to GDP- 1.8%In Sri Lanka, fish are a vital food source, comprising over 50% of animal protein in human diets. Currently, the government is aiming to almost double fish consumption per capita, from 11.4 kg per year in 2009 to 22 kg in 2016. In this context, the development of aquaculture, such as shrimp farming, oyster cultivation and rearing of fish in tanks seasonal reservoirs, has significant potential. This is capable of successfully addressing food security challenges, leading to poverty reduction and income stabilization.
Understand the contribution of women in a livelihood context – not just gender division of labour in value chains (Williams et.al. 2011). How they utilize fishery resources in the context of maintaining livelihoods household food security, what decisions they make in fishery households what resources they use to maximize value from what they have access to.Adapt interventions to build directly on these contributions
Selection of participants was based on people involved in or interested
Average age- 35.2 yrsHalf of total household income from fishing- 71%Exclusive household income from fishing- Gangewadiya- 56%, Kandakuliya- 15%60% of the households’ average income (US$ 382) is less than the global lowest poverty line indicatorDue to seasonality in fishing income distribution is uneven.PRA results:75-80% of food obtained from open market50-60% of income spent on food Survey results39% spent on food (Gangewadiya- 44%; Kandakuiya- 34%)87% borrowed money to purchase foodFrom friends (36%), family members (32%) fish buyers (23%)Household members did not receive enough of important foods- 83%
Value chain – market driven – Buyer/Processor (Private sector partner) - links markets with producers and key to growth. Corporate Social Responsibility - womenAssess sites – production (seed collection, growth, technologies) and risks (water contamination, porst-harvest purification, lab testing) – Participatory / NARA Assess suitability of sites to fit profile of women’s contributions and pathway to empowerment (PRA, Interviews) – Participatory. Trials at pilot sites – training, participatory process with women. Institutions and governance – user rights for aquaculture, security – participatory governance (NARA) Monitoring and Evaluation – Links governance, review of success and challenges, adapting interventions
Transcript of "Gender and Livelihoods: Revealing and enhancing the position of women in Sri Lankan aquaculture development"
Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity
and Nutritional Security in a Changing World
International Food Security Dialogue 2014
Revealing and enhancing
the position of women in
Sri Lankan aquaculture
Chamila Jayasinghe1 and Tim Dejager2
1Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka
2Co3 Consulting, British Columbia, Canada
Background – Fish and Food
Security in Sri Lanka, gender
Research questions - Gender
Methodology – Revealing
gender position; adapting
Results and Outcomes –
Building on strengths and
contributions of women. Figure 1. Small fish caught and dried by the
women in Mahiloor, Eastern Province, Sri
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Percentage of Dietary Animal Protein
Fish and Food Security in Sri Lanka
Government of Sri Lanka aims to
double fish consumption per
capita, from 11.4 kg per year in
2009 to 22 kg in 2016. It aims to
double production of fish by
Sri Lanka Fish Production 2012 (MT)
• Fisheries sector in Sri Lanka is
dominated by men.
• Women’s involvement is high, but
• Women’s role and contribution is
not recognized in policy and
• Women’s interests not well
represented in governance - not
involved in decision making and
• Women’s access to resources and
assets is limited.
• Information on women’s role and
contribution is lacking.
Gender and Fisheries
• How can these
targets, specifically with
respect to aquaculture, be
reached in a gender equitable
and inclusive manner?
• Will the conditions, roles, and
positions of women in the
fisheries sector be replicated in
aquaculture development or
follow a different more
Gender in the
• Understand the contribution of women in a
livelihood context – not just gender division of
labour in value chains
• Oyster culture case study: villages where fisheries
was primary income and few alternatives.
Gangewadiya and Kandakuliya.
Locations of the study
Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) – 3 sectors
(shrimp farming, inland aquaculture, oyster culture)
– Tools: Seasonal calendars, venn
diagrams, wagon wheel diagrams, activity
– Areas: Income status &
vulnerabilities, activities & decision
making, food security, knowledge &
– Gangewadiya- 8 men & 12
women, Kandakuliya- 6 men & 12 women.
– Women in both communities – K=20 + G=16
Adapt pilot culture trials and site and process
Results and Discussion
Income vulnerability is high – unstable incomes through year – 6
month fishing season – debt is common. Annual household
incomes are low. Food security vulnerabilities.
Women’s contribution to livelihood is high – contribute to
fisheries income, other income, household maintenance and
reproductive responsibilities, harvest and use local resources.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Income level (US$/
US$ 400-800 25 26
< US$ 400 44 74
Fishing 100% 56 15
Fishing 50-99% 25 45
Fishing 1-49% 19 20
Perceptions of food security using
percentage of food purchased in
markets (cash transaction)
Perceptions of food security using proportion
of income spent on food relative to other
categories of household expenditure.
How women perceive the opportunity
• Build on women’s existing contributions they already see this
as something they CAN do. Financial decision-making.
Familiarity with resource and environment. Involve in
monitoring. Link them directly to end markets – value chain
Feel oyster farming improve household income 92 100 85
Women can do oyster farming by own 86 94 80
Have enough time to dedicate for oyster farming 89 100 80
If I culture oyster I have to spend less time on other activities 88 100 85
Oyster farming help to be leaders 97 94 100
Financial decision on oyster farming : by own
Husband/ male head
Oyster Culture Development with Mainstreaming
Pilot trials –
• Women have made a declining
resource activity continue to be
feasible by providing food and
cash income from subsistence /
• Income instability and food
insecurity can be addressed
through oyster aquaculture
• Gender position is not highly
constrained (open?) in this form
of aquaculture – transitioning
from catching fish to farming
fish. Women can see themselves
taking it on.
20,000 oysters sold– can provide
an income of USD 1,600
Sharing this with 4 households can
double household income.
Oyster culture value chain developing in Sri Lanka
Project undertaken with the financial support of the International Development
Research Centre (IDRC), www.idrc.ca, and the Government of Canada, provided
through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada
International Food Security Dialogue hosted by the University of Alberta
Thanks to the community members of Kanadakuliya and Gangewadiya, particularly
Mrs Shamila Perera of Kandakuliya and Mr. Lindamulage Ajith Kumara of
Gangewadiya, Hasantha Gunaweera, Shan Memanage, Dr. Palitha Kithsiri and the
researchers and field staff of the National Aquatic Resources Research and
Development Agency (NARA), Prof. WMTB Wanninayake, Dr. Sam Daniel, Bea
Vanderlinden, Sara Ahmed, and project teams of Wayamba University of Sri Lanka,
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries North Western Province, and the British
Columbia Aquatic Food Resources Society.
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