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Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity
and Nutritional Security in a Changing World
International Food Security Dialogue...
Outline
Background – Fish and Food
Security in Sri Lanka, gender
and fisheries
Research questions - Gender
in aquaculture
...
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Bangladesh
Sri Lanka
Pakistan
India
Percentage of Dietary Animal Protein
from Fish
Fish and Food Se...
• Fisheries sector in Sri Lanka is
dominated by men.
• Women’s involvement is high, but
invisible.
• Women’s role and cont...
Research Questions
• How can these
targets, specifically with
respect to aquaculture, be
reached in a gender equitable
and...
Approach to
Gender in the
Project
• Understand the contribution of women in a
livelihood context – not just gender divisio...
Methods
Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) – 3 sectors
(shrimp farming, inland aquaculture, oyster culture)
– Tools: Seas...
Results and Discussion
Income vulnerability is high – unstable incomes through year – 6
month fishing season – debt is com...
Perceptions of food security using
percentage of food purchased in
markets (cash transaction)
Perceptions of food security...
How women perceive the opportunity
• Build on women’s existing contributions they already see this
as something they CAN d...
Oyster Culture Development with Mainstreaming
Gender
Develop
Markets
Assess local
sites
Analyze
social
condition
(gender)
...
Oyster culture system technology
Conclusions
• Women have made a declining
resource activity continue to be
feasible by providing food and
cash income from...
Oyster culture value chain developing in Sri Lanka
Link: http://youtu.be/7iuS7ERjg78
Acknowledgements
Project undertaken with the financial support of the International Development
Research Centre (IDRC), ww...
Gender and Livelihoods: Revealing and enhancing the position of women in Sri Lankan aquaculture development
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Gender and Livelihoods: Revealing and enhancing the position of women in Sri Lankan aquaculture development

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  • Total fish production- 486,170 Mt (2012)Marine fish- 417,200 MtAquaculture- 68,950 MtForeign exchange earnings- US$ 246 Mn (2011)Employment- 650,000 peopleContribution to GDP- 1.8%In Sri Lanka, fish are a vital food source, comprising over 50% of animal protein in human diets. Currently, the government is aiming to almost double fish consumption per capita, from 11.4 kg per year in 2009 to 22 kg in 2016. In this context, the development of aquaculture, such as shrimp farming, oyster cultivation and rearing of fish in tanks seasonal reservoirs, has significant potential. This is capable of successfully addressing food security challenges, leading to poverty reduction and income stabilization.
  • Understand the contribution of women in a livelihood context – not just gender division of labour in value chains (Williams et.al. 2011). How they utilize fishery resources in the context of maintaining livelihoods household food security, what decisions they make in fishery households what resources they use to maximize value from what they have access to.Adapt interventions to build directly on these contributions
  • Selection of participants was based on people involved in or interested
  • Average age- 35.2 yrsHalf of total household income from fishing- 71%Exclusive household income from fishing- Gangewadiya- 56%, Kandakuliya- 15%60% of the households’ average income (US$ 382) is less than the global lowest poverty line indicatorDue to seasonality in fishing income distribution is uneven.PRA results:75-80% of food obtained from open market50-60% of income spent on food Survey results39% spent on food (Gangewadiya- 44%; Kandakuiya- 34%)87% borrowed money to purchase foodFrom friends (36%), family members (32%) fish buyers (23%)Household members did not receive enough of important foods- 83%
  • Value chain – market driven – Buyer/Processor (Private sector partner) - links markets with producers and key to growth. Corporate Social Responsibility - womenAssess sites – production (seed collection, growth, technologies) and risks (water contamination, porst-harvest purification, lab testing) – Participatory / NARA Assess suitability of sites to fit profile of women’s contributions and pathway to empowerment (PRA, Interviews) – Participatory. Trials at pilot sites – training, participatory process with women. Institutions and governance – user rights for aquaculture, security – participatory governance (NARA) Monitoring and Evaluation – Links governance, review of success and challenges, adapting interventions
  • Transcript of "Gender and Livelihoods: Revealing and enhancing the position of women in Sri Lankan aquaculture development"

    1. 1. Enhancing Food Production, Gender Equity and Nutritional Security in a Changing World International Food Security Dialogue 2014 Revealing and enhancing the position of women in Sri Lankan aquaculture development Chamila Jayasinghe1 and Tim Dejager2 1Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka 2Co3 Consulting, British Columbia, Canada
    2. 2. Outline Background – Fish and Food Security in Sri Lanka, gender and fisheries Research questions - Gender in aquaculture Methodology – Revealing gender position; adapting interventions. Results and Outcomes – Building on strengths and contributions of women. Figure 1. Small fish caught and dried by the women in Mahiloor, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka
    3. 3. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Bangladesh Sri Lanka Pakistan India Percentage of Dietary Animal Protein from Fish Fish and Food Security in Sri Lanka Government of Sri Lanka aims to double fish consumption per capita, from 11.4 kg per year in 2009 to 22 kg in 2016. It aims to double production of fish by 2016. 417,200 56,950 12,000 Sri Lanka Fish Production 2012 (MT) Marine capture Inland fish Aquaculture Fisheries employ 650,000 people
    4. 4. • Fisheries sector in Sri Lanka is dominated by men. • Women’s involvement is high, but invisible. • Women’s role and contribution is not recognized in policy and programs. • Women’s interests not well represented in governance - not involved in decision making and leadership roles • Women’s access to resources and assets is limited. • Information on women’s role and contribution is lacking. Gender and Fisheries
    5. 5. Research Questions • How can these targets, specifically with respect to aquaculture, be reached in a gender equitable and inclusive manner? • Will the conditions, roles, and positions of women in the fisheries sector be replicated in aquaculture development or follow a different more equitable pathway?
    6. 6. Approach to Gender in the Project • Understand the contribution of women in a livelihood context – not just gender division of labour in value chains • Oyster culture case study: villages where fisheries was primary income and few alternatives. Gangewadiya and Kandakuliya. Locations of the study
    7. 7. Methods Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) – 3 sectors (shrimp farming, inland aquaculture, oyster culture) – Tools: Seasonal calendars, venn diagrams, wagon wheel diagrams, activity clocks. – Areas: Income status & vulnerabilities, activities & decision making, food security, knowledge & connectivity. – Gangewadiya- 8 men & 12 women, Kandakuliya- 6 men & 12 women. Questionnaire survey – Women in both communities – K=20 + G=16 Adapt pilot culture trials and site and process monitoring
    8. 8. Results and Discussion Income vulnerability is high – unstable incomes through year – 6 month fishing season – debt is common. Annual household incomes are low. Food security vulnerabilities. Women’s contribution to livelihood is high – contribute to fisheries income, other income, household maintenance and reproductive responsibilities, harvest and use local resources. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Kandakuliya Gangewadiya Months Income Income level (US$/ Year) Respondent (%) Gangewadiya Kandakuliya US$ 400-800 25 26 < US$ 400 44 74 Fishing 100% 56 15 Fishing 50-99% 25 45 Fishing 1-49% 19 20 Women -main income earner 6 20
    9. 9. Perceptions of food security using percentage of food purchased in markets (cash transaction) Perceptions of food security using proportion of income spent on food relative to other categories of household expenditure.
    10. 10. How women perceive the opportunity • Build on women’s existing contributions they already see this as something they CAN do. Financial decision-making. Familiarity with resource and environment. Involve in monitoring. Link them directly to end markets – value chain learning. Item Both villages Gange- wadiya Kanda- kuliya Feel oyster farming improve household income 92 100 85 Women can do oyster farming by own 86 94 80 Have enough time to dedicate for oyster farming 89 100 80 If I culture oyster I have to spend less time on other activities 88 100 85 Oyster farming help to be leaders 97 94 100 Financial decision on oyster farming : by own Jointly Husband/ male head 64 28 8 56 31 13 70 25 5
    11. 11. Oyster Culture Development with Mainstreaming Gender Develop Markets Assess local sites Analyze social condition (gender) Pilot trials – training participation Build Institutions and Governance Monitoring and Evaluation
    12. 12. Oyster culture system technology
    13. 13. Conclusions • Women have made a declining resource activity continue to be feasible by providing food and cash income from subsistence / livelihood activities • Income instability and food insecurity can be addressed through oyster aquaculture • Gender position is not highly constrained (open?) in this form of aquaculture – transitioning from catching fish to farming fish. Women can see themselves taking it on. 20,000 oysters sold– can provide an income of USD 1,600 Sharing this with 4 households can double household income.
    14. 14. Oyster culture value chain developing in Sri Lanka Link: http://youtu.be/7iuS7ERjg78
    15. 15. Acknowledgements Project undertaken with the financial support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), www.idrc.ca, and the Government of Canada, provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD), www.international.gc.ca International Food Security Dialogue hosted by the University of Alberta Thanks to the community members of Kanadakuliya and Gangewadiya, particularly Mrs Shamila Perera of Kandakuliya and Mr. Lindamulage Ajith Kumara of Gangewadiya, Hasantha Gunaweera, Shan Memanage, Dr. Palitha Kithsiri and the researchers and field staff of the National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency (NARA), Prof. WMTB Wanninayake, Dr. Sam Daniel, Bea Vanderlinden, Sara Ahmed, and project teams of Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries North Western Province, and the British Columbia Aquatic Food Resources Society.
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