Nutrition and Health: Harnessing pulse for linking agriculture and nutrition and ensuring food security


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  • Ethiopia is no exception. hidden hunger,’ because its symptoms have few visible warning signs, micronutrient malnutrition results from consistently consuming foods severely lacking in vitamins and minerals (particularly vitamin A, iron, iodine and zinc), which are essential for proper physical and mental development
    Stunting >20% in under five children …problem
  • In Ethiopia, increasing the productivity of pulses presents an opportunity in reversing poverty and food insecurity. In part, because pulses have the capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen in soils and thus improve soil fertility and save fertilizer costs in subsequent crops (Serraj 2004). The rotation of cereal crops with legumes is essential, if soil health and the sustainability of production systems are to be maintained. In this case, pulses production is integral part of smallholder farming systems where farmers commonly practice crop rotation of cereals with legumes. Growing pulse crops also enables more intensive and productive use of land, particularly in areas where land is scarce and the crop can be grown as a second crop using residual moisture. Increased use of pulses reduces malnutrition and improves human health, especially for the poor who cannot afford livestock products. Pulses are an excellent source of protein, fiber, complex carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Finally, with growing demand in both the domestic and export markets pulse crops provides a source of cash for smallholder producers.
  • Soils were characterised for Fe and Zn deficiencies. Most of the soils in selected locations in Ethiopia were low in Fe and Zn.
    A study was conducted in different locations to see the effect of N, P and Zn applications in haricot bean yield. Application of Zn along with N and P increased haricot bean productivity as compared to Zn alone in 2 out of 6 locations.
    Another study was undertaken to identify the Zn application method for increased productivity. Both foliar and soil application of Zn on maize at Butajira increased grain and biomass yield by 22% and 15% respectively as compared to control when grown as sole crop vs intercropped with haricot beans.
    In a similar experiment at Zeway, soil and foliar application increased the grain and biomass yield of sole haricot bean vs intercropped with maize.
  • Effect of N,P,Zn and Fe fertilization was studied on different varieties of haricot beans and at different locations.
    In order to see the effect of bean residue on following wheat crop, an experiment was conducted where wheat was grown on soils with or without incorporated bean residue. Initial results indicated that thousand seed weight and mean seed per spike were significantly affected by bean residue. Further analysis are still being in progress.
  • Produce at least 70% of the food
    Own only 1% of the land
    Receive 7% of the extension services and 10% of the credit that is available to small-scale farmers
  • Nutrition and Health: Harnessing pulse for linking agriculture and nutrition and ensuring food security

    1. 1. C. Henry, S. Beyene, A. Nayyar, G. Brehanu, H. Haileslassie, E. Kinfe , T. Fikre, R.T. Tyler, Food Security Dialogue, University of Alberta Harnessing Pulses for linking Agriculture and Nutrition and Ensuring Food Security
    2. 2. Challenges to Linking Agriculture and Nutrition: Ensuring Food Security Persistent hunger: ~ 870 million people chronically undernourished (FAO 2012) Growing, urbanizing population Changes in food consumption patterns Food price volatility Climate change – increased occurrence of shocks Focus on Feeding 9 Billion People (yields, productivity) Need to focus also on access to high quality diets
    3. 3. Challenges and Success in Linking Agriculture and Nutrition - Marie Ruel, IFPRI
    4. 4. Nutrition Situation in Ethiopia Micronutrient deficiency, also known as “hidden hunger,” is a major public health problem in most developing countries and Ethiopia is no exception
    5. 5. Availability Access Utilization - 50% of reproductive age group women deficient in iron - 72% of pregnant women in Southern part deficient in zinc - 44% under five years children stunted
    6. 6. • Population health- gender, value chain • Micronutrients processing • Household & post harvest • Soil quality • Genetic varieties • Nutrition interventions 5 innovations Gender
    7. 7. LegumesLegumes Leguminous crops play an important role in the diet of low income people Majority of population is engaged in agriculture
    8. 8. Soils were characterized for Fe and Zn deficiency Application of Zn along with N and P increased haricot bean productivity as compared to Zn alone in 2 out of 6 locations. Both foliar and soil application of Zn on maize at Butajira increased grain and biomass yield by 22% and 15% respectively as compared to control (application method). Zn (soil and folair) application increased grain and biomass yield by 42.5% and 44% in Zeway Studies on productivity: Soil/plant
    9. 9. Hawassa Dume and Ayenew produced higher grain yield as compared to Melkie and Red Wolaita varieties of Haricot beans (varieties) Grain yield and biomass yield was higher at Halaba location as compared to Taba and Meskan districts (varieties). Thousand seed weight and mean seed per spike were significantly affected by bean residue (Crop residue). Studies on productivity: Soil/plant
    10. 10. Population health Several studies examined the relationship of socioeconomics, gender, & nutrition & health status Focused primarily on women & young children Findings: female’s role was less valued in pulses production, local cultural practices on decision-making limits women’s ability to benefit economically from the sale of pulses Mothers need for nutrition education
    11. 11. Studies: Pulses Value Chain Analysis Study: Potential and constraints for livelihood improvement and export development in selected Woredas of Southern Ethiopia (Tewodros (2013) Method: Survey interview questionnaire Key Findings:  Males dominate sale of chickpea in three of the study sites.  Differences in intra household food distribution, meaning, some household members, get better access to a specific food items than others.  One women said “ haricot bean sale is a cause of fight and disagreement among many households because men do not tell us for how much they sell the produce and we have no say on how the money should be spent” Jaffe & Kaler – Social dimensions
    12. 12. Gender Analysis Framework Nigatu, et al, 2013
    13. 13. Gender-Nutrition Sensitization Workshop Held in Hawassa, December 4-6,2013 Goal: forum for experience sharing, feedback gathering; issues and opportunities for implementing a gender sensitive agenda across project sites. Participants: 128 stakeholders (farmers, plus) AM- Focus groups- male, female, decision makers Afternoon- experience sharing-best practices Several presentations- gender study, value chain
    14. 14. Gender Sensitization Workshop Outcome of the workshop: Farmers expressed that knowledge was increased about importance of pulse production and consumption for improved productivity and diet quality. Best practice shared on pulse production, processing, preparation and consumption. Guidance to researchers on areas where project could be strengthened Training on the nutritional importance of pulses and preparation methods for diet enrichment Nutrition research such as recipe development and testing
    15. 15. Concerns about Reducing Women's Burden
    16. 16. Poem on benefits Of haricot beans
    17. 17. Micronutrient levels of commonly consumed dishes Household food processing for improved micronutrient intake; sensory analysis & consumer acceptability studies Effect of post harvest practices Nutrient and anti nutrient content analysis of chickpea varieties (local desi, improved desi: Mestewal and improved kabuli: Habru ) Analysis of functional, physicochemical and cooking characteristics of three chickpea varieties
    18. 18. Studies: Biobioavailability and mineral content of chickpea and bean based dishes Methods: Application of household food processing treatments (soaking at 12, 24 and 48 hours and germination at 24, 48 and 72hours) Results: Mineral content (zinc, iron, calcium ) of chickpea and bean based dishes were well retained in most of the commonly consumed dishes with various treatments Germination no longer a common practice Implications: greater nutritional value; this may lead to improved micronutrient status especially among women and children
    19. 19. Studies contd. Method: application of germination in complementary food preparation (maize and bean) Result: processed products showed significant reduction of phytate (p= 0.001) No significant difference in sensory attributes of porridge samples (36 mother- child pairs)
    20. 20. Studies contd. Acceptability studies (Chickpea) Method: application of roasting and boiling Result: There was no significance difference in appearance, taste, texture , and the overall acceptability of dishes prepared from improved chickpea varieties compared to local varieties
    21. 21. Studies: Advocating More Pulses in the Diet Nutrition intervention: Farmers training; intervention effect (KAB)- improvement of diet (product development) Involvement of Male farmers
    22. 22. Nutrition Education Tool - Conversation Map
    23. 23. Capacity Building • Student-Faculty led research & extension in study sites • Several piloted studies on production, processing, nutrition • Carried out jointly by HU & UofS • Joint PhD in Agriculture (initially) • UofS - PhD Nutrition • HU - Applied MSc • Participatory community engagement approach • e.g. farmers training/field days • Collaboration with research & development partners • public-private partnership) • Fostering local initiatives • Increasing links to agriculture-nutrition-health • e.g. University, Health Care
    24. 24. What Have We Learned? • We have learned a lot from our baseline & other studies – Practice of double cropping and crop rotation for increased production and higher nutrition quality – Pulses a population tool for micronutrient deficiency reduction and non-communicable diseases – Integrating nutrition education & training, with pulses production improve dietary diversity & health benefits – Market can be used as a driver for food & nutrition security – income, crop choice and diet diversity effect – Need for policy strategies that leads to advocacy -stress pulses production & consumption
    25. 25. Next Steps Evaluate outcomes of current nutrition interventions and scale up positive outcomes Select household-based food processing method yielding better bioavailable nutrients Improve the positive effect of market on nutrition while mitigating its effect on nutrient depletion Engage farmers in discussions about cooperatives for improve bargaining power to get high share in price for their commodities
    26. 26. Thank You CIFSRF TEAM (agriculture, nutrition, food science, gender, marketing/value chain, sociology) University of Saskatchewan Hawassa University Regional Agriculture and Health Bureaus NGOs Graduate students Farmers & farming households Funders –IDRC/DFATD