Gender and Food Security
Jacqueline
Ashby
Senior Advisor,
Gender and
Research
CGIAR
Consortium
Topics
• Challenges for gender research in
food security
• Lessons from mainstreaming
gender in CGIAR Research
Programmes ...
1. Challenges for gender
research in food security
• The “gender
gap” in
agriculture
• Risks
• Opportunities
The “gender gap” in
agriculture (FAO, 2010)
In most regions of
the world, one out
of five farms is
headed by a
women
Women...
The “gender gap” in
agriculture (FAO, 2010)
Inequalities between
women and men
producers:
• hold back agricultural
product...
Example: gender
productivity gap in Ghana
• Women are not
confident of their
rights to hold land
left fallow.
• So women f...
The “gender gap” in
agriculture (FAO, 2010)
Pervasive inequalities between
women and men in:
• Assets for agriculture --la...
Making the case: Why close the gender gap
in agriculture and food systems?
Risks of ignoring
the gender gap
• Women don’t buy
into proposed
technologies or
strategies if these
are inappropriate (eg...
Example: technology is not
adopted
Review of 24 multivariate studies of
technological input use, access, and adoption
fert...
Risks: women are worse off
and oppose innovations
• Innovations
increase drudgery
for women
• Women do not
share increases...
Case –Tanzania village studies
• Rainy season is now much shorter: farmers in the two
villages studied adapted by growing ...
Opportunity:
Transformative Approaches
• Female autonomy is
an important
determinant of
productivity and
earnings of rural...
Gender relations affect
autonomy in:
(1) Decisions about
agricultural production
and marketing
(2) Power over use of
resou...
Example: improving value chains
without transforming autonomy.
• Women didn’t market
increased horticulture
production bec...
Example: improved autonomy,
Mozambique
2002: the Towards Sustainable Nutrition Improvement
Project targeted improved vitam...
Example: economic
empowerment
Decision power (54
Asian communities):
• Community-level gender
norms are more
important det...
2. Lessons from mainstreaming
Gender in CGIAR Research
Programs (CRPs)
1981: first
position paper
on gender in the
CGIAR
2...
Value Proposition: Gender and System Level
Outcomes
• Identify key barriers to
empowerment in
agriculture
• Increase scale, scope and
significance of gender
research
• Unders...
Core challenges of CRP
Gender Strategies
• Diagnose
o Barriers that research can
address
o Barriers that research can
addr...
Implement a program-wide
Gender Strategy
• Accountability
Gender Budget: a must!
• Many CRP proposals
lacked a gender
budget
• Dedicated funds for
gender research must
be earmarked...
Clear Deliverables
All CRPs must:
•Have an approved gender
strategy that is
implemented within 6
months of their inception...
Hold programs accountable
CGIAR Consortium Board
approved policy states
that funds can be
withheld if Program plans
of wor...
Build Research Capacity
Gender Strategy
requires:
• high calibre social
scientists
•gender awareness and
accountability at...
Gender Postdoctoral Fellows and
University Partnership Scheme
20 new postdoctoral
fellowships
3 University
partnerships fo...
3. Opportunities and challenges
operationalizing an effective
gender research programme
• Promote gender
awareness at all ...
Promising interventions linking gender
and food security
• A suite of
integrated
services designed
to reach poor
women far...
Autonomy
EG. In Malawi, women
with profitable farms:
• Cultivate high value
cash (not subsistence)
crops
• Belong to villa...
Thanks!
http://cgiar.org
How we do
research/
Research on
gender in
agriculture
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  • These two motivations for closing the gender gap in agriculture are not mutually exclusive, but rather, reinforcing.
    Equality: “Gender equality matters intrinsically, because the ability to live the life of one’s own choosing and be spared from absolute deprivation is a basic human right and should be equal for everyone, independent of whether one is male or female” (WDR 2012).
    Efficiency: “Gender equality matters instrumentally, because greater gender equality contributes to economic efficiency and the achievement of other key development outcomes” (WDR 2012).
    While gender equality is an extremely important goal in its own right, today we are focusing on how it will help us achieve other development goals, including the CGIAR’s SLOs.
  • The World Bank, the FAO, and researchers across the CGIAR have made the case for gender equality, arguing that the different roles, rights, and responsibilities of men and women must be considered for development interventions to be successful.
    Here are a some examples of why the CGIAR cannot achieve the SLOs without closing the gender gap.
    Nutrition for the elderly reduces morbidity
  • This has been shown in an EC study and FAO has set targets on this
  • Jacqueline Ashby

    1. 1. Gender and Food Security Jacqueline Ashby Senior Advisor, Gender and Research CGIAR Consortium
    2. 2. Topics • Challenges for gender research in food security • Lessons from mainstreaming gender in CGIAR Research Programmes (CRPs) • Opportunities and challenges: operationalizing an effective gender research programme
    3. 3. 1. Challenges for gender research in food security • The “gender gap” in agriculture • Risks • Opportunities
    4. 4. The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) In most regions of the world, one out of five farms is headed by a women Women comprise about 40% of people working on farms in low- income countries Mali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the Niger River (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
    5. 5. The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) Inequalities between women and men producers: • hold back agricultural productivity ( causing yield gaps of 20-25%) • perpetuate poverty and unsustainable resource use • make women more vulnerable to climate- change impacts on agriculture Photo P. Casier (CGIAR).
    6. 6. Example: gender productivity gap in Ghana • Women are not confident of their rights to hold land left fallow. • So women fallow their plots less than their husbands, and achieve much lower yields Source: Goldstein et.al. 2008
    7. 7. The “gender gap” in agriculture (FAO, 2010) Pervasive inequalities between women and men in: • Assets for agriculture --land, water, trees, fisheries, livestock, especially insecure property rights • Labor markets • Access to services- financial, advisory, business development • Knowledge and skills • Technology • Membership of farmer organizations • Policy Mali women collect firewood for cooking on the dry bed of the Niger River (photo on Flickr by United Nations).
    8. 8. Making the case: Why close the gender gap in agriculture and food systems?
    9. 9. Risks of ignoring the gender gap • Women don’t buy into proposed technologies or strategies if these are inappropriate (eg. more labor intensive) • Women can’t access or use information about recommended innovations • Women oppose or cannot invest in needed innovations Photo P. Casier (CGIAR).
    10. 10. Example: technology is not adopted Review of 24 multivariate studies of technological input use, access, and adoption fertilizer, seed varieties, tools, pesticide use, access, and adoption. • 79 percent of studies found men have higher access to technologies • 59 percent of studies found the farmer’s sex has no significant effect on output once unequal farm size, credit, capital, extension and other factors are taken into account
    11. 11. Risks: women are worse off and oppose innovations • Innovations increase drudgery for women • Women do not share increases in income when men control marketing • Thus, women face different incentives from men Photo P. Casier (CGIAR).
    12. 12. Case –Tanzania village studies • Rainy season is now much shorter: farmers in the two villages studied adapted by growing more drought- tolerant crops. • Faster-maturing sorghum and maize plus new varieties of sesame and sunflower were introduced • Increased marketing of food crops, sorghum and maize, traditionally grown by women increased their workloads • New crops-- sesame and sunflower-- increased income but led to more weeding work for women. • Women did not benefit from the profits: all grain is typically sold by men, and women are less likely than men to control the cash received. Source: Nelson & Stathers 2009
    13. 13. Opportunity: Transformative Approaches • Female autonomy is an important determinant of productivity and earnings of rural women producers Source Buvinic 2013
    14. 14. Gender relations affect autonomy in: (1) Decisions about agricultural production and marketing (2) Power over use of resources like land, water and livestock (3) Control over food availability, spending and income (4) Leadership in the community and bargaining power in markets (5) Time use and workloads
    15. 15. Example: improving value chains without transforming autonomy. • Women didn’t market increased horticulture production because they don’t control the land or the income generated (Burkina Faso & Uganda) • Men removed dairy cattle far away from the homestead to prevent women from increasing their household bargaining power from sales of milk (Kenya) Source: Quisumbing et al 2013
    16. 16. Example: improved autonomy, Mozambique 2002: the Towards Sustainable Nutrition Improvement Project targeted improved vitamin intake among children under five •Sweet potato was a “women’s crop” in 72% of farms but women sold it in only 48% •Women farmers tested high-yielding varieties and were directly involved in their evaluation and selection. •Women and men of all ages identified practices that could reduce women’s workloads •RESULT: 90 percent of farmers adopted, vitamin A intake increased 8 times for children in adopter households
    17. 17. Example: economic empowerment Decision power (54 Asian communities): • Community-level gender norms are more important determinants of empowerment than women’s personal characteristics (e.g. education, landownership) • Domestic violence is equally important Source: Mason & Smith 2003
    18. 18. 2. Lessons from mainstreaming Gender in CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs) 1981: first position paper on gender in the CGIAR 2011: first CGIAR-wide gender research strategy
    19. 19. Value Proposition: Gender and System Level Outcomes
    20. 20. • Identify key barriers to empowerment in agriculture • Increase scale, scope and significance of gender research • Understand broad trends in changing gender relations that matter • Work with implementation partners to design transformative interventions Core challenges of CRP Gender Strategies
    21. 21. Core challenges of CRP Gender Strategies • Diagnose o Barriers that research can address o Barriers that research can address with partners o Barriers best left to others o Maximize extrapolation and generalizability • Improve the data and methods – Collect better sex- disaggregated data – Drill down into gender relations
    22. 22. Implement a program-wide Gender Strategy • Accountability
    23. 23. Gender Budget: a must! • Many CRP proposals lacked a gender budget • Dedicated funds for gender research must be earmarked at the planning stage of research • Monitor performance
    24. 24. Clear Deliverables All CRPs must: •Have an approved gender strategy that is implemented within 6 months of their inception •Report outputs with demonstrable and measurable benefits to women farmers in target areas within 4 years following inception of the CRP. •By 2015 train and recruit to ensure sufficient gender expertise. Objective • To improve the relevance of the CGIAR's research to poor women as well as men (reduced poverty and hunger, improved health and environmental resilience) in all the geographical areas where the work is implemented and targeted by end of 2012. • By 2015 progress towards these outcomes will be measurable.
    25. 25. Hold programs accountable CGIAR Consortium Board approved policy states that funds can be withheld if Program plans of work and budget or annual reports do not meet expected standards of gender mainstreaming i.e. - Appropriate research outputs and outcomes - Adequate funds allocated - Gender-responsive research approaches - Results that benefit men and women and improve women’s empowerment Objective • To improve the relevance of the CGIAR's research to poor women as well as men (reduced poverty and hunger, improved health and environmental resilience) in all the geographical areas where the work is implemented and targeted by end of 2012. • By 2015 progress towards these outcomes will be measurable.
    26. 26. Build Research Capacity Gender Strategy requires: • high calibre social scientists •gender awareness and accountability at all management levels •partnerships capable of leveraging gender equality for positive impact
    27. 27. Gender Postdoctoral Fellows and University Partnership Scheme 20 new postdoctoral fellowships 3 University partnerships for mentoring research quality
    28. 28. 3. Opportunities and challenges operationalizing an effective gender research programme • Promote gender awareness at all levels • Ensure performance monitoring of gender in research and accountability for its deliverables • Invest in capacity development • Install policy supporting gender and diversity in the workplace
    29. 29. Promising interventions linking gender and food security • A suite of integrated services designed to reach poor women farmers: land rights, farmer groups, savings and loans, technologies and training
    30. 30. Autonomy EG. In Malawi, women with profitable farms: • Cultivate high value cash (not subsistence) crops • Belong to village savings and credit unions • Control farmland, decide what to grow and how to spend their earnings Source Dimova & Gang 2013
    31. 31. Thanks! http://cgiar.org How we do research/ Research on gender in agriculture

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