International
Food Security Dialogue
2014
The contents of the paper were largely derived
from the baseline survey results of the IDRC
funded project on
“Enhanced Pr...
The financial support of the International
Development Research Centre (IDRC), the
Government of Canada, provided through
...
Thanks to
University of Alberta
for hosting the
International Food Security Dialogue 2014
Theme 2
Gender and Livelihoods
Session 1
From Analysis to Action through
Household Data
Gender Inequity in Farm Decision Making
and Resource Ownership and the Need for
Empowering Women to Achieve
Food Security
...
• A significant and crucial role in agricultural
development and allied fields
• Roles vary considerably between and withi...
Major Activities
Producing crops
Tending animals
Processing farm produce and preparing food
Working for wages in agricultu...
Concern ?
Many of women’s activities are not effusively
recognized
Not acknowledged appropriately in spite of the fact tha...
Facts
Comprise almost half of the world’s agricultural
workforce
Not even recognized as farmers
Widespread restrictions on...
Rationale of the study
Enhancing the participation of farm women in making
decisions would lead to improvements in yield a...
Women’s power could be used to direct household
resources towards improving their caring practices and
facilitate improvem...
Objectives
to study the right of ownership of productive farm
resources such as land
to assess the role of women in farm r...
Project Area
Western part of Tamil Nadu state, India,
where perennial fruit crops like mango is
predominantly grown.
Map showing the states in India and the project state
Area
Study Regions in the state of Tamil Nadu
Methodology
Baseline Survey
i. Krishnagiri
ii. Theni
iii. Kanyakumari
Distribution of sample farmers in Krishnagiri
S. No Name of Block
1 Bargur I
2 Bargur II
3 Kaveripattinam I
4 Kaveripattin...
Blocks in Krishnagiri District
Distribution of samples in Theni
S. No Block Number
1. Periyakulam 30
2. Bodi 30
3. Theni 30
4. Andipatti 30
Total 120
Blocks in Theni District
Distribution of sample respondents in Kanyakumari
S. No Block Variety
Sample size
(Number)
1, Agastheeswaram Neelum 15
2, ...
Blocks in Kanyakumari district
Major Results of the study
Distribution of farmers in the project area
S. No Type of farmers
Total
Number Percentage
1, Marginal 148 26.91
2, Small 1...
Distribution of Farmers based on Land Holding
26.91 %
27.45 %
19.09 %
26.55 %
Marginal
Small
Semi Medium
Medium and Large
Memberships in CBO
S. No Type of farmers
Total
Number Percentage
1, Marginal 5 3.42
2, Small 19 13.01
3, Semi Medium 24 16...
Gender Distribution in CBO
S. No Type of farmers
Women – 8.22 Per cent
Number Women
1, Marginal 5 -
2, Small 19 2
3, Semi ...
Occupational distribution of the head of the household
S. No Type of farmers Number Percentage
1. Cultivator 501 91.09
2. ...
Ownership of farm land
S. No Gender Number Percentage
1. Male 371 67.45
2. Female 38 6.91
3. Both 141 25.64
Total 550 100....
Details about ownership of non - farm assets
S. No Gender Number Percentage
1. Male 540 98.18
2. Female 7 1.27
3. Both 3 0...
Farm wages-Gender gap
The gender gap in wages - Not uncommon
Wage difference across gender universally reported.
Female wa...
Due to non availability of men labors, some of the farm
operations like guiding water, digging pits, harvesting etc.
which...
• In the study area, it is a common phenomenon that
many of the wage earners spent part of their earnings in
the liquor sh...
Possession of livestock
• In animal rearing, women have a multiple role - Take care
of animals, grazing, fodder collection...
Livestock and Poultry
Source of income to meet the day to day affairs of the
households like purchase of provisions, veget...
• The contribution of money by women during
carnivals and unforeseen occasions through animal
rearing had been well acknow...
Decision making regarding the maintenance and
sale of livestock
S. No Gender Number Percentage
1. Male 90 25.64
2. Female ...
Area under crops
S. No Crop Area
(Ha)
Percentage
1. Annual crop 0.27 4.68
2. Perennial crop 5.50 95.32
Total 5.77 100.00
Area under major perennial crops
S. No Name of the crop Average area (Ha)
1, Mango 2.33
2, Guava 0.20
3, Banana 0.29
4, Co...
Decision making with respect to choice of crops
S. No Gender Number Percentage
1. Male 379 68.91
2. Female 51 9.27
3. Both...
Decision making with respect to choice of crops
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Men
Women
Both
68.91 %
9.27 %
21.82%
Decisions towards control of pest and disease
S. No Gender
Control of pests Control of diseases
Number Percentage Number P...
Involvement of gender in executing
post harvest operations
S. No
Name of the
activity
Gender
Total
Number Percentage
1, Ha...
Decisions regarding marketing
S.No. Gender
Total
Number Percentage
1, Male 334 60.72
2, Female 97 17.64
3, Both 119 21.64
...
Per Capita Food Expenditure
S. No Food Items
Expenditure
(Rs./Year)
Percentage
1 Cereals 2082 7.95
2 Pulses and pulse subs...
Non Food Consumption Expenditure
S. No Non-Food Items
Expenditure
(Rs./Year)
Percentage
1 Clothing 1986 7.59
2 Education 1...
Percentage of Expenditure on Food
Very High - > 75
Vulnerable to Food insecurity
High - 65-75
Medium - 50-65
Low - < 50
So...
Decision with respect to Consumption of
Food and Non-Food Commodities
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Male Female Both
Fo...
INTERVENSIONS
Formation of Mango Producers’ Group
Institutionalizing mango cultivation
Focus group discussion
Training on ...
Field Level Seminar on Pre and Post Production Management of Mango
A Section of the Farmers attending the Seminar
Mango Producers’ Group attending the Meeting on Post
Harvest Management of Mango
OUTCOME
Measurable Outcome
Active participation of women in farm decisions such as
production, harvesting, grading, and pa...
Involvement of Women in Farm Level
Decision Making
S. No Source Before (%) After (%)
1 Sale of live Stock 50 58
2 Marketin...
OUTCOME
Post-harvest losses at the field level have come down by 10 per cent
(700-900 Kg ha-1) through the adoption of app...
Focus Group Discussion with MPG
Hands on Training on Value Addition
Capacity Building of MPGs
Hands-on training on value added products, such as mango-
based pickles and sweets enhanced household income by 7-
10 per ...
“I feel proud that I have convinced my husband to
consider my farm decision after associating with the
Mango Producers Gro...
Conclusion and Recommendations
The study concluded that the gender inequality in farm related
decisions was not uncommon i...
It is a common phenomenon that many of the male wage earners spent
part of their earnings in the liquor shop but the women...
Women are being trained on the importance and their role in
participation of farm and home level decision making
processes...
• The issues like poverty and nutritional security could very well be
addressed by empowering women with increased access ...
• Improving women’s productivity in agriculture not only increases food
availability for the household but also raises wom...
The formation of Women Empowerment Groups to improve rights and
access to services would be a well-established means of so...
Capacity building is another important area that is required to ensure
that women remain active members and assume importa...
Discussion
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve ...
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Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve Food Security- A Case Study in North Western Region of Tamil Nadu, India

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Gender: Gender Inequity in Farm Level Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering women to Achieve Food Security- A Case Study in North Western Region of Tamil Nadu, India

  1. 1. International Food Security Dialogue 2014
  2. 2. The contents of the paper were largely derived from the baseline survey results of the IDRC funded project on “Enhanced Preservation of Fruits in South Asia”
  3. 3. The financial support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Government of Canada, provided through Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD) is gratefully acknowledged.
  4. 4. Thanks to University of Alberta for hosting the International Food Security Dialogue 2014
  5. 5. Theme 2 Gender and Livelihoods
  6. 6. Session 1 From Analysis to Action through Household Data
  7. 7. Gender Inequity in Farm Decision Making and Resource Ownership and the Need for Empowering Women to Achieve Food Security Dr.C.Sekar Dr.K.S.Subramanian Dr.Jayashankar Subramanian Mr.L.Vijaya Prakash
  8. 8. • A significant and crucial role in agricultural development and allied fields • Roles vary considerably between and within regions • Manage multifaceted household activities and perform various livelihood strategies Role of Women in Agriculture
  9. 9. Major Activities Producing crops Tending animals Processing farm produce and preparing food Working for wages in agricultural or other rural enterprises Collecting fuel, fodder for animals and water Marketing farm grown commodities Caring family and maintaining homes •
  10. 10. Concern ? Many of women’s activities are not effusively recognized Not acknowledged appropriately in spite of the fact that they are most important and essential to the household food security and welfare.
  11. 11. Facts Comprise almost half of the world’s agricultural workforce Not even recognized as farmers Widespread restrictions on decision making about the basic resources for production
  12. 12. Rationale of the study Enhancing the participation of farm women in making decisions would lead to improvements in yield and farm income. Women understand the dynamics of crop production effectively due to their close association and involvement.
  13. 13. Women’s power could be used to direct household resources towards improving their caring practices and facilitate improvement of the health and nutritional status of household. Reducing gender inequity and ensuring food security are vital as it relates not only to the present generation but also the future population.
  14. 14. Objectives to study the right of ownership of productive farm resources such as land to assess the role of women in farm related occupations, and to estimate the extent of female participation in decision making with respect to farm operations which will have far reaching effect on household food security.
  15. 15. Project Area Western part of Tamil Nadu state, India, where perennial fruit crops like mango is predominantly grown.
  16. 16. Map showing the states in India and the project state Area
  17. 17. Study Regions in the state of Tamil Nadu
  18. 18. Methodology Baseline Survey i. Krishnagiri ii. Theni iii. Kanyakumari
  19. 19. Distribution of sample farmers in Krishnagiri S. No Name of Block 1 Bargur I 2 Bargur II 3 Kaveripattinam I 4 Kaveripattinam II 5 Mathur II 6 Krishnagiri
  20. 20. Blocks in Krishnagiri District
  21. 21. Distribution of samples in Theni S. No Block Number 1. Periyakulam 30 2. Bodi 30 3. Theni 30 4. Andipatti 30 Total 120
  22. 22. Blocks in Theni District
  23. 23. Distribution of sample respondents in Kanyakumari S. No Block Variety Sample size (Number) 1, Agastheeswaram Neelum 15 2, Rajakkamangalam Neelum 15 Total 30
  24. 24. Blocks in Kanyakumari district
  25. 25. Major Results of the study
  26. 26. Distribution of farmers in the project area S. No Type of farmers Total Number Percentage 1, Marginal 148 26.91 2, Small 151 27.45 3, Semi Medium 105 19.09 4, Medium and Large 146 26.55 Total 550 100.00
  27. 27. Distribution of Farmers based on Land Holding 26.91 % 27.45 % 19.09 % 26.55 % Marginal Small Semi Medium Medium and Large
  28. 28. Memberships in CBO S. No Type of farmers Total Number Percentage 1, Marginal 5 3.42 2, Small 19 13.01 3, Semi Medium 24 16.44 4, Medium and Large 98 67.12 Total 146 100.00
  29. 29. Gender Distribution in CBO S. No Type of farmers Women – 8.22 Per cent Number Women 1, Marginal 5 - 2, Small 19 2 3, Semi Medium 24 4 4, Medium and Large 98 6 Total 146 12
  30. 30. Occupational distribution of the head of the household S. No Type of farmers Number Percentage 1. Cultivator 501 91.09 2. Cultivator + Agricultural labour 13 2.36 3. Cultivator + Non Agricultural labour 1 0.18 4. Cultivator + Entrepreneur 13 2.36 5. Cultivator + Private Employee 11 2.00 6. Cultivator + Government Employee 11 2.00 Total 550 100.00
  31. 31. Ownership of farm land S. No Gender Number Percentage 1. Male 371 67.45 2. Female 38 6.91 3. Both 141 25.64 Total 550 100.00
  32. 32. Details about ownership of non - farm assets S. No Gender Number Percentage 1. Male 540 98.18 2. Female 7 1.27 3. Both 3 0.55 Total 550 100.00
  33. 33. Farm wages-Gender gap The gender gap in wages - Not uncommon Wage difference across gender universally reported. Female wages as a percentage of male wages are 50-60 per cent. For eight hours of field operations. Men : Rs.300 -350 Women : Rs.150-160 Gender disparity in wages.
  34. 34. Due to non availability of men labors, some of the farm operations like guiding water, digging pits, harvesting etc. which were previously performed by men are done by women but the wage remains unchanged. In some farms, the women laborers have been purposively engaged for all farm operations mainly to reduce cost of operations.
  35. 35. • In the study area, it is a common phenomenon that many of the wage earners spent part of their earnings in the liquor shop but the women used to spend their entire wage for the welfare of the household. Payment of wages on par with men will ensure household food security.
  36. 36. Possession of livestock • In animal rearing, women have a multiple role - Take care of animals, grazing, fodder collection, cleaning of farm and animal sheds to milking of animals and value addition of livestock products. • The possession of animals like cow, goat, sheep and hen was highly preferred as it provide additional source of revenue to the farm families and they are the source of indemnity to meet the unforeseen situations.
  37. 37. Livestock and Poultry Source of income to meet the day to day affairs of the households like purchase of provisions, vegetables, children’s food, educational expenses etc. Major source of income for women farmers during festivals, and family ceremonies. Now-a-days, the demand for country (desi) hens and cocks are more, particularly during festive seasons.
  38. 38. • The contribution of money by women during carnivals and unforeseen occasions through animal rearing had been well acknowledged by the men members of the family. • The animal rearing in fact helps to keep the households’ food security unchanged during the years of crop failures owing to poor monsoon, less fruit setting, severe wind and other unforeseen agro-climatic circumstances
  39. 39. Decision making regarding the maintenance and sale of livestock S. No Gender Number Percentage 1. Male 90 25.64 2. Female 176 50.14 3. Both 85 24.22 Total 351 100.00
  40. 40. Area under crops S. No Crop Area (Ha) Percentage 1. Annual crop 0.27 4.68 2. Perennial crop 5.50 95.32 Total 5.77 100.00
  41. 41. Area under major perennial crops S. No Name of the crop Average area (Ha) 1, Mango 2.33 2, Guava 0.20 3, Banana 0.29 4, Coconut 2.04 5, Sappota 0.04 6, Citrus 0.03 7, Jack 0.03 8, Cashewnut 0.03 9, Others 0.50 Total 5.50
  42. 42. Decision making with respect to choice of crops S. No Gender Number Percentage 1. Male 379 68.91 2. Female 51 9.27 3. Both 120 21.82 Total 550 100.00
  43. 43. Decision making with respect to choice of crops 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Men Women Both 68.91 % 9.27 % 21.82%
  44. 44. Decisions towards control of pest and disease S. No Gender Control of pests Control of diseases Number Percentage Number Percentage 1. Male 401 72.91 368 66.91 2. Female 58 10.54 56 10.18 3. Both 91 16.55 126 22.91 Total 550 100.00 550 100.00
  45. 45. Involvement of gender in executing post harvest operations S. No Name of the activity Gender Total Number Percentage 1, Harvesting and Collection Male 137 24.91 Female 9 1.64 Both 404 73.45 Total 550 100.00 2, Grading and Sorting Male 5 9.43 Female 40 75.47 Both 8 15.10 Total 53 100.00 3, Packaging Male 112 20.36 Female 306 55.64 Both 132 24.00
  46. 46. Decisions regarding marketing S.No. Gender Total Number Percentage 1, Male 334 60.72 2, Female 97 17.64 3, Both 119 21.64 Total 550 100.00
  47. 47. Per Capita Food Expenditure S. No Food Items Expenditure (Rs./Year) Percentage 1 Cereals 2082 7.95 2 Pulses and pulse substitutes 978 3.74 3 Edible oils 1050 4.01 4 Fruits 1483 5.66 5 Vegetables 1708 6.52 6 Spices & condiments 785 3.00 7 Milk and milk products 1762 6.73 8 Beverages, refreshments and processed and semi -processed food products 1793 6.85 9 Non-vegetarian foods (chicken, meat, egg fish etc.) 1156 4.42 10 Others (salt, sugar etc.) 577 2.20
  48. 48. Non Food Consumption Expenditure S. No Non-Food Items Expenditure (Rs./Year) Percentage 1 Clothing 1986 7.59 2 Education 1859 7.10 3 Travel and recreation 1163 4.44 4 Medical and health related expenses 1595 6.09 5 Ceremony, festival and function 1684 6.43 6 Fuel and lighting 1908 7.29 7 Purchase of durable goods 1363 5.21 8 Others ( payment of taxes, insurance, consumer services, rent etc. 1248 4.77 Total 26180 100.00
  49. 49. Percentage of Expenditure on Food Very High - > 75 Vulnerable to Food insecurity High - 65-75 Medium - 50-65 Low - < 50 Source : Smith and Subandoro (2007) p.82
  50. 50. Decision with respect to Consumption of Food and Non-Food Commodities 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Male Female Both Food Percentage Non-food Percentage P e r c e n t a g e Gender
  51. 51. INTERVENSIONS Formation of Mango Producers’ Group Institutionalizing mango cultivation Focus group discussion Training on best post-harvest management technologies to 45 Mango Producers Groups (MPG), comprising 750 mango growers in Tamil Nadu (over 60% represented by women). Hands on training on “value addition of mangoes” to women MPG
  52. 52. Field Level Seminar on Pre and Post Production Management of Mango
  53. 53. A Section of the Farmers attending the Seminar
  54. 54. Mango Producers’ Group attending the Meeting on Post Harvest Management of Mango
  55. 55. OUTCOME Measurable Outcome Active participation of women in farm decisions such as production, harvesting, grading, and packaging enhanced by 7 per cent. Adoption of good agricultural and farm management practices increased by 22 per cent. Household income increased by Rs. 7200 (US$120) per family owning an average area of 1.28 hectares per year due to the adoption of best post-harvest management practices.
  56. 56. Involvement of Women in Farm Level Decision Making S. No Source Before (%) After (%) 1 Sale of live Stock 50 58 2 Marketing 18 24 3 Packaging 55 66 4 Collection, grading and sorting 75 79 5 Harvesting 2 6 6 Control of diseases 10 18 7 Control of pest 11 19 8 Choice of crops 9 15
  57. 57. OUTCOME Post-harvest losses at the field level have come down by 10 per cent (700-900 Kg ha-1) through the adoption of appropriate harvesting and post harvest practices viz., use of suitable harvesting tools, and techniques of fruit collection, cleaning, grading, sorting, packaging and transport. • Reduction of post-harvest losses has resulted in the greater availability of quality fruits in the market, thereby generating an additional income of Rs. 5600 (US$100) ha-1 year -1.
  58. 58. Focus Group Discussion with MPG
  59. 59. Hands on Training on Value Addition
  60. 60. Capacity Building of MPGs
  61. 61. Hands-on training on value added products, such as mango- based pickles and sweets enhanced household income by 7- 10 per cent. This money is being used for education and health expenses as well as buying more nutritious food such as green vegetables. With the support of this project, women were able to participate more actively in production and post-production management decisions.
  62. 62. “I feel proud that I have convinced my husband to consider my farm decision after associating with the Mango Producers Group formed under IDRC Project” Mrs.Dhanalakshmi,Mango Producers Group, MoramaduguVillage, Krishnagiri,Tamil Nadu, India”
  63. 63. Conclusion and Recommendations The study concluded that the gender inequality in farm related decisions was not uncommon in spite of the fact that women shared majority of activities and contribute largely in enhancing farm income and achieving grass root level food security.
  64. 64. It is a common phenomenon that many of the male wage earners spent part of their earnings in the liquor shop but the women used to spend their entire wage for the welfare of the household members. At this context, payment of wages on par with men will enhance household income and ensure household food security.
  65. 65. Women are being trained on the importance and their role in participation of farm and home level decision making processes. • The women members are taught through PRA mode (like focus group discussion, information sharing etc.) to understand the need of empowering themselves to achieve household level food security.
  66. 66. • The issues like poverty and nutritional security could very well be addressed by empowering women with increased access to critical resources like land enhanced participation of women in farm decision making. • Grass root level food securitycouldbe achievedthrough emancipation of women from the clutchesof men neglecting women in farm decision making processand disparityin the accessand ownership of farm resources
  67. 67. • Improving women’s productivity in agriculture not only increases food availability for the household but also raises women’s income and enhances food security due to women’s spending patterns. • The outcome of the study suggested that redressing the gender gap in asset possession and decision making is the key aspect in improving farm productivity and subsequently the employment, income and ultimate household food security.
  68. 68. The formation of Women Empowerment Groups to improve rights and access to services would be a well-established means of social and economic empowerment in which members would increase productivity and incomes collectively.
  69. 69. Capacity building is another important area that is required to ensure that women remain active members and assume important positions in leadership and decision making in economic activities to ensure household level food and nutritional security.
  70. 70. Discussion
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